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Animal species cannot synthesize retinol or vitamin A. They derive it from precursor carotenoids such as beta-carotene via retinal and they can store it as retinyl esters (REs) which they can hydrolyze (liver is the largest REs storage). Thus, both plant and animal dietary sources can provide vitamin A. Vitamin A metabolites such as retinal and retinoic acid play essential roles in vision and a range of cellular processes. More recently, a role for retinol in mitochondrial signaling where it may

Pathway Diagram:

Ariadne Genomics Inc. retinal dehydrogenases circ_retinol ---> cell_retinol atRA CYPs retinoic acid signaling pathway retinyl esters all-trans retinoic acid retinol dehydrogenases CES1 Lrat all-trans retinoic acid ---> atRA CYPs all-trans retinoic acid ---> retinoic acid signaling pathway retinal Stra6 Ttr Rbp4 Crabp2 apo_Rbp1 apo_Rbp1 ---| Lrat retinyl esters ---> cell_retinol Rbp1 Fabp5 all-trans retinoic acid ---> retinoic acid signaling pathway all-trans retinoic acid ---- Crabp2 all-trans retinoic acid ---- Fabp5 atRAs catabolism all-trans retinoic acid ---- Crabp1 retinal ---> all-trans retinoic acid Rbp4 ---- Stra6 cell_retinol ---- Rbp1 Rbp1 ---- retinal retinal <--> cell_retinol circ_retinol ---- Ttr circ_retinol ---- Rbp4 Rbp4 ---- Ttr cell_retinol ---> retinyl esters apo_Rbp1 --+> CES1 circ_retinol cell_retinol Crabp1

Genes in Pathway:

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retinoic acid metabolic pathway term browser
Symbol Object Name JBrowse Chr Start Stop Reference
G Aldh1a1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1 JBrowse link 1 238,222,689 238,264,381 RGD:6484672
G Aldh1a2 aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A2 JBrowse link 8 77,640,234 77,719,488 RGD:6484672
G Aldh1a3 aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A3 JBrowse link 1 127,302,920 127,337,828 RGD:6484672
G Crabp1 cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1 JBrowse link 8 59,344,097 59,352,135 RGD:6484672
G Crabp2 cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 JBrowse link 2 187,322,416 187,326,794 RGD:6484672
G Cyp26a1 cytochrome P450, family 26, subfamily a, polypeptide 1 JBrowse link 1 256,382,861 256,386,729 RGD:6484672
G Cyp26b1 cytochrome P450, family 26, subfamily b, polypeptide 1 JBrowse link 4 116,261,796 116,278,615 RGD:6484672
G Cyp26c1 cytochrome P450, family 26, subfamily C, polypeptide 1 JBrowse link 1 256,369,410 256,380,649 RGD:6484672
G Dhrs9 dehydrogenase/reductase 9 JBrowse link 3 55,623,671 55,645,883 RGD:6484672
G Fabp5 fatty acid binding protein 5 JBrowse link 2 93,981,662 93,985,322 RGD:6484672
G Lrat lecithin retinol acyltransferase JBrowse link 2 181,896,304 181,905,366 RGD:6484672
G Rbp1 retinol binding protein 1 JBrowse link 8 106,449,321 106,470,842 RGD:6484672
G Rbp4 retinol binding protein 4 JBrowse link 1 256,806,476 256,813,678 RGD:6484671
G Rdh10 retinol dehydrogenase 10 JBrowse link 5 2,605,265 2,631,905 RGD:6484672
G Rdh16 retinol dehydrogenase 16 (all-trans) JBrowse link 7 71,058,150 71,072,685 RGD:6771354
G Rdh7 retinol dehydrogenase 7 JBrowse link 7 71,125,358 71,164,014 RGD:6484672
G Stra6 stimulated by retinoic acid 6 JBrowse link 8 62,925,364 62,944,438 RGD:6484671
G Ttr transthyretin JBrowse link 18 15,532,963 15,542,180 RGD:6484671

Additional Elements in Pathway:

(includes Gene Groups, Small Molecules, Other Pathways..etc.)
Object TypePathway ObjectPathway Object Description
Small Moleculecirc_retinolcirculating retinol
Functional Classretinol dehydrogenasesenzymes that catalyze the reversible conversion of retinol to retinal
Small Moleculecell_retinolintracellular retinol
Functional ClassatRA CYPsthe cytochrome P450 family 26 members involved in the catabolism of retinoic acid
Functional Classretinal dehydrogenasesthe enzymes the catalyze the irreversible conversion of retinal to retinoic acid

Pathway Gene Annotations

Pathway Annotations Associated with Genes in the retinoic acid metabolic pathway
Pathway TermsGene Symbols
altered retinoid cycle metabolic pathwayLrat
arginine and proline metabolic pathwayAldh1a1
ascorbate and aldarate metabolic pathwayAldh1a1
beta-alanine metabolic pathwayAldh1a1 , Aldh1a3
cyclophosphamide pharmacodynamics pathwayAldh1a1
cyclophosphamide pharmacokinetics pathwayAldh1a1
eicosanoid signaling pathway via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammaFabp5
fatty acid metabolic pathwayAldh1a1
forkhead class A signaling pathwayTtr
gluconeogenesis pathwayAldh1a1 , Aldh1a3
glycerolipid metabolic pathwayAldh1a1
glycolysis pathwayAldh1a1 , Aldh1a3
glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathwayAldh1a1 , Aldh1a3
histidine metabolic pathwayAldh1a1 , Aldh1a3
ifosfamide pharmacodynamics pathwayAldh1a1
ifosfamide pharmacokinetics pathwayAldh1a1
lysine degradation pathwayAldh1a1
neviparine pharmacokinetics pathwayAldh1a1
pentose and glucuronate interconversion pathwayAldh1a1
phase I biotransformation pathway via cytochrome P450Aldh1a3
phenylalanine metabolic pathwayAldh1a3
propanoate metabolic pathwayAldh1a1
pyruvate metabolic pathwayAldh1a1
retinitis pigmentosa pathwayLrat
retinoic acid metabolic pathwayAldh1a1 , Aldh1a2 , Aldh1a3 , Crabp1 , Crabp2 , Cyp26a1 , Cyp26b1 , Cyp26c1 , Dhrs9 , Fabp5 , Lrat , Rbp1 , Rbp4 , Rdh10 , Rdh16 , Rdh7 , Stra6 , Ttr
retinoid cycle metabolic pathwayLrat , Rbp1 , Rdh10
retinol metabolic pathwayAldh1a1 , Aldh1a2 , Cyp26a1 , Cyp26b1 , Cyp26c1 , Dhrs9 , Lrat , Rdh10 , Rdh16 , Rdh7
tryptophan metabolic pathwayAldh1a1
tyrosine metabolic pathwayAldh1a3
valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation pathwayAldh1a1
vitamin A deficiency pathwayAldh1a1 , Aldh1a2 , Cyp26a1 , Dhrs9 , Lrat , Rdh16
Phenotype Annotations Associated with Genes in the retinoic acid metabolic pathway
Phenotype TermsGene Symbols
alcohol preferenceAldh1a1

References Associated with the retinoic acid metabolic pathway:

Ontology Path Diagram:

paths to the root

Import into Pathway Studio: