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Animal species cannot synthesize retinol or vitamin A. They derive it from precursor carotenoids such as beta-carotene via retinal and they can store it as retinyl esters (REs) which they can hydrolyze (liver is the largest REs storage). Thus, both plant and animal dietary sources can provide vitamin A. Vitamin A metabolites such as retinal and retinoic acid play essential roles in vision and a range of cellular processes. More recently, a role for retinol in mitochondrial signaling where it may

Pathway Diagram:

Ariadne Genomics Inc. retinal dehydrogenases circ_retinol ---> cell_retinol atRA CYPs retinoic acid signaling pathway retinyl esters all-trans retinoic acid retinol dehydrogenases CES1 Lrat all-trans retinoic acid ---> atRA CYPs all-trans retinoic acid ---> retinoic acid signaling pathway retinal Stra6 Ttr Rbp4 Crabp2 apo_Rbp1 apo_Rbp1 ---| Lrat retinyl esters ---> cell_retinol Rbp1 Fabp5 all-trans retinoic acid ---> retinoic acid signaling pathway all-trans retinoic acid ---- Crabp2 all-trans retinoic acid ---- Fabp5 atRAs catabolism all-trans retinoic acid ---- Crabp1 retinal ---> all-trans retinoic acid Rbp4 ---- Stra6 cell_retinol ---- Rbp1 Rbp1 ---- retinal retinal <--> cell_retinol circ_retinol ---- Ttr circ_retinol ---- Rbp4 Rbp4 ---- Ttr cell_retinol ---> retinyl esters apo_Rbp1 --+> CES1 circ_retinol cell_retinol Crabp1

Genes in Pathway:

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retinoic acid metabolic pathway term browser
Symbol Object Name JBrowse Chr Start Stop Reference
G Aldh1a1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1 JBrowse link 1 238,222,689 238,264,381 RGD:6484672
G Aldh1a2 aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A2 JBrowse link 8 77,640,234 77,719,488 RGD:6484672
G Aldh1a3 aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A3 JBrowse link 1 127,302,920 127,337,828 RGD:6484672
G Crabp1 cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1 JBrowse link 8 59,344,097 59,352,135 RGD:6484672
G Crabp2 cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 JBrowse link 2 187,322,416 187,326,794 RGD:6484672
G Cyp26a1 cytochrome P450, family 26, subfamily a, polypeptide 1 JBrowse link 1 256,382,861 256,386,729 RGD:6484672
G Cyp26b1 cytochrome P450, family 26, subfamily b, polypeptide 1 JBrowse link 4 116,261,796 116,278,615 RGD:6484672
G Cyp26c1 cytochrome P450, family 26, subfamily C, polypeptide 1 JBrowse link 1 256,369,410 256,380,649 RGD:6484672
G Dhrs9 dehydrogenase/reductase 9 JBrowse link 3 55,623,671 55,645,883 RGD:6484672
G Fabp5 fatty acid binding protein 5 JBrowse link 2 93,981,662 93,985,322 RGD:6484672
G Lrat lecithin retinol acyltransferase JBrowse link 2 181,896,304 181,905,366 RGD:6484672
G Rbp1 retinol binding protein 1 JBrowse link 8 106,449,321 106,470,842 RGD:6484672
G Rbp4 retinol binding protein 4 JBrowse link 1 256,806,476 256,813,678 RGD:6484671
G Rdh10 retinol dehydrogenase 10 JBrowse link 5 2,605,265 2,631,905 RGD:6484672
G Rdh16 retinol dehydrogenase 16 JBrowse link 7 71,058,150 71,072,685 RGD:6771354
G Rdh7 retinol dehydrogenase 7 JBrowse link 7 71,125,358 71,164,014 RGD:6484672
G Stra6 stimulated by retinoic acid 6 JBrowse link 8 62,925,364 62,944,438 RGD:6484671
G Ttr transthyretin JBrowse link 18 15,532,963 15,542,180 RGD:6484671

Additional Elements in Pathway:

(includes Gene Groups, Small Molecules, Other Pathways..etc.)
Object TypePathway ObjectPathway Object Description
Small Moleculecirc_retinolcirculating retinol
Functional Classretinol dehydrogenasesenzymes that catalyze the reversible conversion of retinol to retinal
Small Moleculecell_retinolintracellular retinol
Functional ClassatRA CYPsthe cytochrome P450 family 26 members involved in the catabolism of retinoic acid
Functional Classretinal dehydrogenasesthe enzymes the catalyze the irreversible conversion of retinal to retinoic acid

Pathway Gene Annotations

Disease Annotations Associated with Genes in the retinoic acid metabolic pathway
Disease TermsGene Symbols
Abortion, SpontaneousRbp4
actinic keratosisCyp26a1
acute kidney failureTtr
Alcoholic Liver DiseasesRbp4
Alzheimer's diseaseTtr
Amyloid NeuropathiesTtr
Animal Mammary NeoplasmsRbp1 , Rbp4
autistic disorderAldh1a3
Barrett's adenocarcinomaCyp26a1
Barrett's esophagusCyp26a1
bone marrow diseaseTtr
brain ischemiaTtr
breast ductal carcinomaLrat
carcinomaRbp1 , Rbp4
Cardiovascular AbnormalitiesStra6
carpal tunnel syndromeTtr
Cell Transformation, NeoplasticAldh1a1
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver InjuryLrat , Rbp1 , Ttr
Colonic NeoplasmsCyp26a1
congenital heart diseaseStra6
congestive heart failureRbp4
Coronary OcclusionAldh1a2
Craniofacial AbnormalitiesRdh10 , Stra6
Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseaseAldh1a1
Diaphragmatic HerniaStra6
DiGeorge syndromeAldh1a2
Drug EruptionsTtr
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse ReactionsTtr
duodenal atresiaAldh1a2
dystransthyretinemic hyperthyroxinemiaTtr
Esophageal NeoplasmsCyp26a1
Experimental Liver CirrhosisAldh1a1 , Cyp26a1 , Lrat , Rdh10
eye diseaseRbp4
familial adenomatous polyposisCyp26a1
Familial Amyloid PolyneuropathiesTtr
Familial AmyloidosisTtr
Fetal DeathRdh10
Fetal Growth RetardationRbp1
Focal Facial Dermal DysplasiaCyp26c1
Focal Facial Dermal Dysplasia 4Cyp26c1
fundus dystrophyLrat
genetic diseaseRbp4
hepatocellular carcinomaFabp5 , Lrat
Hereditary Eye DiseasesLrat
intellectual disabilityStra6
isolated microphthalmia 8Aldh1a3
kidney diseaseRbp4
Leber congenital amaurosisLrat , Rbp1
Leber congenital amaurosis 14Lrat
Leber hereditary optic neuropathyLrat
Limb IschemiaAldh1a2
liver benign neoplasmCrabp1
lung diseaseStra6
Lung NeoplasmsTtr
Mammary Neoplasms, ExperimentalRbp1 , Rbp4
Matthew-Wood syndromeAldh1a3 , Stra6
methylmalonic acidemiaCrabp2
Microphthalmia, Isolated, with Coloboma 10Rbp4
Microphthalmia, Syndromic 1Cyp26c1 , Stra6
mouth diseaseCyp26b1
Myocardial IschemiaFabp5
nonalcoholic fatty liver diseaseAldh1a1
obesityCyp26b1 , Rbp4
pancreatic cancerAldh1a1
Parkinsonian DisordersAldh1a1 , Aldh1a2
persistent fetal circulation syndromeStra6
polycystic ovary syndromeRbp4
prostate cancerFabp5
Prostatic NeoplasmsAldh1a2
Radiohumeral Fusions with Other Skeletal and Craniofacial AnomaliesCyp26b1
renal cell carcinomaAldh1a1 , Crabp1
Retinal Dystrophy, Iris Coloboma, and Comedogenic Acne SyndromeRbp4
retinitis pigmentosaLrat
Schistosomiasis MansoniAldh1a2
schizophreniaAldh1a3 , Stra6
spina bifidaCyp26a1
Stomach NeoplasmsAldh1a3 , Rbp1 , Rbp4
transthyretin amyloidosisTtr
type 2 diabetes mellitusRbp4
Vision DisordersRbp4
Vitamin A DeficiencyCyp26a1 , Lrat , Rbp4
Pathway Annotations Associated with Genes in the retinoic acid metabolic pathway
Pathway TermsGene Symbols
altered retinoid cycle metabolic pathwayLrat
arginine and proline metabolic pathwayAldh1a1
ascorbate and aldarate metabolic pathwayAldh1a1
beta-alanine metabolic pathwayAldh1a1 , Aldh1a3
cyclophosphamide pharmacodynamics pathwayAldh1a1
cyclophosphamide pharmacokinetics pathwayAldh1a1
eicosanoid signaling pathway via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammaFabp5
fatty acid metabolic pathwayAldh1a1
forkhead class A signaling pathwayTtr
gluconeogenesis pathwayAldh1a1 , Aldh1a3
glycerolipid metabolic pathwayAldh1a1
glycolysis pathwayAldh1a1 , Aldh1a3
glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathwayAldh1a1 , Aldh1a3
histidine metabolic pathwayAldh1a1 , Aldh1a3
ifosfamide pharmacodynamics pathwayAldh1a1
ifosfamide pharmacokinetics pathwayAldh1a1
lysine degradation pathwayAldh1a1
neviparine pharmacokinetics pathwayAldh1a1
pentose and glucuronate interconversion pathwayAldh1a1
phase I biotransformation pathway via cytochrome P450Aldh1a3
phenylalanine metabolic pathwayAldh1a3
propanoate metabolic pathwayAldh1a1
pyruvate metabolic pathwayAldh1a1
retinitis pigmentosa pathwayLrat
retinoic acid metabolic pathwayAldh1a1 , Aldh1a2 , Aldh1a3 , Crabp1 , Crabp2 , Cyp26a1 , Cyp26b1 , Cyp26c1 , Dhrs9 , Fabp5 , Lrat , Rbp1 , Rbp4 , Rdh10 , Rdh16 , Rdh7 , Stra6 , Ttr
retinoid cycle metabolic pathwayLrat , Rbp1 , Rdh10
retinol metabolic pathwayAldh1a1 , Aldh1a2 , Cyp26a1 , Cyp26b1 , Cyp26c1 , Dhrs9 , Lrat , Rdh10 , Rdh16 , Rdh7
tryptophan metabolic pathwayAldh1a1
tyrosine metabolic pathwayAldh1a3
valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation pathwayAldh1a1
vitamin A deficiency pathwayAldh1a1 , Aldh1a2 , Cyp26a1 , Dhrs9 , Lrat , Rdh16
Phenotype Annotations Associated with Genes in the retinoic acid metabolic pathway
Phenotype TermsGene Symbols
alcohol preferenceAldh1a1

References Associated with the retinoic acid metabolic pathway:

Ontology Path Diagram:

paths to the root

Import into Pathway Studio: