Rdh16 (retinol dehydrogenase 16) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Rdh16 (retinol dehydrogenase 16) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Rdh16
Name: retinol dehydrogenase 16
RGD ID: 735050
Description: Enables NAD-retinol dehydrogenase activity. Involved in positive regulation of retinoic acid biosynthetic process; retinoic acid metabolic process; and retinol metabolic process. Located in endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Orthologous to human RDH16 (retinol dehydrogenase 16); PARTICIPATES IN retinoic acid metabolic pathway; retinol metabolic pathway; vitamin A deficiency pathway; INTERACTS WITH 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one; 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine; acetamide.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: 29 kDa protein; Rdh2; retinol dehydrogenase 16 (all-trans); retinol dehydrogenase 2; retinol dehydrogenase 2-like; retinol dehydrogenase type 1; retinol dehydrogenase type 2; retinol dehydrogenase type II (RODH II); RODH II; RoDHII
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Candidate Gene For: Bp38
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
NCBI Annotation Information: Annotation category: partial on reference assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.2763,616,724 - 63,624,120 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl763,597,536 - 63,624,124 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx765,505,927 - 65,514,269 (+)NCBIRnor_SHR
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0767,708,217 - 67,716,557 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSP
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0767,509,523 - 67,517,833 (+)NCBIRnor_WKY
Rnor_6.0771,058,150 - 71,072,685 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl770,980,422 - 71,072,689 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0771,151,962 - 71,152,405 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4767,752,257 - 67,766,995 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1767,772,988 - 67,787,725 (+)NCBI
Celera754,092,966 - 54,096,444 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map7q22NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Cloning of a cDNA for a second retinol dehydrogenase type II. Expression of its mRNA relative to type I. Chai X, etal., J Biol Chem 1995 Nov 24;270(47):28408-12.
2. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
3. Combined genealogical, mapping, and expression approaches to identify spontaneously hypertensive rat hypertension candidate genes. Hinojos CA, etal., Hypertension 2005 Apr;45(4):698-704. Epub 2005 Feb 14.
4. SMPDB Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import SMPDB annotations from SMPDB into RGD
5. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
6. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
7. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. Strausberg RL, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Dec 24;99(26):16899-903. Epub 2002 Dec 11.
8. Multiple retinol and retinal dehydrogenases catalyze all-trans-retinoic acid biosynthesis in astrocytes. Wang C, etal., J Biol Chem. 2011 Feb 25;286(8):6542-53. Epub 2010 Dec 7.
9. The N-terminus of retinol dehydrogenase type 1 signals cytosolic orientation in the microsomal membrane. Wang J, etal., Biochemistry. 2001 Oct 23;40(42):12533-40.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:8251521   PMID:9407098   PMID:9677409   PMID:10329026   PMID:11876656   PMID:12534290   PMID:15355969   PMID:15489334   PMID:16223484  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.2763,616,724 - 63,624,120 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl763,597,536 - 63,624,124 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx765,505,927 - 65,514,269 (+)NCBIRnor_SHR
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0767,708,217 - 67,716,557 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSP
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0767,509,523 - 67,517,833 (+)NCBIRnor_WKY
Rnor_6.0771,058,150 - 71,072,685 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl770,980,422 - 71,072,689 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0771,151,962 - 71,152,405 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4767,752,257 - 67,766,995 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1767,772,988 - 67,787,725 (+)NCBI
Celera754,092,966 - 54,096,444 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map7q22NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh381256,951,431 - 56,957,608 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl1256,951,431 - 56,959,374 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh371257,345,215 - 57,351,392 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 361255,631,482 - 55,637,685 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Celera1256,999,103 - 57,005,306 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map12q13.3NCBI
HuRef1254,383,970 - 54,390,173 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_11257,312,965 - 57,319,168 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.01256,919,300 - 56,925,477 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm3910127,595,595 - 127,604,168 (+)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl10127,595,590 - 127,604,166 (+)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm3810127,759,726 - 127,768,299 (+)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl10127,759,721 - 127,768,297 (+)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv3710127,196,819 - 127,205,355 (+)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv3610127,162,759 - 127,171,245 (+)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera10130,154,374 - 130,162,902 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map10D3NCBI
cM Map1075.21NCBI
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.1101,124,322 - 1,134,138 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl101,124,320 - 1,130,453 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha101,188,751 - 1,198,258 (-)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.0101,135,298 - 1,144,806 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl101,135,296 - 1,145,453 (-)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.1101,112,204 - 1,121,711 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.0101,354,063 - 1,363,571 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.0101,478,831 - 1,488,339 (-)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440494557,669,159 - 57,676,568 (+)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049366461,194,547 - 1,200,897 (-)EnsemblSpeTri2.0
SpeTri2.0NW_0049366461,195,200 - 1,200,778 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl522,228,057 - 22,292,434 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.1522,277,006 - 22,285,534 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.2524,085,801 - 24,094,292 (+)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.11152,826,447 - 52,854,731 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl1152,848,488 - 52,854,167 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_023666037193,118,277 - 193,127,224 (+)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0


Variants in Rdh16
13 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:394
Count of miRNA genes:203
Interacting mature miRNAs:228
Transcripts:ENSRNOT00000037218, ENSRNOT00000051075
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (http://mirgate.bioinfo.cnio.es/).
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
634336Anxrr17Anxiety related response QTL 173.66locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)number of entries into a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000960)7924703115097879Rat
1643004Pain2Pain QTL 21mechanical nociception trait (VT:0002734)self mutilation severity score (CMO:0002145)7946224698011544Rat
1300132Bp182Blood pressure QTL 1823.49arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)blood pressure time series experimental set point of the baroreceptor response (CMO:0002593)71965431784928080Rat
7411569Bw137Body weight QTL 1370.001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)72192119566921195Rat
1641885Alcrsp9Alcohol response QTL 9alcohol metabolism trait (VT:0015089)blood ethanol level (CMO:0000535)72409960669099606Rat
1549840Bss5Bone structure and strength QTL 59.8femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femur midshaft polar moment of inertia (CMO:0001669)72475184169751841Rat
70190Mcs6Mammary carcinoma susceptibility QTL 62.29mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)mammary tumor number (CMO:0000343)72673740163902784Rat
10402855Bp379Blood pressure QTL 3790.21arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)72940968374409683Rat
1300127Srn1Serum renin concentration QTL 13.87blood renin amount (VT:0003349)plasma renin activity level (CMO:0000116)72940968384928080Rat
10755453Coatc12Coat color QTL 120coat/hair pigmentation trait (VT:0010463)pigmented ventral coat/hair area to total ventral coat/hair area ratio (CMO:0001812)73111283276112832Rat
7411605Foco14Food consumption QTL 1424.10.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)73429328279293282Rat
631534Lnnr1Liver neoplastic nodule remodeling QTL 13.850.001liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver remodeling tumorous lesion number to liver total tumorous lesion number ratio (CMO:0001705)73429328279293282Rat
631513Scl7Serum cholesterol level QTL 74.1blood cholesterol amount (VT:0000180)serum total cholesterol level (CMO:0000363)73796056982960569Rat
61357Bp38Blood pressure QTL 381.60.052arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)741333674119109060Rat
634326Hc3Hypercalciuria QTL 32.1urine calcium amount (VT:0002985)urine calcium excretion rate (CMO:0000763)74278731487787314Rat
10053722Scort27Serum corticosterone level QTL 272.410.0083blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)74322875088228750Rat
1358361Sradr5Stress Responsive Adrenal Weight QTL 55.55adrenal gland mass (VT:0010420)both adrenal glands wet weight (CMO:0000164)743747012108555253Rat
1300179Kidm5Kidney mass QTL 53.51kidney mass (VT:0002707)left kidney wet weight (CMO:0000083)743747012135012528Rat
1300149Cm6Cardiac mass QTL 64.09heart mass (VT:0007028)heart left ventricle weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000530)743747099102228765Rat
631504Cm27Cardiac mass QTL 273.45heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle wet weight (CMO:0000071)744421311118198041Rat
61428Scl3Serum cholesterol level QTL 33.2blood cholesterol amount (VT:0000180)serum total cholesterol level (CMO:0000363)74486753389867533Rat
738030Anxrr8Anxiety related response QTL 84.1exploratory behavior trait (VT:0010471)number of entries into a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000960)74659007091590070Rat
10059605Kidm47Kidney mass QTL 472.910.05kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)74725178365728867Rat
2293696Bmd32Bone mineral density QTL 325.10.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femoral neck polar moment of inertia (CMO:0001670)74765143992651439Rat
2293707Bss32Bone structure and strength QTL 327.640.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femur midshaft polar moment of inertia (CMO:0001669)74765143992651439Rat
2300178Bmd54Bone mineral density QTL 545.30.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)74765143992651439Rat
2293644Bmd29Bone mineral density QTL 295.40.0001femur size trait (VT:1000369)femoral neck cross-sectional area (CMO:0001697)74765143992651439Rat
2293667Bss42Bone structure and strength QTL 427.250.0001lumbar vertebra size trait (VT:0010518)lumbar vertebra cross-sectional area (CMO:0001689)74765143992651439Rat
2293678Bss24Bone structure and strength QTL 246.710.0001femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)femur cross-sectional area (CMO:0001661)74765143992651439Rat
2293685Bmd21Bone mineral density QTL 214.20.0003femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)total volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001728)74765143992651439Rat
1300151Bp181Blood pressure QTL 1813.36arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)753612714103945643Rat
2317035Aia16Adjuvant induced arthritis QTL 162.71joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)right rear ankle joint diameter (CMO:0002150)759238038104238038Rat
1298528Bp169Blood pressure QTL 1690.0001arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)761074194106074194Rat
1559283Emca4Estrogen-induced mammary cancer QTL 43.7mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)percentage of study population developing mammary tumors during a period of time (CMO:0000948)762004452101773158Rat
1576303Ept7Estrogen-induced pituitary tumorigenesis QTL 73.7pituitary gland mass (VT:0010496)pituitary gland wet weight (CMO:0000853)762004452101773158Rat


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 31 23 11 23 19 1
Low 3 31 16 8 8 8 4 4 74 16 40 11 4
Below cutoff 12 10 10 10 4 7 4


Reference Sequences
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000037218   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000035423
RefSeq Status:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl763,597,536 - 63,612,232 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl771,057,911 - 71,072,423 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000051075   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000039311
RefSeq Status:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl763,604,799 - 63,612,498 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl771,065,197 - 71,072,689 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000077912   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000074126
RefSeq Status:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl763,604,885 - 63,624,124 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl770,980,422 - 71,072,072 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000097465   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000088842
RefSeq Status:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl763,616,724 - 63,624,124 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_199208   ⟹   NP_954678
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2763,616,724 - 63,624,120 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.0771,058,150 - 71,072,685 (+)NCBI
Rnor_5.0771,151,962 - 71,152,405 (+)NCBI
RGSC_v3.4767,752,257 - 67,766,995 (+)RGD
Celera754,092,966 - 54,096,444 (-)NCBI
Protein Sequences
Protein RefSeqs NP_954678 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
GenBank Protein AAC52316 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAH79153 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  P50170 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
Reference Sequences
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_954678   ⟸   NM_199208
- Peptide Label: precursor
- UniProtKB: P50170 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000039311   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000051075
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000074126   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000077912
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000035423   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000037218
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000088842   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000097465

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P50170-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P50170 1-317 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13695271
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R5796
Type:multiple initiation site
Description:Rdh2 protein-like
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database, http://epd.vital-it.ch/)
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.0771,065,240 - 71,065,300EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:735050 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-33720 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000029651 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Protein ENSRNOP00000035423.6 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOP00000074126.2 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOP00000088842 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000037218.8 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000077912.2 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000097465 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
InterPro NAD(P)-bd_dom_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Sc_DH/Rdtase_CS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SDR_fam UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:299511 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Pfam adh_short UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Rdh16 PhenoGen
  SDRFAMILY UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Superfamily-SCOP SSF51735 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
UniProt A0A0G2K7A4_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  P50170 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2018-02-19 Rdh16  retinol dehydrogenase 16  Rdh16  retinol dehydrogenase 16 (all-trans)  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2013-05-24 Rdh16  retinol dehydrogenase 16 (all-trans)  LOC100361975  retinol dehydrogenase 2-like  Data Merged 1643240 APPROVED
2012-02-02 Rdh16  retinol dehydrogenase 16 (all-trans)  Rdh2  retinol dehydrogenase 2  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2010-05-05 LOC100361975  retinol dehydrogenase 2-like      Symbol and Name status set to provisional 70820 PROVISIONAL
2005-07-08 Rdh2  retinol dehydrogenase 2  RoDHII  retinol dehydrogenase type II (RODH II)  Symbol and Name updated 1299863 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_expression highest expression found in liver with lower but detectable expression in kidney, brain, lung and testis 1299624
gene_expression expression is increased 3.7 fold in SHR compared with WKY rats 1357414
gene_other uses holo-cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP/retinol) as a substrate 1299624