GSK3B (glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: GSK3B (glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta) Homo sapiens
Symbol: GSK3B
Name: glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta
RGD ID: 733891
Description: Enables several functions, including NF-kappaB binding activity; enzyme binding activity; and protein kinase activity. Involved in several processes, including pallium development; protein phosphorylation; and regulation of neuron death. Acts upstream of or within several processes, including ER overload response; peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; and positive regulation of protein export from nucleus. Located in several cellular components, including centrosome; nucleoplasm; and plasma membrane. Part of beta-catenin destruction complex. Is active in glutamatergic synapse. Implicated in Alzheimer's disease; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; bipolar disorder; and schizophrenia. Biomarker of colorectal adenocarcinoma; degenerative disc disease; endometrial carcinoma; and schizophrenia.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: REVIEWED
Also known as: glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta; GSK-3 beta; GSK3beta isoform; serine/threonine-protein kinase GSK3B
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Allele / Splice: See ClinVar data
Latest Assembly: GRCh38 - Human Genome Assembly GRCh38
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl3119,821,321 - 120,094,994 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh383119,821,321 - 120,095,823 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh373119,540,168 - 119,813,294 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 363121,028,233 - 121,295,203 (-)NCBINCBI36hg18NCBI36
Build 343121,028,237 - 121,295,203NCBI
Celera3117,949,905 - 118,223,017 (-)NCBI
Cytogenetic Map3q13.33NCBI
HuRef3116,916,542 - 117,189,344 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_13119,504,331 - 119,776,722 (-)NCBICHM1_1
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(+)-Tetrandrine  (EXP)
(-)-Arctigenin  (EXP)
(-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate  (EXP)
(-)-gambogic acid  (EXP)
(25R)-cholest-5-ene-3beta,26-diol  (EXP)
(R)-lipoic acid  (ISO)
(R)-Salsolinol  (ISO)
(S)-colchicine  (ISO)
(S)-nicotine  (EXP,ISO)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
1,8-cineole  (ISO)
1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-3-(5-nitro-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)urea  (EXP,ISO)
1-[(4-chlorophenyl)-phenylmethyl]-4-methylpiperazine  (ISO)
1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene  (EXP,ISO)
1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine  (ISO)
14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide  (ISO)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP,ISO)
1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one  (ISO)
2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl  (EXP)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid  (ISO)
2,4-dibromophenyl 2,4,5-tribromophenyl ether  (ISO)
2,5-hexanedione  (ISO)
2,6-dinitrotoluene  (ISO)
2-chloroethanol  (ISO)
2-deoxy-D-glucose  (EXP)
2-methylcholine  (EXP)
2-nitrotoluene  (ISO)
20-hydroxyecdysone  (ISO)
26-hydroxycholesterol  (EXP)
3',5'-cyclic AMP  (ISO)
3'-amino-3'-deoxy-N(6),N(6)-dimethyladenosine  (ISO)
3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A  (ISO)
3,3'-diindolylmethane  (EXP)
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine  (ISO)
3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine  (ISO)
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine  (ISO)
3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinolin-2-amine  (ISO)
3-methyladenine  (EXP)
3-nitropropanoic acid  (ISO)
3-phenylprop-2-enal  (ISO)
3alpha-hydroxy-5beta-pregnan-20-one  (ISO)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (ISO)
4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)butan-1-one  (EXP)
4-hydroxynon-2-enal  (EXP)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (EXP,ISO)
4-vinylcyclohexene dioxide  (ISO)
5-(2-chloroethyl)-4-methylthiazole  (ISO)
5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione  (ISO)
6-aminonicotinamide  (EXP)
6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime  (EXP)
6-chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxamide  (EXP)
[6]-Shogaol  (EXP)
acetylsalicylic acid  (EXP,ISO)
acrylamide  (ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (EXP)
AH23848  (EXP)
alachlor  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
alsterpaullone  (EXP)
amino acid  (ISO)
ammonium chloride  (ISO)
amphetamine  (ISO)
andrographolide  (ISO)
antirheumatic drug  (EXP)
arachidonic acid  (EXP)
aristolochic acid  (EXP)
arsane  (EXP,ISO)
arsenic atom  (EXP,ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (EXP)
arsenous acid  (EXP,ISO)
atrazine  (EXP)
avobenzone  (EXP)
baicalein  (EXP)
Bardoxolone methyl  (EXP)
belinostat  (EXP)
benzene  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (EXP,ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide I  (EXP)
berberine  (EXP,ISO)
betulin  (EXP)
betulinic acid  (EXP)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol A  (ISO)
bisphenol F  (ISO)
bleomycin A2  (EXP)
bortezomib  (EXP)
brazilein  (EXP)
bromochloroacetic acid  (ISO)
Butylbenzyl phthalate  (EXP)
Butylparaben  (EXP)
cadmium atom  (EXP,ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (EXP,ISO)
caffeine  (EXP,ISO)
calyculin a  (ISO)
capsaicin  (EXP)
captan  (ISO)
carbamazepine  (EXP)
carbon monoxide  (ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
celastrol  (EXP,ISO)
celecoxib  (EXP)
chaetoglobosin A  (ISO)
CHIR 99021  (EXP,ISO)
chitosan  (ISO)
chloroethene  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (ISO)
cholesterol  (EXP,ISO)
choline  (ISO)
chromium atom  (ISO)
chromium(6+)  (ISO)
chrysin 5,7-dimethyl ether  (ISO)
cilostazol  (ISO)
Cinobufagin  (EXP)
cisplatin  (EXP,ISO)
clozapine  (EXP,ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (EXP)
cocaine  (ISO)
coenzyme Q10  (ISO)
colforsin daropate hydrochloride  (ISO)
conjugated linoleic acid  (EXP)
copper atom  (EXP)
copper(0)  (EXP)
copper(II) sulfate  (EXP)
crocidolite asbestos  (EXP)
Cryptotanshinone  (EXP)
curcumin  (EXP,ISO)
cycloheximide  (EXP)
cyclosporin A  (EXP,ISO)
D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
Deguelin  (EXP)
deoxynivalenol  (ISO)
desferrioxamine B  (EXP)
desmopressin  (ISO)
dexamethasone  (ISO)
dexmedetomidine  (ISO)
Di-n-hexyl phthalate  (ISO)
diallyl disulfide  (EXP)
diallyl trisulfide  (EXP,ISO)
diarsenic trioxide  (EXP,ISO)
diazinon  (ISO)
dibutyl phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
diclofenac  (EXP)
Dictamnine  (EXP)
Didymin  (EXP)
dioxygen  (EXP,ISO)
disodium cromoglycate  (ISO)
disodium selenite  (EXP)
dizocilpine maleate  (EXP,ISO)
dobutamine  (ISO)
dorsomorphin  (EXP,ISO)
doxorubicin  (EXP,ISO)
elemental selenium  (EXP)
enalapril  (ISO)
endosulfan  (ISO)
entinostat  (EXP)
enzacamene  (EXP)
erlotinib hydrochloride  (EXP)
Estragole  (ISO)
ethanol  (EXP,ISO)
ethosuximide  (EXP,ISO)
ethyl methanesulfonate  (EXP)
etoposide  (ISO)
eugenol  (EXP)
excitatory amino acid agonist  (EXP,ISO)
famotidine  (EXP)
fipronil  (EXP)
fisetin  (EXP)
fluoxetine  (ISO)
folic acid  (ISO)
formaldehyde  (EXP)
fulvestrant  (ISO)
Fusaric acid  (ISO)
gefitinib  (EXP)
gemcitabine  (EXP)
geraniol  (ISO)
gingerol  (EXP,ISO)
ginsenoside Re  (ISO)
ginsenoside Rg2  (EXP)
glucose  (EXP,ISO)
glutathione  (EXP)
GSK690693  (EXP)
haloperidol  (ISO)
hexachlorobenzene  (ISO)
hexadecanoic acid  (EXP)
hydrogen peroxide  (EXP,ISO)
hydroquinone  (EXP)
IC-87114  (ISO)
icariside II  (EXP)
indirubin-3'-monoxime  (EXP)
indometacin  (ISO)
iron atom  (EXP)
iron(0)  (EXP)
iron(2+) sulfate (anhydrous)  (ISO)
isoprenaline  (ISO)
ivermectin  (EXP)
kaempferol  (ISO)
kahweol  (EXP)
kainic acid  (ISO)
ketamine  (ISO)
KT 5823  (EXP)
L-ascorbic acid  (ISO)
L-glutamic acid  (ISO)
L-methionine  (ISO)
L-serine  (ISO)
lead diacetate  (ISO)
lead nitrate  (ISO)
lead(0)  (EXP,ISO)
lead(2+)  (EXP,ISO)
lipoic acid  (ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
liraglutide  (EXP)
lithium atom  (EXP,ISO)
lithium chloride  (EXP,ISO)
lithium hydride  (EXP,ISO)
lithocholic acid  (ISO)
lonafarnib  (EXP)
losartan  (ISO)
lovastatin  (EXP,ISO)
lupeol  (ISO)
LY294002  (EXP,ISO)
lysophosphatidylethanolamine  (EXP)
magnesium atom  (EXP)
Magnolol  (ISO)
malathion  (ISO)
malvidin  (ISO)
mancozeb  (ISO)
maneb  (ISO)
manganese(II) chloride  (ISO)
melatonin  (ISO)
memantine  (ISO)
menadione  (EXP)
mercury dichloride  (ISO)
metformin  (EXP,ISO)
methamphetamine  (EXP,ISO)
methapyrilene  (ISO)
methotrexate  (EXP)
methyl methanesulfonate  (EXP)
methylmercury chloride  (EXP,ISO)
methylseleninic acid  (EXP)
microcystin-LR  (EXP,ISO)
mifepristone  (EXP)
Mizoribine  (ISO)
MK-2206  (ISO)
mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
monocrotaline  (ISO)
monodansylcadaverine  (EXP)
morin  (ISO)
morphine  (ISO)
mycophenolic acid  (EXP)
N-[2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]isoquinoline-5-sulfonamide  (EXP)
N-acetyl-L-cysteine  (EXP,ISO)
N-acetylsphingosine  (EXP)
N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal  (EXP)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea  (ISO)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (EXP,ISO)
N-methyl-N-nitrosourea  (ISO)
N-nitrosodiethylamine  (ISO)
NAD zwitterion  (EXP)
NAD(+)  (EXP)
NADP zwitterion  (EXP)
NADP(+)  (EXP)
naloxone  (ISO)
nickel dichloride  (EXP,ISO)
nickel sulfate  (EXP)
niclosamide  (EXP)
nicotine  (EXP,ISO)
nimesulide  (EXP)
nitrofurazone  (ISO)
nitroprusside  (ISO)
notoginsenoside R1  (ISO)
ochratoxin A  (EXP)
okadaic acid  (EXP,ISO)
olanzapine  (EXP)
oleic acid  (EXP)
omethoate  (EXP)
oxaliplatin  (ISO)
ozone  (ISO)
paclitaxel  (EXP)
paracetamol  (ISO)
paraquat  (EXP,ISO)
pentetrazol  (ISO)
perfluorododecanoic acid  (ISO)
perfluorononanoic acid  (ISO)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (ISO)
perfluorooctanoic acid  (ISO)
phenethyl isothiocyanate  (EXP)
phenobarbital  (ISO)
phenylephrine  (ISO)
phloretin  (EXP)
phloroglucinol  (EXP)
phorbol 13-acetate 12-myristate  (ISO)
phytoestrogen  (ISO)
pioglitazone  (EXP)
Plantamajoside  (ISO)
potassium atom  (ISO)
potassium chromate  (EXP)
procyanidin B2  (EXP)
progesterone  (EXP,ISO)
propofol  (ISO)
propranolol  (ISO)
prostaglandin E2  (EXP,ISO)
pterostilbene  (ISO)
puerarin  (ISO)
pyrithione  (ISO)
pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate  (ISO)
quercetin  (EXP,ISO)
quinacrine  (EXP)
radon atom  (EXP)
radon(0)  (EXP)
raffinose  (ISO)
Rebamipide  (ISO)
resveratrol  (EXP,ISO)
riboflavin  (ISO)
risperidone  (ISO)
Ro 31-8220  (EXP)
rotenone  (EXP,ISO)
rottlerin  (ISO)
rubimaillin  (EXP)
ruthenium atom  (EXP)
S-butyl-DL-homocysteine (S,R)-sulfoximine  (ISO)
Salinomycin  (EXP)
SB 203580  (EXP)
SB 415286  (EXP,ISO)
SB 431542  (EXP)
SB-239063  (ISO)
sclareol  (EXP)
selenium atom  (EXP)
serotonin  (EXP)
serpentine asbestos  (EXP)
sesquiterpene  (EXP)
sevoflurane  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (EXP,ISO)
silver atom  (EXP)
silver(0)  (EXP)
simvastatin  (EXP,ISO)
sirolimus  (EXP,ISO)
sodium arsenate  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (EXP,ISO)
sodium dichromate  (ISO)
sodium fluoride  (ISO)
sorafenib  (EXP)
sphingosine 1-phosphate  (EXP)
streptozocin  (ISO)
succimer  (ISO)
sulfasalazine  (ISO)
sulforaphane  (ISO)
sulindac  (EXP)
syringic acid  (ISO)
T-2 toxin  (ISO)
tacrolimus hydrate  (EXP)
tadalafil  (ISO)
tamibarotene  (EXP)
tamoxifen  (EXP)
tanespimycin  (EXP)
Tanshinone I  (ISO)
taurine  (EXP,ISO)
taurochenodeoxycholic acid  (ISO)
temozolomide  (EXP,ISO)
tert-butyl hydroperoxide  (EXP)
testosterone  (EXP,ISO)
testosterone enanthate  (EXP)
tetrachloromethane  (ISO)
theophylline  (ISO)
thioacetamide  (ISO)
thymoquinone  (EXP)
tideglusib  (EXP)
toluene 2,4-diisocyanate  (ISO)
topiramate  (ISO)
topotecan  (ISO)
Triptolide  (ISO)
troglitazone  (EXP)
tungsten  (ISO)
urethane  (EXP)
valproic acid  (EXP,ISO)
valsartan  (ISO)
vinclozolin  (ISO)
vitamin E  (EXP,ISO)
vitamin K  (ISO)
warfarin  (ISO)
wogonin  (EXP,ISO)
wortmannin  (EXP,ISO)
XAV939  (EXP)
zinc atom  (EXP,ISO)
zinc(0)  (EXP,ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
aging  (ISO)
animal organ morphogenesis  (ISO)
axonogenesis  (ISO)
beta-catenin destruction complex disassembly  (TAS)
bone remodeling  (ISO)
canonical Wnt signaling pathway  (ISO)
carbohydrate metabolic process  (IEA)
cell growth involved in cardiac muscle cell development  (ISO)
cell migration  (ISO)
cellular response to amyloid-beta  (ISS)
cellular response to dopamine  (ISO)
cellular response to erythropoietin  (ISO)
cellular response to hepatocyte growth factor stimulus  (ISO)
cellular response to hydrogen peroxide  (ISO)
cellular response to interleukin-3  (ISS)
cellular response to iron(II) ion  (ISO)
cellular response to lithium ion  (ISO)
cellular response to mechanical stimulus  (ISO)
circadian rhythm  (ISS)
dopamine receptor signaling pathway  (NAS)
epithelial to mesenchymal transition  (IMP)
ER overload response  (IDA)
establishment of cell polarity  (ISO,ISS,TAS)
establishment or maintenance of cell polarity  (ISO)
excitatory postsynaptic potential  (NAS)
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway  (ISS)
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand  (IBA,ISS)
fat cell differentiation  (ISO)
glycogen metabolic process  (IDA,IEA)
hepatic stellate cell activation  (ISO)
hepatocyte apoptotic process  (ISO)
hippocampus development  (IMP)
hypermethylation of CpG island  (ISO)
insulin receptor signaling pathway  (IBA)
intracellular signal transduction  (IDA,TAS)
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress  (ISO)
maintenance of cell polarity  (ISS,TAS)
myoblast fusion  (ISO)
myotube differentiation  (ISO)
negative regulation of apoptotic process  (IDA)
negative regulation of calcineurin-NFAT signaling cascade  (IMP)
negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway  (IBA,IC,ISS,TAS)
negative regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy  (ISO)
negative regulation of dendrite development  (ISO)
negative regulation of dendrite morphogenesis  (ISO)
negative regulation of dopaminergic neuron differentiation  (ISO,TAS)
negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors  (IMP)
negative regulation of glycogen (starch) synthase activity  (TAS)
negative regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process  (TAS)
negative regulation of MAP kinase activity  (ISO)
negative regulation of neuron death  (IDA)
negative regulation of neuron maturation  (ISO)
negative regulation of neuron migration  (ISO)
negative regulation of neuron projection development  (ISO)
negative regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity  (ISO)
negative regulation of phosphoprotein phosphatase activity  (TAS)
negative regulation of protein acetylation  (ISS)
negative regulation of protein binding  (IDA)
negative regulation of protein localization to centrosome  (ISO)
negative regulation of protein localization to nucleus  (ISS)
negative regulation of protein-containing complex assembly  (IMP)
negative regulation of signal transduction  (IEA)
negative regulation of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process  (ISO)
negative regulation of synaptic assembly at neuromuscular junction  (ISO)
negative regulation of TOR signaling  (ISO)
negative regulation of type B pancreatic cell development  (TAS)
neuron projection development  (IDA)
neuron projection organization  (ISS)
peptidyl-serine phosphorylation  (IDA)
peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation  (IDA)
phosphorylation  (ISO)
positive regulation of apoptotic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of autophagy  (ISS)
positive regulation of axon extension  (ISO)
positive regulation of cardiac muscle cell differentiation  (ISO)
positive regulation of cell-matrix adhesion  (IMP)
positive regulation of DNA biosynthetic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of excitatory postsynaptic potential  (ISO)
positive regulation of gene expression  (ISS)
positive regulation of GTPase activity  (IMP)
positive regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential  (ISO)
positive regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization involved in apoptotic signaling pathway  (ISS)
positive regulation of mitochondrion organization  (IMP)
positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of neuron death  (IDA)
positive regulation of osteoblast proliferation  (ISO)
positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation  (ISO)
positive regulation of osteoclast proliferation  (ISO)
positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation  (ISO)
positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process  (IC,IDA,IMP,ISO)
positive regulation of protein binding  (ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of protein catabolic process  (IC,ISO)
positive regulation of protein export from nucleus  (IDA)
positive regulation of protein localization to centrosome  (IMP)
positive regulation of protein-containing complex assembly  (IDA)
positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation  (ISO)
positive regulation of stem cell differentiation  (ISO)
positive regulation of synaptic assembly at neuromuscular junction  (ISO)
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  (ISO)
protein autophosphorylation  (IDA)
protein export from nucleus  (ISO)
protein localization to microtubule  (ISO)
protein phosphorylation  (IDA,IEA,IMP,ISO,TAS)
re-entry into mitotic cell cycle  (ISO)
regulation of apoptotic process  (ISO)
regulation of axon extension  (ISO,ISS)
regulation of axonogenesis  (ISO,ISS)
regulation of cell growth  (ISO)
regulation of cellular response to heat  (TAS)
regulation of circadian rhythm  (ISS)
regulation of dendrite morphogenesis  (ISO,ISS)
regulation of gene expression by genetic imprinting  (ISO)
regulation of long-term synaptic potentiation  (ISS)
regulation of microtubule anchoring at centrosome  (IMP)
regulation of microtubule cytoskeleton organization  (IBA,ISS)
regulation of microtubule-based process  (IMP)
regulation of modification of postsynaptic structure  (ISO)
regulation of neuron projection development  (IBA,ISO)
regulation of neuronal synaptic plasticity  (ISO)
regulation of neurotransmitter receptor localization to postsynaptic specialization membrane  (ISO)
regulation of osteoblast differentiation  (ISO)
regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis  (EXP,IDA,IMP)
response to activity  (ISO)
response to angiotensin  (ISO)
response to epinephrine  (ISO)
response to estradiol  (ISO)
response to insulin  (ISO)
response to insulin-like growth factor stimulus  (ISO)
response to L-glutamate  (ISO)
response to lithium ion  (ISO)
response to ultrasound  (ISO)
response to xenobiotic stimulus  (ISO)
response to zinc ion  (ISO)
rhythmic process  (IEA)
signal transduction  (IBA)
superior temporal gyrus development  (IMP)
viral protein processing  (TAS)
Wnt signaling pathway  (IEA,ISO)

Cellular Component


References - curated
1. Aschenbach WG, etal., Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jul;291(1):E152-8. Epub 2006 Feb 14.
2. Bertsch S, etal., Shock. 2011 Mar;35(3):266-74. doi: 10.1097/SHK.0b013e3181fd068c.
3. Bhat RV and Budd SL, Neurosignals 2002 Sep-Oct;11(5):251-61.
4. Cao Y, etal., Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2016 May;48(5):437-46. doi: 10.1093/abbs/gmw024.
5. Chen D, etal., Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2015 Sep;35(9):1090-8.
6. Chen S, etal., Oncotarget. 2016 May 10;7(19):27538-51. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8485.
7. Cohen MM, Am J Med Genet A. 2010 Aug;152A(8):1875-914. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32909.
8. Cuadrado A Free Radic Biol Med. 2015 Nov;88(Pt B):147-57. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2015.04.029. Epub 2015 Apr 30.
9. Diaz-Hernandez JI, etal., Neurobiol Aging. 2012 Aug;33(8):1816-28. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.09.040. Epub 2011 Nov 1.
10. Emamian ES, etal., Nat Genet 2004 Feb;36(2):131-7. Epub 2004 Jan 25.
11. Fang CH, etal., Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007 Oct;293(4):R1545-51. Epub 2007 Aug 8.
12. Fang NX, etal., Mol Biol Rep. 2010 Dec;37(8):3763-9. Epub 2010 Mar 10.
13. Forde JE and Dale TC, Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug;64(15):1930-44.
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