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View Ontology Report


Glycogen - the storage form of glucose - is a ramified polysaccharide formed by alpha1-4 linked glucose units branching at alpha1-6 bonds. Upon uptake into the cell, glucose is rapidly phosphorylated to G6P, a key molecule at the intersection of several pathways of glucose metabolism. In the glycogen biosynthetic pathway, G6P is converted to G1P via the reversible reaction carried out by phosphoglucomutases (Pgm). UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (Ugp2) catalyzes the formation of UDP-glucose

Pathway Diagram:

Ariadne Genomics Inc. Gsk3 Pp-1 complex phosphoglucomutases Pp-1 complex --+> Gys1 Gys1 Pp-1 complex --+> Gys2 Gys2 Gsk3 ---| Gys1 Gsk3 ---| Gys2 glucose-6-phosphate --+> Gys2 glycolysis pathway gluconeogenesis pathway glycogen degradation pathway Gbe1 Gyg1 Ugp2 glycogen (elongated, branched) ---> glucose-6-phosphate glucose-1-phosphate ---> UDP-glucose UDP-glucose ---> glycogen glucose-6-phosphate ---> glycolysis pathway gluconeogenesis pathway ---> glucose-6-phosphate UTP ---> UDP-glucose glucose-1-phosphate <--> glucose-6-phosphate glycogen ---> glycogen (elongated, branched) UDP-glucose ---> glycogen (elongated, branched) glucose-6-phosphate glucose-1-phosphate UTP UDP-glucose glycogen (elongated, branched) glycogen

Genes in Pathway:

show annotations for term's descendants           Sort by:
glycogen biosynthetic pathway term browser
Symbol Object Name Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Gbe1 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme 1 IDA RGD PMID:6449198 RGD:1642743 NCBI chr11:7,210,169...7,485,895
Ensembl chr11:7,210,209...7,485,890
JBrowse link
G Gck glucokinase IDA RGD PMID:15138155 RGD:1582633 NCBI chr14:86,149,146...86,191,589
Ensembl chr14:86,148,928...86,190,659
JBrowse link
G Gsk3a glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha ISO RGD PMID:17530463 RGD:2306093 NCBI chr 1:82,097,244...82,108,238
Ensembl chr 1:82,097,247...82,108,203
JBrowse link
G Gsk3b glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta ISO RGD PMID:17530463 RGD:2306093 NCBI chr11:65,060,884...65,208,842
Ensembl chr11:65,066,235...65,209,268
JBrowse link
G Gyg1 glycogenin 1 IDA RGD PMID:8224611, PMID:10710493 RGD:2303736, RGD:2304070 NCBI chr 2:104,916,734...104,958,219
Ensembl chr 2:104,916,738...104,958,034
JBrowse link
G Gys1 glycogen synthase 1 ISO
RGD PMID:12297270, PMID:6449198 RGD:2304106, RGD:1642743 NCBI chr 1:101,427,195...101,447,092
Ensembl chr 1:101,427,195...101,447,092
JBrowse link
G Gys2 glycogen synthase 2 IDA
RGD PMID:15138155, PMID:6449198, PMID:12297270 RGD:1582633, RGD:1642743, RGD:2304106 NCBI chr 4:176,638,632...176,679,805
Ensembl chr 4:176,638,629...176,679,815
JBrowse link
G Pgm1 phosphoglucomutase 1 ISO RGD PMID:9549096 RGD:2304188 NCBI chr 5:118,743,632...118,803,055
Ensembl chr 5:118,743,632...118,803,055
JBrowse link
G Pgm2 phosphoglucomutase 2 ISO RGD PMID:9549096 RGD:2304188 NCBI chr14:45,829,440...45,863,883
Ensembl chr14:45,829,446...45,863,877
JBrowse link
G Pgm3 phosphoglucomutase 3 ISO RGD PMID:9549096 RGD:2304188 NCBI chr 8:94,225,513...94,243,230
Ensembl chr 8:94,225,515...94,243,215
JBrowse link
G Ppp1ca protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit alpha ISO
RGD PMID:14715909, PMID:7720853 RGD:2304325, RGD:2304267 NCBI chr 1:219,439,953...219,443,570
Ensembl chr 1:219,439,953...219,443,570
JBrowse link
G Ppp1cb protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit beta ISO
RGD PMID:14715909, PMID:7720853 RGD:2304325, RGD:2304267 NCBI chr 6:23,548,507...23,581,136
Ensembl chr 6:23,549,317...23,581,052
JBrowse link
G Ppp1cc protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit gamma ISO RGD PMID:14715909 RGD:2304325 NCBI chr12:39,864,302...39,882,030
Ensembl chr12:39,864,295...39,882,030
JBrowse link
G Ppp1r3a protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3A ISO RGD PMID:14715909 RGD:2304325 NCBI chr 4:41,171,486...41,212,116
Ensembl chr 4:41,171,486...41,212,072
JBrowse link
G Ppp1r3b protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3B ISO
RGD PMID:14715909, PMID:11716774, PMID:7720853 RGD:2304325, RGD:2306167, RGD:2304267 NCBI chr16:60,415,192...60,427,498
Ensembl chr16:60,415,229...60,427,474
JBrowse link
G Ppp1r3c protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3C IDA RGD PMID:11716774 RGD:2306167 NCBI chr 1:255,371,830...255,376,833
Ensembl chr 1:255,371,810...255,376,833
JBrowse link
G Ppp1r3d protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3D IDA RGD PMID:11716774 RGD:2306167 NCBI chr 3:173,950,613...173,953,684
Ensembl chr 3:173,950,613...173,953,684
JBrowse link
G Ppp1r3e protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3E IDA RGD PMID:15752363 RGD:2306166 NCBI chr15:33,535,986...33,537,146
Ensembl chr15:33,535,986...33,537,146
JBrowse link

Additional Elements in Pathway:

(includes Gene Groups, Small Molecules, Other Pathways..etc.)
Object TypePathway ObjectPathway Object Description
Functional Classphosphoglucomutasesmembers of the phosphoglucomutase family
ComplexPp-1 complexthe serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 complex
Small MoleculeUDP-glucoseuridine diphosphate glucose
Small MoleculeUTPuridine triphosphate

Pathway Gene Annotations

Disease Annotations Associated with Genes in the glycogen biosynthetic pathway
Disease TermsGene Symbols
abdominal aortic aneurysmGys1
Aberrant Crypt FociGsk3b
acanthosis nigricansPpp1r3a
acute kidney failureGsk3b
acute myocardial infarctionGsk3b
Alzheimer's diseaseGsk3a , Gsk3b
amyotrophic lateral sclerosisGsk3a , Gsk3b
bipolar disorderGsk3a , Gsk3b
Brain InjuriesGsk3b
Cardiac ArrhythmiasGyg1
cardiovascular system diseaseGys1
cervical cancerPgm3
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver InjuryPgm1
cognitive disorderGsk3b
colon cancerGsk3b
Colonic NeoplasmsGsk3b
colorectal adenocarcinomaGsk3b
Colorectal NeoplasmsPgm1
congenital disorder of glycosylationPgm1
congenital disorder of glycosylation ItPgm1
Congenital HyperinsulinismGck
congestive heart failureGsk3b , Ppp1ca , Ppp1cc
coronary artery diseaseGck
Dandy-Walker syndromePpp1cb
degenerative disc diseaseGsk3b
diabetes mellitusGck , Ppp1r3a
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental Gck , Gsk3a
diabetic encephalopathyGsk3b
Diabetic NephropathiesGsk3b
dilated cardiomyopathyGsk3a , Ppp1ca
Drug-Induced DyskinesiaGsk3b
endometrial cancerPgm1
endometrial carcinomaGsk3b
Endometrial NeoplasmsGsk3b
Experimental ArthritisGsk3b
Experimental Liver CirrhosisGck , Ppp1r3b , Ppp1r3c
Familial Cirrhosis with Deposition of Abnormal GlycogenGbe1
familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 3Gck
fatty liver diseaseGck
fetal akinesia deformation sequence syndrome 1Gbe1
genetic diseaseGbe1 , Gck , Gys2
gestational diabetesGck
glycogen storage diseaseGyg1 , Gys2
Glycogen Storage Disease 0, LiverGys2
Glycogen Storage Disease 0, MuscleGys1
glycogen storage disease IVGbe1
glycogen storage disease XVGyg1
GSD IV, Classic HepaticGbe1
GSD IV, combined hepatic and myopathicGbe1
GSD IV, Neuromuscular Form, ChildhoodGbe1
GSD IV, Neuromuscular Form, CongenitalGbe1
GSD IV, Neuromuscular Form, Fatal PerinatalGbe1
Hearing Loss, Cisplatin-InducedGsk3b
heart diseaseGsk3b
hepatocellular carcinomaGys2
hyper IgE syndromePgm3
hyperferritinemia-cataract syndromeGys1
hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemiaGck
hypertensionGck , Gsk3b
hypoglycemiaGck , Ppp1r3a
immunodeficiency 23Pgm3
Insulin ResistanceGck , Gys1 , Ppp1r3a
intellectual disabilityPgm1
Intestinal NeoplasmsGsk3b
isolated elevated serum creatine phosphokinase levelsGyg1
Left Ventricular HypertrophyGsk3a
Liver InjuryGck
Liver Reperfusion InjuryGsk3b
Mammary Neoplasms, ExperimentalGsk3b
mantle cell lymphomaGsk3b
maturity-onset diabetes of the youngGck
maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 2Gck
mental depressionGsk3a , Gsk3b
middle cerebral artery infarctionGsk3b
Multiple AbnormalitiesGsk3b
Muscle WeaknessGyg1
muscular atrophyGsk3b
myocardial infarctionGsk3b
Myocardial IschemiaGyg1 , Pgm1
Myocardial Reperfusion InjuryGsk3b
neonatal diabetesGck
Neoplastic Cell TransformationGsk3b
neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 3Gys1
Neurodevelopmental DisordersPpp1r3a , Ppp1r3b
neuromuscular diseaseGbe1
neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 6Gsk3b
Noonan syndromePpp1cb
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 2Ppp1cb
Ovarian NeoplasmsGsk3b , Ppp1cc
Parkinson's diseaseGsk3b
Parkinsonian DisordersGsk3a
permanent neonatal diabetes mellitusGck
Permanent Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus 1Gck
pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomaGck , Ppp1r3a
Polyglucosan Body Disease, Adult FormGbe1
Polyglucosan Body Myopathy 2Gyg1
prostate cancerPpp1r3c
Prostatic NeoplasmsGsk3b
pulmonary tuberculosisGbe1
schizophreniaGsk3a , Gsk3b
sciatic neuropathyGsk3b
Spinal Cord InjuriesPpp1cc
status epilepticusGsk3b
Subarachnoid HemorrhageGsk3b
substance-related disorderGsk3b
teratomaPgm1 , Pgm3
transient neonatal diabetes mellitusGck
type 2 diabetes mellitusGck , Gsk3b , Ppp1r3a , Ppp1r3c
vascular dementiaGsk3b
Pathway Annotations Associated with Genes in the glycogen biosynthetic pathway
Pathway TermsGene Symbols
adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathwayPpp1ca , Ppp1cb , Ppp1r3d
Alzheimer's disease pathwayGsk3b
amino sugar metabolic pathwayGck , Pgm1 , Pgm3
B cell receptor signaling pathwayGsk3b
basal cell carcinoma pathwayGsk3b
Bone morphogenetic proteins signaling pathwayGsk3b , Ppp1ca
butirosin and neomycin biosynthetic pathwayGck
calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase 2 signaling pathwayPpp1cc
cell cycle pathway, mitoticGsk3b
chemokine mediated signaling pathwayGsk3a , Gsk3b
colorectal cancer pathwayGsk3b
congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency pathwayGbe1 , Gck , Gys2 , Pgm1
dopamine signaling pathwayPpp1ca , Ppp1cb , Ppp1cc
endometrial cancer pathwayGsk3b
epidermal growth factor/neuregulin signaling pathwayGsk3b
follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathwayPpp1ca
forkhead class A signaling pathwayGck
french type sialuria pathwayPgm3
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency pathwayPgm1
galactokinase deficiency pathwayGck , Pgm1
galactose metabolic pathwayGck , Pgm1
galactosemia pathwayGck , Pgm1
GALE deficiency pathwayGck , Pgm1
gluconeogenesis pathwayGck , Pgm1
glycogen biosynthetic pathwayGbe1 , Gck , Gsk3a , Gsk3b , Gyg1 , Gys1 , Gys2 , Pgm1 , Pgm2 , Pgm3 , Ppp1ca , Ppp1cb , Ppp1cc , Ppp1r3a , Ppp1r3b , Ppp1r3c , Ppp1r3d , Ppp1r3e
glycogen degradation pathwayPgm1 , Pgm2 , Pgm3 , Ppp1ca , Ppp1cb , Ppp1cc , Ppp1r3a , Ppp1r3b , Ppp1r3c , Ppp1r3d , Ppp1r3e
glycogen metabolic pathwayGck , Gys2
glycogen storage disease type Ia pathwayPgm1
glycogen storage disease type Ib pathwayPgm1
glycogen storage disease type III pathwayGbe1 , Gck , Gys2 , Pgm1
glycogen storage disease type IV pathwayGbe1 , Gck , Gys2 , Pgm1
glycogen storage disease type VI pathwayGbe1 , Gck , Gys2 , Pgm1
glycolysis pathwayGck , Pgm1
glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathwayGck , Pgm1
Hedgehog signaling pathwayGsk3b
hepatitis C pathwayGsk3b
hexosamine biosynthetic pathwayPgm3
histamine signaling pathway, immunologicalPpp1ca
hypoxia inducible factor pathwayGck , Pgm1
influenza A pathwayGsk3b
insulin responsive facilitative sugar transporter mediated glucose transport pathwayGsk3b , Gys1 , Ppp1cc , Ppp1r3a
insulin secretion pathwayGck
insulin signaling pathwayGck , Gsk3b , Gys1 , Gys2 , Ppp1ca , Ppp1cb , Ppp1cc , Ppp1r3a , Ppp1r3b , Ppp1r3c , Ppp1r3d
long term depressionGsk3b
long term potentiationPpp1ca , Ppp1cb , Ppp1cc
luteinizing hormone signaling pathwayPpp1ca
maturity-onset diabetes of the young pathwayGck
measles pathwayGsk3b
neurotrophic factor signaling pathwayGsk3b
nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2 signaling pathwayGsk3a , Gsk3b
nucleotide sugar metabolic pathwayGck , Pgm1 , Pgm3
p53 signaling pathwayGsk3b
pentose phosphate pathwayPgm1
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathwayGsk3a , Gsk3b
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deficiency pathwayPgm1
prostate cancer pathwayGsk3b
purine metabolic pathwayPgm1
Reelin signaling pathwayGsk3b
ribose 5-phosphate isomerase deficiency pathwayPgm1
serotonin signaling pathway via receptors engaging G alphas protein familyPpp1ca
sialic acid storage disease pathwayPgm3
starch and sucrose metabolic pathwayGbe1 , Gck , Gys1 , Gys2 , Pgm1
T cell receptor signaling pathwayGsk3b
Tay-Sachs disease pathwayPgm3
transaldolase deficiency pathwayPgm1
transforming growth factor-beta Smad dependent signaling pathwayPpp1ca
trehalose degradation pathwayGck
triosephosphate isomerase deficiency pathwayPgm1
type 2 diabetes mellitus pathwayGck
Wnt signaling pathwayGsk3b
Wnt signaling, canonical pathwayGsk3a , Gsk3b
Phenotype Annotations Associated with Genes in the glycogen biosynthetic pathway

References Associated with the glycogen biosynthetic pathway:

Ontology Path Diagram:

paths to the root
paths to the root

Import into Pathway Studio:


RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.