Snca (synuclein alpha) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Snca (synuclein alpha) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Snca
Name: synuclein alpha
RGD ID: 3729
Description: Enables several functions, including phospholipase binding activity; phospholipid binding activity; and tubulin binding activity. Involved in several processes, including behavioral response to cocaine; negative regulation of nitrogen compound metabolic process; and response to desipramine. Located in several cellular components, including cytoplasmic vesicle; distal axon; and mitochondrion. Used to study Parkinson's disease and amphetamine abuse. Biomarker of depressive disorder and neurilemmoma. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in Alzheimer's disease; Lewy body dementia; Parkinson's disease; Parkinson's disease 1; and Parkinson's disease 4. Orthologous to human SNCA (synuclein alpha); PARTICIPATES IN apoptotic cell death pathway; Parkinson's disease pathway; altered ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathway; INTERACTS WITH (S)-naringenin; 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; 17alpha-ethynylestradiol.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: alpha-synuclein; MGC105443; synuclein, alpha; synuclein, alpha (non A4 component of amyloid precursor); truncated alpha synuclein
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Is Marker For: Strains:   Iusm:P   Iusm:NP   NP.P-(D4Rat119-D4Rat55)/Iusm   P.NP-(Snca-D4Rat35)/Iusm  
Candidate Gene For: Alc18 Alc22
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.2489,696,420 - 89,797,240 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl489,696,420 - 89,796,262 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx494,908,873 - 95,008,815 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0490,684,174 - 90,784,124 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0489,081,018 - 89,195,868 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0490,782,412 - 90,883,236 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl490,782,374 - 90,882,285 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.04155,592,411 - 155,690,724 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4489,613,731 - 89,722,807 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1489,858,155 - 89,967,232 (-)NCBI
Celera484,478,545 - 84,578,894 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map4q24NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(-)-selegiline  (ISO)
(25R)-cholest-5-ene-3beta,26-diol  (ISO)
(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid  (ISO)
(R)-lipoic acid  (ISO)
(R,R,R)-alpha-tocopherol  (ISO)
(RS)-1-benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline  (ISO)
(S)-amphetamine  (ISO)
(S)-naringenin  (EXP)
(S)-nicotine  (ISO)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine  (EXP,ISO)
1-nitropyrene  (ISO)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (EXP)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran  (EXP)
2,4-dibromophenyl 2,4,5-tribromophenyl ether  (ISO)
2-butoxyethanol  (ISO)
2-hydroxypropanoic acid  (ISO)
2-methylcholine  (ISO)
2-naphthylamine  (ISO)
26-hydroxycholesterol  (ISO)
3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A  (EXP)
3-hydroxybutyric acid  (ISO)
3-methyladenine  (ISO)
3-phenylprop-2-enal  (ISO)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (ISO)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
4-phenylbutyric acid  (ISO)
5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin  (ISO)
5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
8-Br-cAMP  (ISO)
acetamide  (EXP)
acetylsalicylic acid  (ISO)
acrolein  (ISO)
actinomycin D  (EXP)
alcohol  (ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (ISO)
all-trans-retinol  (EXP)
aluminium atom  (ISO)
aluminium(0)  (ISO)
ammonium chloride  (EXP,ISO)
anthocyanin  (ISO)
antimycin A  (ISO)
antirheumatic drug  (ISO)
apigenin  (EXP)
apocynin  (EXP)
aprepitant  (EXP)
aristolochic acid A  (EXP)
Aroclor 1254  (EXP)
arsane  (ISO)
arsenic acid  (EXP)
arsenic atom  (ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
arsenous acid  (ISO)
atrazine  (EXP)
azoxystrobin  (ISO)
bafilomycin A1  (ISO)
baicalein  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
beta-naphthoflavone  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol F  (EXP)
bortezomib  (ISO)
buta-1,3-diene  (ISO)
butanal  (ISO)
cadmium atom  (EXP)
cadmium dichloride  (ISO)
calcium atom  (EXP)
calcium(0)  (EXP)
Calpeptin  (ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
CGP 52608  (ISO)
chlorogenic acid  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (EXP,ISO)
cis-caffeic acid  (ISO)
cisplatin  (ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (ISO)
cocaine  (ISO)
coenzyme Q10  (EXP,ISO)
conduritol B epoxide  (ISO)
copper atom  (EXP,ISO)
copper(0)  (EXP,ISO)
copper(II) chloride  (ISO)
copper(II) sulfate  (ISO)
Corynoxine B  (ISO)
creatine  (ISO)
crocin-1  (EXP)
curcumin  (ISO)
cyclosporin A  (EXP,ISO)
cypermethrin  (EXP,ISO)
cytarabine  (ISO)
dabigatran  (EXP)
deguelin  (ISO)
diarsenic trioxide  (ISO)
dibenz[a,h]anthracene  (ISO)
dibenziodolium  (ISO)
dibutyl phthalate  (ISO)
dichloroacetic acid  (ISO)
dichlorvos  (EXP)
diclofenac  (ISO)
dieldrin  (EXP,ISO)
diethyldithiocarbamic acid  (EXP)
diethylstilbestrol  (EXP)
dimethylarsinic acid  (EXP)
dioxygen  (ISO)
dopamine  (EXP,ISO)
dopaminechrome (enol form)  (ISO)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (ISO)
echinacoside  (ISO)
empagliflozin  (EXP)
entacapone  (ISO)
entinostat  (ISO)
ethanol  (EXP,ISO)
fasudil  (EXP)
fenpyroximate  (ISO)
ferrostatin-1  (ISO)
flavonoids  (EXP)
folic acid  (ISO)
fulvestrant  (ISO)
gallic acid  (ISO)
gamma-tocopherol  (ISO)
geraniol  (ISO)
glutathione  (EXP,ISO)
glutathione disulfide  (ISO)
glyburide  (ISO)
glyphosate  (ISO)
GW 3965  (ISO)
heptanal  (ISO)
hexanal  (ISO)
hydrogen peroxide  (EXP,ISO)
hydroxyurea  (ISO)
iron atom  (ISO)
iron dichloride  (ISO)
iron(0)  (ISO)
iron(2+) sulfate (anhydrous)  (ISO)
ivermectin  (ISO)
L-ascorbic acid  (ISO)
lactacystin  (EXP,ISO)
lead diacetate  (EXP)
lead nitrate  (ISO)
lead(0)  (EXP,ISO)
linsidomine  (ISO)
lipoic acid  (ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
lithium atom  (EXP)
lithium chloride  (ISO)
lithium hydride  (EXP)
malathion  (EXP)
maneb  (ISO)
manganese atom  (EXP,ISO)
manganese(0)  (EXP,ISO)
manganese(II) chloride  (EXP,ISO)
melatonin  (EXP,ISO)
mercury dibromide  (ISO)
methamphetamine  (EXP,ISO)
methylmercury chloride  (ISO)
microcystin-LR  (EXP)
morphine  (EXP)
N-acetyl-L-cysteine  (EXP,ISO)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (EXP,ISO)
nickel atom  (ISO)
nickel sulfate  (ISO)
niclosamide  (ISO)
nicotine  (ISO)
nicotinic acid  (ISO)
nitric oxide  (ISO)
nonanal  (ISO)
Nookatone  (EXP)
O-acetyl-L-carnitine  (ISO)
octanal  (ISO)
omega-conotoxin GVIA  (EXP)
oxidopamine  (EXP,ISO)
ozone  (ISO)
paracetamol  (ISO)
paraquat  (EXP,ISO)
PCB138  (EXP)
pentanal  (ISO)
permethrin  (EXP,ISO)
phenobarbital  (ISO)
potassium dichromate  (ISO)
proanthocyanidin  (ISO)
probucol  (ISO)
propanal  (ISO)
propionic acid  (EXP)
pyridaben  (ISO)
pyrogallol  (ISO)
quercetin  (ISO)
rac-lactic acid  (ISO)
raloxifene  (EXP)
reactive nitrogen species  (ISO)
reactive oxygen species  (ISO)
reserpine  (ISO)
resveratrol  (EXP,ISO)
rifampicin  (EXP)
roflumilast  (EXP)
rotenone  (EXP,ISO)
S-butyl-DL-homocysteine (S,R)-sulfoximine  (ISO)
sapropterin  (ISO)
sarin  (EXP,ISO)
SB 431542  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (EXP,ISO)
silver atom  (ISO)
silver(0)  (ISO)
sirolimus  (ISO)
sirtinol  (EXP)
SKF 38393  (EXP)
sodium arsenite  (EXP,ISO)
staurosporine  (ISO)
stigmatellin A  (ISO)
tacrine  (EXP)
tamoxifen  (ISO)
taurine  (ISO)
tauroursodeoxycholic acid  (ISO)
telmisartan  (ISO)
temozolomide  (ISO)
testosterone  (EXP)
testosterone enanthate  (ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (EXP)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
tocopherol  (ISO)
tolcapone  (ISO)
topotecan  (EXP)
trans-caffeic acid  (ISO)
Tributyltin oxide  (ISO)
trichloroethene  (EXP)
trichostatin A  (ISO)
tungsten  (ISO)
valproic acid  (EXP,ISO)
Vinpocetine  (EXP)
ziram  (EXP)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
adult locomotory behavior  (ISO)
amyloid fibril formation  (ISO)
behavioral response to cocaine  (IMP)
calcium ion homeostasis  (ISO)
cellular response to copper ion  (IEA,ISO)
cellular response to fibroblast growth factor stimulus  (IEP)
cellular response to oxidative stress  (ISO)
chemical synaptic transmission  (IBA,ISO)
dopamine biosynthetic process  (ISO)
dopamine metabolic process  (ISO)
excitatory postsynaptic potential  (ISO)
fatty acid metabolic process  (ISO)
localization  (ISO)
long-term synaptic potentiation  (ISO)
membrane organization  (ISO)
microglial cell activation  (ISO)
mitochondrial ATP synthesis coupled electron transport  (ISO)
mitochondrial membrane organization  (ISO)
negative regulation of apoptotic process  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of chaperone-mediated autophagy  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of dopamine metabolic process  (IMP)
negative regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of exocytosis  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of microtubule polymerization  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process  (IMP,ISO)
negative regulation of norepinephrine uptake  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling pathway  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of protein phosphorylation  (IMP)
negative regulation of serotonin uptake  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of thrombin-activated receptor signaling pathway  (IEA,ISO)
neuron apoptotic process  (ISO)
neurotransmitter secretion  (ISO)
neutral lipid metabolic process  (ISO)
phospholipid metabolic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of endocytosis  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of exocytosis  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of hydrogen peroxide catabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of inflammatory response  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of inositol phosphate biosynthetic process  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of neurotransmitter secretion  (ISO)
positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation  (ISO)
positive regulation of protein localization to cell periphery  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of receptor recycling  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of SNARE complex assembly  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of synaptic transmission  (ISO)
protein complex oligomerization  (ISO)
protein destabilization  (IEA,ISO)
protein tetramerization  (IEA,ISO)
receptor internalization  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of acyl-CoA biosynthetic process  (ISO)
regulation of dopamine secretion  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of glutamate secretion  (ISO)
regulation of locomotion  (ISO)
regulation of long-term neuronal synaptic plasticity  (ISO)
regulation of macrophage activation  (ISO)
regulation of neuron apoptotic process  (ISO)
regulation of neuronal synaptic plasticity  (ISO)
regulation of neurotransmitter secretion  (ISO)
regulation of norepinephrine uptake  (ISO)
regulation of presynapse assembly  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process  (ISO)
response to cocaine  (IEP)
response to desipramine  (IEP)
response to interleukin-1  (IEA,ISO)
response to iron(II) ion  (IEA,ISO)
response to lipopolysaccharide  (IEA,ISO)
response to magnesium ion  (IEA,ISO)
response to type II interferon  (IEA,ISO)
response to xenobiotic stimulus  (ISO)
SNARE complex assembly  (IEA,ISO)
synapse organization  (IBA,ISO)
synaptic transmission, dopaminergic  (ISO)
synaptic vesicle endocytosis  (IBA,ISO)
synaptic vesicle exocytosis  (ISO)
synaptic vesicle priming  (IEA,ISO)
synaptic vesicle transport  (ISO)

Cellular Component

Phenotype Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Mammalian Phenotype

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Mice lacking alpha-synuclein display functional deficits in the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Abeliovich A, etal., Neuron 2000 Jan;25(1):239-52.
2. Expression of alpha-synuclein in different brain parts of adult and aged rats. Adamczyk A, etal., J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 Mar;56(1):29-37.
3. alpha-Synuclein interacts with phospholipase D isozymes and inhibits pervanadate-induced phospholipase D activation in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Ahn BH, etal., J Biol Chem. 2002 Apr 5;277(14):12334-42. Epub 2002 Jan 30.
4. Tubulin seeds alpha-synuclein fibril formation. Alim MA, etal., J Biol Chem. 2002 Jan 18;277(3):2112-7. Epub 2001 Nov 6.
5. Genes associated with Parkinson's disease: regulation of autophagy and beyond. Beilina A and Cookson MR, J Neurochem. 2015 Jul 30. doi: 10.1111/jnc.13266.
6. Alphalpha-Synuclein as a Mediator in the Interplay between Aging and Parkinson's Disease. Bobela W, etal., Biomolecules. 2015 Oct 16;5(4):2675-700. doi: 10.3390/biom5042675.
7. Alpha-synuclein in the nucleus accumbens induces changes in cocaine behaviour in rats. Boyer F and Dreyer JL, Eur J Neurosci. 2007 Nov;26(10):2764-76.
8. Distribution of alpha- and gamma-synucleins in the adult rat brain and their modification by high-dose cocaine treatment. Brenz Verca MS, etal., Eur J Neurosci. 2003 Oct;18(7):1923-38.
9. The ubiquitin proteasome system in neurodegenerative diseases: sometimes the chicken, sometimes the egg. Ciechanover A and Brundin P, Neuron 2003 Oct 9;40(2):427-46.
10. Annular alpha-synuclein protofibrils are produced when spherical protofibrils are incubated in solution or bound to brain-derived membranes. Ding TT, etal., Biochemistry 2002 Aug 13;41(32):10209-17.
11. A Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease. Feany MB and Bender WW, Nature 2000 Mar 23;404(6776):394-8.
12. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, type 1 is characterized by alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synuclein neuropathology. Galvin JE, etal., Am J Pathol. 2000 Aug;157(2):361-8.
13. Axon pathology in Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia hippocampus contains alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synuclein. Galvin JE, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Nov 9;96(23):13450-5.
14. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
15. Rat alpha-synuclein interacts with Tat binding protein 1, a component of the 26S proteasomal complex. Ghee M, etal., J Neurochem. 2000 Nov;75(5):2221-4.
16. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
17. In vivo RNAi-mediated alpha-synuclein silencing induces nigrostriatal degeneration. Gorbatyuk OS, etal., Mol Ther. 2010 Aug;18(8):1450-7. doi: 10.1038/mt.2010.115. Epub 2010 Jun 15.
18. The phosphorylation state of Ser-129 in human alpha-synuclein determines neurodegeneration in a rat model of Parkinson disease. Gorbatyuk OS, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jan 15;105(2):763-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0711053105. Epub 2008 Jan 4.
19. Impaired intracellular trafficking defines early Parkinson's disease. Hunn BH, etal., Trends Neurosci. 2015 Mar;38(3):178-88. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2014.12.009. Epub 2015 Jan 29.
20. Desipramine modulation of alpha-, gamma-synuclein, and the norepinephrine transporter in an animal model of depression. Jeannotte AM, etal., Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009 Mar;34(4):987-98. Epub 2008 Sep 17.
21. Desipramine induced changes in the norepinephrine transporter, alpha- and gamma-synuclein in the hippocampus, amygdala and striatum. Jeannotte AM, etal., Neurosci Lett. 2009 Dec 25;467(2):86-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.10.010. Epub 2009 Oct 8.
22. Lewy body/alpha-synucleinopathy in schizophrenia and depression: a preliminary neuropathological study. Jellinger KA Acta Neuropathol. 2009 Apr;117(4):423-7. Epub 2009 Feb 6.
23. Identification of novel proteins associated with both alpha-synuclein and DJ-1. Jin J, etal., Mol Cell Proteomics. 2007 May;6(5):845-59. Epub 2006 Jul 18.
24. Selective insolubility of alpha-synuclein in human Lewy body diseases is recapitulated in a transgenic mouse model. Kahle PJ, etal., Am J Pathol. 2001 Dec;159(6):2215-25.
25. KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes KEGG
26. Increased expression of rat synuclein in the substantia nigra pars compacta identified by mRNA differential display in a model of developmental target injury. Kholodilov NG, etal., J Neurochem 1999 Dec;73(6):2586-99.
27. Parkin cleaves intracellular alpha-synuclein inclusions via the activation of calpain. Kim SJ, etal., J Biol Chem 2003 Oct 24;278(43):41890-9. Epub 2003 Aug 12.
28. Ala30Pro mutation in the gene encoding alpha-synuclein in Parkinson's disease. Kruger R, etal., Nat Genet. 1998 Feb;18(2):106-8.
29. Membrane-bound alpha-synuclein has a high aggregation propensity and the ability to seed the aggregation of the cytosolic form. Lee HJ, etal., J Biol Chem. 2002 Jan 4;277(1):671-8. Epub 2001 Oct 25.
30. Endogenous alpha-synuclein is induced by valproic acid through histone deacetylase inhibition and participates in neuroprotection against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Leng Y and Chuang DM, J Neurosci. 2006 Jul 12;26(28):7502-12. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0096-06.2006.
31. Differential localization of alpha-, beta- and gamma-synucleins in the rat CNS. Li JY, etal., Neuroscience. 2002;113(2):463-78.
32. alpha-Synuclein maps to a quantitative trait locus for alcohol preference and is differentially expressed in alcohol-preferring and -nonpreferring rats. Liang T, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003 Apr 15;100(8):4690-5.
33. p25alpha Stimulates alpha-synuclein aggregation and is co-localized with aggregated alpha-synuclein in alpha-synucleinopathies. Lindersson E, etal., J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 18;280(7):5703-15. Epub 2004 Dec 7.
34. alpha-Synuclein is differentially expressed in mitochondria from different rat brain regions and dose-dependently down-regulates complex I activity. Liu G, etal., Neurosci Lett. 2009 May 1;454(3):187-92. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.02.056. Epub 2009 Feb 28.
35. Traumatic brain injury dysregulates microRNAs to modulate cell signaling in rat hippocampus. Liu L, etal., PLoS One. 2014 Aug 4;9(8):e103948. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103948. eCollection 2014.
36. alpha -Synucleinopathy and selective dopaminergic neuron loss in a rat lentiviral-based model of Parkinson's disease. Lo Bianco C, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Aug 6;99(16):10813-8.
37. Alpha- and beta-synucleins are new diagnostic tools for acute erythroid leukemia and acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. Maitta RW, etal., Am J Hematol. 2011 Feb;86(2):230-4. doi: 10.1002/ajh.21932.
38. The rat brain synucleins; family of proteins transiently associated with neuronal membrane. Maroteaux L and Scheller RH, Brain Res Mol Brain Res 1991 Oct;11(3-4):335-43.
39. Synuclein: a neuron-specific protein localized to the nucleus and presynaptic nerve terminal. Maroteaux L, etal., J Neurosci 1988 Aug;8(8):2804-15.
40. Cocaine abusers have an overexpression of alpha-synuclein in dopamine neurons. Mash DC, etal., J Neurosci. 2003 Apr 1;23(7):2564-71.
41. beta-amyloid peptides enhance alpha-synuclein accumulation and neuronal deficits in a transgenic mouse model linking Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Masliah E, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001 Oct 9;98(21):12245-50. Epub 2001 Sep 25.
42. Dopaminergic loss and inclusion body formation in alpha-synuclein mice: implications for neurodegenerative disorders. Masliah E, etal., Science 2000 Feb 18;287(5456):1265-9.
43. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
44. Direct quantification of CSF alpha-synuclein by ELISA and first cross-sectional study in patients with neurodegeneration. Mollenhauer B, etal., Exp Neurol. 2008 Oct;213(2):315-25. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2008.06.004. Epub 2008 Jun 14.
45. Alpha-synuclein protects cerebellar granule neurons against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced death. Monti B, etal., J Neurochem. 2007 Oct;103(2):518-30. Epub 2007 Jul 17.
46. Alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity in normal and neoplastic Schwann cells. Mori F, etal., Acta Neuropathol. 2002 Feb;103(2):145-51. Epub 2001 Oct 18.
47. Pick's disease: alpha- and beta-synuclein-immunoreactive Pick bodies in the dentate gyrus. Mori F, etal., Acta Neuropathol. 2002 Nov;104(5):455-61. Epub 2002 Jul 2.
48. Alpha- and gamma-synuclein proteins are present in cerebrospinal fluid and are increased in aged subjects with neurodegenerative and vascular changes. Mukaetova-Ladinska EB, etal., Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2008;26(1):32-42. Epub 2008 Jun 25.
49. Synucleins are developmentally expressed, and alpha-synuclein regulates the size of the presynaptic vesicular pool in primary hippocampal neurons. Murphy DD, etal., J Neurosci 2000 May 1;20(9):3214-20.
50. Alpha-synuclein-positive structures induced in leupeptin-infused rats. Nakajima T, etal., Brain Res. 2005 Apr 8;1040(1-2):73-80.
51. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
52. Association of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Synuclein with diffuse lewy body disease. Nishioka K, etal., Arch Neurol. 2010 Aug;67(8):970-5.
53. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
54. Autoantibodies to alpha-synuclein in inherited Parkinson's disease. Papachroni KK, etal., J Neurochem. 2007 May;101(3):749-56.
55. A role for alpha-synuclein in the regulation of dopamine biosynthesis. Perez RG, etal., J Neurosci. 2002 Apr 15;22(8):3090-9.
56. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
57. Mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene identified in families with Parkinson's disease. Polymeropoulos MH, etal., Science. 1997 Jun 27;276(5321):2045-7.
58. Localization of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synuclein during neuronal development and alterations associated with the neuronal response to axonal trauma. Quilty MC, etal., Exp Neurol 2003 Jul;182(1):195-207.
59. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
60. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
61. Regulation of alpha-synuclein by bFGF in cultured ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Rideout HJ, etal., J Neurochem. 2003 Feb;84(4):803-13.
62. Developmental loss and resistance to MPTP toxicity of dopaminergic neurones in substantia nigra pars compacta of gamma-synuclein, alpha-synuclein and double alpha/gamma-synuclein null mutant mice. Robertson DC, etal., J Neurochem. 2004 Jun;89(5):1126-36.
63. Parkin localizes to the Lewy bodies of Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Schlossmacher MG, etal., Am J Pathol. 2002 May;160(5):1655-67.
64. Mutant LRRK2 toxicity in neurons depends on LRRK2 levels and synuclein but not kinase activity or inclusion bodies. Skibinski G, etal., J Neurosci. 2014 Jan 8;34(2):418-33. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2712-13.2014.
65. Synucleins in glaucoma: implication of gamma-synuclein in glaucomatous alterations in the optic nerve. Surgucheva I, etal., J Neurosci Res. 2002 Apr 1;68(1):97-106.
66. Neuronal accumulation of alpha- and beta-synucleins in the brain of a GM2 gangliosidosis mouse model. Suzuki K, etal., Neuroreport. 2003 Mar 24;14(4):551-4.
67. Alpha-synuclein inhibits aromatic amino acid decarboxylase activity in dopaminergic cells. Tehranian R, etal., J Neurochem. 2006 Nov;99(4):1188-96. Epub 2006 Sep 18.
68. Tentative Sequence Identification Numbers Tentative Sequence Data IDs. TIGR Gene Index, Rat Data
69. Glial cytoplasmic inclusions in white matter oligodendrocytes of multiple system atrophy brains contain insoluble alpha-synuclein. Tu PH, etal., Ann Neurol. 1998 Sep;44(3):415-22.
70. Age-dependent synuclein pathology following traumatic brain injury in mice. Uryu K, etal., Exp Neurol. 2003 Nov;184(1):214-24.
71. Immunolocalization of alpha-synuclein in the rat spinal cord by two novel monoclonal antibodies. Vivacqua G, etal., Neuroscience. 2009 Feb 18;158(4):1478-87. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.12.001. Epub 2008 Dec 7.
72. NACP/alpha-synuclein-positive filamentous inclusions in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes of Parkinson's disease brains. Wakabayashi K, etal., Acta Neuropathol. 2000 Jan;99(1):14-20.
73. Composition of isolated synaptic boutons reveals the amounts of vesicle trafficking proteins. Wilhelm BG, etal., Science. 2014 May 30;344(6187):1023-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1252884.
74. Selective alterations of gene expression in mice induced by MPTP. Xu Z, etal., Synapse. 2005 Jan;55(1):45-51.
75. Extensive nuclear localization of alpha-synuclein in normal rat brain neurons revealed by a novel monoclonal antibody. Yu S, etal., Neuroscience. 2007 Mar 16;145(2):539-55. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.12.028. Epub 2007 Feb 1.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:8248242   PMID:10319874   PMID:10407019   PMID:10818098   PMID:10964942   PMID:10978144   PMID:11312271   PMID:11850416   PMID:11918289   PMID:11956199   PMID:12037467   PMID:12239163  
PMID:12388586   PMID:12406186   PMID:12408865   PMID:12477932   PMID:12787066   PMID:12958153   PMID:14507911   PMID:14645218   PMID:15322100   PMID:15380020   PMID:15465911   PMID:15466467  
PMID:15489334   PMID:15502874   PMID:15510220   PMID:15579163   PMID:15641770   PMID:15691713   PMID:15863497   PMID:15938614   PMID:16020543   PMID:16030137   PMID:16077187   PMID:16174552  
PMID:16176937   PMID:16227205   PMID:16260631   PMID:16269331   PMID:16298531   PMID:16306404   PMID:16330551   PMID:16423428   PMID:16460685   PMID:16503161   PMID:16600504   PMID:16636270  
PMID:16687662   PMID:16734431   PMID:16764865   PMID:16882008   PMID:16959795   PMID:17029600   PMID:17035541   PMID:17077307   PMID:17085784   PMID:17156375   PMID:17222866   PMID:17250686  
PMID:17273802   PMID:17318638   PMID:17380380   PMID:17408955   PMID:17475220   PMID:17592526   PMID:17610578   PMID:17645694   PMID:17676786   PMID:17689254   PMID:17714497   PMID:17868672  
PMID:17873367   PMID:18065497   PMID:18195004   PMID:18331289   PMID:18333965   PMID:18346205   PMID:18427558   PMID:18449945   PMID:18550842   PMID:18566453   PMID:18614564   PMID:18704197  
PMID:18761401   PMID:18790059   PMID:18804502   PMID:18817762   PMID:18975920   PMID:18980610   PMID:19046408   PMID:19112474   PMID:19146388   PMID:19157893   PMID:19203998   PMID:19224863  
PMID:19493164   PMID:19549071   PMID:19664623   PMID:19692427   PMID:19745811   PMID:19813144   PMID:19875982   PMID:20026244   PMID:20039155   PMID:20071342   PMID:20081243   PMID:20098715  
PMID:20203178   PMID:20345648   PMID:20405200   PMID:20457918   PMID:20511551   PMID:20617407   PMID:20664530   PMID:20697033   PMID:20798282   PMID:20959456   PMID:20974939   PMID:21050448  
PMID:21127069   PMID:21252228   PMID:21272005   PMID:21319811   PMID:21320589   PMID:21325059   PMID:21330369   PMID:21338582   PMID:21443877   PMID:21832049   PMID:21841800   PMID:22065755  
PMID:22119730   PMID:22251432   PMID:22315227   PMID:22619171   PMID:22639889   PMID:22737239   PMID:22833673   PMID:22854022   PMID:22871113   PMID:23077527   PMID:23128054   PMID:23278133  
PMID:23291291   PMID:23431141   PMID:23441091   PMID:23454680   PMID:23507046   PMID:23567316   PMID:23567651   PMID:23610405   PMID:23629650   PMID:23809578   PMID:23927048   PMID:23954626  
PMID:23983262   PMID:24076025   PMID:24178442   PMID:24248062   PMID:24374342   PMID:24664141   PMID:24698767   PMID:24722055   PMID:24747612   PMID:24833599   PMID:24895406   PMID:24927544  
PMID:24936070   PMID:24983211   PMID:25009269   PMID:25019582   PMID:25043722   PMID:25090657   PMID:25195598   PMID:25246573   PMID:25251017   PMID:25446002   PMID:25484190   PMID:25495902  
PMID:25533483   PMID:25561023   PMID:25643172   PMID:25669123   PMID:25732184   PMID:25756858   PMID:25896939   PMID:26075822   PMID:26076669   PMID:26078453   PMID:26158517   PMID:26192120  
PMID:26203154   PMID:26212128   PMID:26378614   PMID:26434717   PMID:26822976   PMID:26907683   PMID:26989132   PMID:27018801   PMID:27133445   PMID:27280685   PMID:27334109   PMID:27477055  
PMID:27581683   PMID:27597756   PMID:27640673   PMID:27708338   PMID:28052246   PMID:28193887   PMID:28288128   PMID:28900007   PMID:28933786   PMID:28984618   PMID:29180624   PMID:29198021  
PMID:29229832   PMID:29337114   PMID:29459792   PMID:29702063   PMID:29749529   PMID:29996045   PMID:30081046   PMID:30132200   PMID:30404828   PMID:30901378   PMID:31034892   PMID:31270237  
PMID:31686426   PMID:31695184   PMID:32059750   PMID:32113849   PMID:32385113   PMID:32878882   PMID:32948930   PMID:33428933   PMID:33774037   PMID:34875351   PMID:34904280   PMID:35086904  
PMID:35405174   PMID:36162505   PMID:36414406   PMID:36497031   PMID:37179386   PMID:37487948   PMID:37542299  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.2489,696,420 - 89,797,240 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl489,696,420 - 89,796,262 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx494,908,873 - 95,008,815 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0490,684,174 - 90,784,124 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0489,081,018 - 89,195,868 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0490,782,412 - 90,883,236 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl490,782,374 - 90,882,285 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.04155,592,411 - 155,690,724 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4489,613,731 - 89,722,807 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1489,858,155 - 89,967,232 (-)NCBI
Celera484,478,545 - 84,578,894 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map4q24NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38489,724,099 - 89,838,304 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl489,700,345 - 89,838,315 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37490,645,250 - 90,759,455 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36490,865,728 - 90,977,156 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 34491,004,212 - 91,114,009NCBI
Celera487,942,196 - 88,056,576 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map4q22.1NCBI
HuRef486,396,384 - 86,510,518 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1490,621,712 - 90,735,909 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.0493,055,378 - 93,169,553 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm39660,708,557 - 60,806,839 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl660,708,559 - 60,806,839 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm38660,731,573 - 60,829,855 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl660,731,575 - 60,829,855 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv37660,681,567 - 60,779,849 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv36660,661,161 - 60,759,433 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera662,883,898 - 62,982,187 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map6B3NCBI
cM Map629.15NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_004955405853,946 - 965,403 (-)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_004955405854,011 - 962,741 (-)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1487,997,402 - 88,109,710 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v0482,018,585 - 82,132,938 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.1492,737,608 - 92,851,720 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl492,737,608 - 92,850,600 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.13212,915,871 - 13,079,338 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl3212,916,215 - 13,060,383 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha3228,876,711 - 29,040,565 (+)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.03212,968,680 - 13,133,813 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl3212,966,388 - 13,113,867 (-)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.13213,053,952 - 13,218,226 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.03212,876,233 - 13,041,037 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.03226,872,693 - 27,039,258 (+)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440530128,380,373 - 28,478,711 (+)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049366852,076,651 - 2,175,338 (-)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_0049366852,077,017 - 2,175,298 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl8129,248,819 - 129,271,128 (+)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.18129,247,724 - 129,388,307 (+)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.28138,635,406 - 138,774,240 (+)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.1738,083,154 - 38,194,068 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl738,081,509 - 38,191,479 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_02366603716,869,729 - 16,980,841 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_00462475717,392,998 - 17,528,320 (-)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_00462475717,393,046 - 17,528,783 (-)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Snca
978 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:164
Count of miRNA genes:128
Interacting mature miRNAs:144
Transcripts:ENSRNOT00000039247, ENSRNOT00000042485
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
2303168Bp330Blood pressure QTL 3304.250.017arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)45214602146446691Rat
631261Tcas3Tongue tumor susceptibility QTL 36.88tongue integrity trait (VT:0010553)number of squamous cell tumors of the tongue with diameter greater than 3 mm (CMO:0001950)41081417091360527Rat
2316958Gluco58Glucose level QTL 5810blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)411320076180699135Rat
12798520Anxrr55Anxiety related response QTL 554.450.01locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)number of rearing movements with lid-pushing in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0002715)432583980114627242Rat
8655961Kidm43Kidney mass QTL 4318kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight (CMO:0000085)436303261103194984Rat
1358352Srcrt3Stress Responsive Cort QTL 32.29blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)438465774146803430Rat
1300139Hrtrt6Heart rate QTL 62.85heart pumping trait (VT:2000009)heart rate (CMO:0000002)439524264116179656Rat
1576305Emca6Estrogen-induced mammary cancer QTL 65.8mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)mammary tumor number (CMO:0000343)444463720155883716Rat
1354612Foco1Food consumption QTL 18.87eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)food intake rate (CMO:0000427)444463908148090542Rat
1354660Salc1Saline consumption QTL 111.26drinking behavior trait (VT:0001422)saline drink intake rate (CMO:0001627)444463908148090542Rat
2312567Glom19Glomerulus QTL 191.90.006kidney glomerulus morphology trait (VT:0005325)index of glomerular damage (CMO:0001135)445456990146803430Rat
1298082Stresp4Stress response QTL 4blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)450119848146803430Rat
70200Alc18Alcohol consumption QTL 189.2drinking behavior trait (VT:0001422)ethanol intake volume to total fluid intake volume ratio (CMO:0001591)456647873149491524Rat
1641833Alc21Alcohol consumption QTL 218.60.0001drinking behavior trait (VT:0001422)ethanol drink intake rate (CMO:0001407)456698790126192555Rat
631546Bp86Blood pressure QTL 863.2arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)45711443291360801Rat
1358363Sradr3Stress Responsive Adrenal Weight QTL 36.19adrenal gland mass (VT:0010420)both adrenal glands wet weight (CMO:0000164)457486946102486946Rat
1558651Swd3Spike wave discharge measurement QTL 34.620.000024brain electrophysiology trait (VT:0010557)brain spike-and-wave discharge frequency (CMO:0001742)45843213392991462Rat
738009Sach4Saccharine consumption QTL 44.90.000016consumption behavior trait (VT:0002069)saccharin intake volume to total fluid intake volume ratio (CMO:0001601)459948935154902892Rat
738016Alc16Alcohol consumption QTL 163.60.00015consumption behavior trait (VT:0002069)ethanol drink intake rate to body weight ratio (CMO:0001616)459948935154902892Rat
738031Alc14Alcohol consumption QTL 147.60.00003consumption behavior trait (VT:0002069)ethanol drink intake rate to body weight ratio (CMO:0001616)459948935154902892Rat
1578657Bss12Bone structure and strength QTL 128.9femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)femoral neck cross-sectional area (CMO:0001697)460220938105220938Rat
1578658Bss13Bone structure and strength QTL 138femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femoral neck polar moment of inertia (CMO:0001670)460220938105220938Rat
2300179Bmd50Bone mineral density QTL 505.90.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)460928534105928534Rat
1549843Bw53Body weight QTL 530.0001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)461697658103194791Rat
1549839Bw52Body weight QTL 520.0001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)461697658115089733Rat
61418Pia5Pristane induced arthritis QTL 54.5joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)462277855128289560Rat
6478743Anxrr40Anxiety related response QTL 400.83076defecation behavior trait (VT:0010462)defecation rate (CMO:0000998)462753847107753847Rat
6478772Anxrr49Anxiety related response QTL 490.15488defecation behavior trait (VT:0010462)defecation rate (CMO:0000998)462753847107753847Rat
6478684Anxrr30Anxiety related response QTL 300.00087defecation behavior trait (VT:0010462)defecation rate (CMO:0000998)462753847107753847Rat
631651Bp124Blood pressure QTL 1243arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)462879517107879517Rat
70192BpQTLcluster5Blood pressure QTL cluster 54.183arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)462933508114921294Rat
70192BpQTLcluster5Blood pressure QTL cluster 54.183arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)462933508114921294Rat
70192BpQTLcluster5Blood pressure QTL cluster 54.183arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)462933508114921294Rat
70192BpQTLcluster5Blood pressure QTL cluster 54.183arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)percent change in mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0002035)462933508114921294Rat
70192BpQTLcluster5Blood pressure QTL cluster 54.183arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)percent change in systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000747)462933508114921294Rat
70192BpQTLcluster5Blood pressure QTL cluster 54.183arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)absolute change in pulse pressure (CMO:0001882)462933508114921294Rat
70192BpQTLcluster5Blood pressure QTL cluster 54.183arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)absolute change in mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000533)462933508114921294Rat
631674Iddm14Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 14blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)plasma glucose level (CMO:0000042)464528739157573521Rat
2312569Pur19Proteinuria QTL 193.40.001urine total protein amount (VT:0000032)urine total protein excretion rate (CMO:0000756)46588210796130297Rat
61330Eau1Experimental allergic uveoretinitis QTL 10.0003uvea integrity trait (VT:0010551)experimental autoimmune uveitis score (CMO:0001504)470362013132642728Rat
634344Hcar7Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 77.8liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver tumorous lesion area to total liver area ratio (CMO:0001075)470808386115808386Rat
634344Hcar7Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 77.8liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver tumorous lesion number (CMO:0001068)470808386115808386Rat
631646Stl4Serum triglyceride level QTL 46.50.0001blood triglyceride amount (VT:0002644)plasma triglyceride level (CMO:0000548)473169846132642728Rat
724522Bp146Blood pressure QTL 1462.20.0021arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)473630210118630210Rat
2302051Pia28Pristane induced arthritis QTL 285.30.001blood autoantibody amount (VT:0003725)serum immunoglobulin G-type rheumatoid factor level relative to an arbitrary reference serum (CMO:0002112)473630210118630210Rat
70167Bw22Body weight QTL 223.1body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)476647384117676292Rat
1357342Bw40Body weight QTL 400.001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)476647384117676292Rat
631662Hcar2Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 23.10.0003liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)volume of individual liver tumorous lesion (CMO:0001078)478878504123878504Rat
631556Bp135Blood pressure QTL 1350.017arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)478881294117676292Rat
61364Iddm2Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 2blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)478885890102684881Rat
738015Pia9Pristane induced arthritis QTL 94.50.048joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)480694870125694870Rat
2306899Bp338Blood pressure QTL 3380.071arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)481006124120102625Rat
1641919Alc22Alcohol consumption QTL 220.0005drinking behavior trait (VT:0001422)ethanol drink intake rate (CMO:0001407)481192555126192555Rat
70177Xhs1X-ray hypersensitivity QTL 125.1intestine integrity trait (VT:0010554)post-insult time to onset of moribundity (CMO:0001896)482798864152731274Rat
2306794Ean2Experimental allergic neuritis QTL 26.4nervous system integrity trait (VT:0010566)IFNG-secreting splenocyte count (CMO:0002122)48342841995853334Rat
1576316Ept5Estrogen-induced pituitary tumorigenesis QTL 53.8pituitary gland mass (VT:0010496)pituitary gland wet weight (CMO:0000853)483428419177635233Rat
634334Xhs3X-ray hypersensitivity QTL 310intestine integrity trait (VT:0010554)post-insult time to onset of moribundity (CMO:0001896)484728680129854654Rat
1582232Gluco25Glucose level QTL 253.60.0023blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)485253748148090731Rat
12798523Anxrr56Anxiety related response QTL 562.830.05locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of experiment time spent in a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000958)485253748150276390Rat
1358202Gluco11Glucose level QTL 112.40.02adipocyte glucose uptake trait (VT:0004185)absolute change in adipocyte glucose uptake (CMO:0000873)485379421167139601Rat
61476Aia3Adjuvant induced arthritis QTL 33.9joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)486730991131730991Rat
1578662Bss15Bone structure and strength QTL 1519.6femur width (VT:1000666)femoral neck width (CMO:0001695)487327165132327165Rat
1578670Bss14Bone structure and strength QTL 1416.4femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)bone trabecular cross-sectional area (CMO:0002311)487327165132327165Rat
2317587Eae26Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 26nervous system integrity trait (VT:0010566)experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis severity score (CMO:0001419)488656681103194984Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2489,778,541 - 89,778,671 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0490,864,709 - 90,864,838NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.04155,672,871 - 155,673,000UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4489,705,087 - 89,705,216UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera484,561,162 - 84,561,291UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map4q24UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2489,696,985 - 89,697,976 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0490,782,978 - 90,783,975NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.04155,592,977 - 155,593,974UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4489,614,297 - 89,615,290UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera484,479,111 - 84,480,101UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map4q24UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2489,696,738 - 89,697,005 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0490,782,731 - 90,782,997NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.04155,592,730 - 155,592,996UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4489,614,050 - 89,614,316UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera484,478,864 - 84,479,130UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map4q24UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2489,696,461 - 89,696,566 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0490,782,454 - 90,782,558NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.04155,592,453 - 155,592,557UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4489,613,773 - 89,613,877UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera484,478,587 - 84,478,691UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map4q24UniSTS

Related Rat Strains
The following Strains have been annotated to Snca


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 16 18 18 11 18 66 2 7 2
Low 3 27 31 15 8 15 8 9 8 32 30 9 8
Below cutoff 8 8 8 2 1 4


Nucleotide Sequences
RefSeq Transcripts NM_019169 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  XM_006236591 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  XM_017592500 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  XM_039107198 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
GenBank Nucleotide AF007758 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  AY550005 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  AY550006 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  BC087682 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  CH474042 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  DQ163910 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  DQ163911 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FQ212580 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FQ227096 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  JACYVU010000142 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  MG016712 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  S73007 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  S73008 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles

RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000039247   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000030609
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl489,696,420 - 89,796,262 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl490,782,374 - 90,882,285 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000110072   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000081453
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl489,717,075 - 89,796,262 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000110163   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000092621
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl489,696,983 - 89,794,981 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000114554   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000078273
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl489,777,776 - 89,796,262 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_019169   ⟹   NP_062042
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2489,696,420 - 89,796,262 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.0490,782,412 - 90,882,258 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.04155,592,411 - 155,690,724 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.4489,613,731 - 89,722,807 (-)RGD
Celera484,478,545 - 84,578,894 (-)RGD
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_006236591   ⟹   XP_006236653
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2489,717,071 - 89,796,554 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.0490,803,196 - 90,882,613 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.04155,592,411 - 155,690,724 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_017592500   ⟹   XP_017447989
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2489,717,071 - 89,797,240 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.0490,803,196 - 90,883,236 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039107198   ⟹   XP_038963126
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2489,736,620 - 89,796,524 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_062042   ⟸   NM_019169
- UniProtKB: P37378 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   Q53YM9 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P37377 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6KF04 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_006236653   ⟸   XM_006236591
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: A6KF07 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_017447989   ⟸   XM_017592500
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: A6KF07 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000030609   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000039247
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038963126   ⟸   XM_039107198
- Peptide Label: isoform X2
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000078273   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000114554
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000081453   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000110072
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000092621   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000110163

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P37377-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P37377 1-140 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13693091
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R3616
Type:multiple initiation site
Description:synuclein alpha
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.0490,882,250 - 90,882,310EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:3729 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-44640 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000008656 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000039247 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00000110072 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00000110163.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000114554.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Gene3D-CATH Helix hairpin bin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro Synuclein UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Synuclein_alpha UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:29219 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
PANTHER PTHR13820 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTHR13820:SF5 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam Synuclein UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Snca PhenoGen
  SYNUCLEIN UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000008656 RatGTEx
Superfamily-SCOP Synuclein UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
TIGR TC217930
  SYUA_RAT UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
UniProt Secondary P37378 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  Q53YM9 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2015-11-20 Snca  synuclein alpha  Snca  synuclein, alpha (non A4 component of amyloid precursor)  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2008-09-18 Snca  synuclein, alpha (non A4 component of amyloid precursor)  Snca  synuclein, alpha  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2002-06-10 Snca  synuclein, alpha      Name updated 70584 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_disease may play a role in several neurodegenerative disorders, including dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, and Parkinson's disease 631849
gene_disease mutations of the human homolog are detected in some families with an autosomal dominant form of Parkinson's Disease 730239
gene_expression expressed in central nervous system, and enriched in presynaptic nerve terminals 631849
gene_expression mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus and caudate putamen were higher in inbred alcohol preferring (P) than alcohol non-preferring (NP) rats 631849
gene_expression expression in neurons of substantia nigra is upregulated during postnatal development 730046
gene_process reduces dopamine synthesis by inhibition of the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase 631849
gene_protein 140 amino acids 70015
gene_protein 140 amino acids 631849
gene_regulation a nucleotide exchange in the 3' UTR reduced expression of the luciferase reporter gene in SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells 631849