Hmgb1 (high mobility group box 1) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Hmgb1 (high mobility group box 1) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Hmgb1 (Ensembl: AABR07035218.1)
Name: high mobility group box 1
RGD ID: 2802
Description: Enables several functions, including DNA binding activity; heparin binding activity; and signaling receptor binding activity. Involved in several processes, including positive regulation of cytokine production; regulation of DNA metabolic process; and response to bacterium. Acts upstream of or within several processes, including DNA geometric change; induction of positive chemotaxis; and positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation. Located in cytosol; extracellular space; and membrane raft. Used to study artery disease (multiple); brain infarction; congestive heart failure; high grade glioma; and sciatic neuropathy. Biomarker of several diseases, including atherosclerosis; colon adenocarcinoma; hydrocephalus; middle cerebral artery infarction; and obstructive jaundice. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Orthologous to human HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1); PARTICIPATES IN pro-inflammatory cytokine mediated pathway; cisplatin drug pathway; mismatch repair pathway; INTERACTS WITH (+)-pilocarpine; 1,2-dimethylhydrazine; 17alpha-ethynylestradiol.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: Ac2-008; Ac2-008-like; amphoterin; heparin-binding protein p30; high mobility group 1; high mobility group protein 1; high mobility group protein B1; HMG-1; Hmg1; LOC100361707; MGC93598; MGC93599; NOT NULL
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Orthologs
More Info more info ...
Related Pseudogenes: Hmgb1-ps2   Hmgb1-ps3   Hmgb1-ps33   Hmgb1-ps34   Hmgb1-ps8  
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr81211,009,236 - 11,015,941 (+)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.2125,972,950 - 5,979,658 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl125,901,586 - 5,978,565 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1634,028,446 - 34,030,648 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx126,644,838 - 6,651,551 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0127,267,954 - 7,274,667 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0126,295,972 - 6,302,685 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0127,082,529 - 7,090,246 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1637,500,017 - 37,502,237 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0129,177,615 - 9,178,878 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.11637,462,230 - 37,464,451 (+)NCBI
Celera127,732,744 - 7,737,689 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map12p11NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
Acute Experimental Pancreatitis  (IMP)
Acute Lung Injury  (IEP)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure  (IMP)
Alzheimer's disease  (ISO)
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  (ISO)
atherosclerosis  (IEP)
Brachyphalangy, Polydactyly, and Tibial Aplasia/Hypoplasia  (ISO)
brain infarction  (IMP)
Brain Injuries  (IMP)
Burns  (IEP)
Cardiomegaly  (ISO)
cerebral infarction  (ISO)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury  (IEP,ISO)
Chronic Allograft Dysfunction  (IEP)
colon adenocarcinoma  (IEP)
congestive heart failure  (IMP,ISO)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions  (ISO)
Endotoxemia  (IEP)
esophagus squamous cell carcinoma  (ISO)
essential hypertension  (ISO)
Experimental Arthritis  (IEP)
Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis  (IEP)
Experimental Colitis  (IEP)
Experimental Diabetes Mellitus  (IEP)
extrahepatic cholestasis  (ISO)
Fever  (ISO)
genetic disease  (ISO)
Heat Stroke  (IEP)
high grade glioma  (IMP)
hydrocephalus  (IEP)
Hyperalgesia  (IEP,IMP,ISO)
hypertension  (ISO)
Inflammation  (ISO)
Intestinal Reperfusion Injury  (IEP)
Kawasaki disease  (ISO)
Knee Osteoarthritis  (ISO)
leukostasis  (ISO)
Liver Reperfusion Injury  (IEP,IMP)
Lung Reperfusion Injury  (IEP)
Lymphatic Metastasis  (IEP)
middle cerebral artery infarction  (IEP)
Multiple Organ Failure  (ISO)
myocardial infarction  (IDA,ISO)
Myocardial Ischemia  (ISO)
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury  (IDA,IEP,ISO)
Necrosis  (ISO)
Neuralgia  (ISO)
obstructive jaundice  (IEP)
osteoarthritis  (ISO)
Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy  (ISO)
Painful Neuropathy  (ISO)
periodontitis  (IEP)
Premature Aging  (ISO)
pulmonary fibrosis  (ISO)
pulmonary hypertension  (IMP)
Reperfusion Injury  (IMP)
Retina Reperfusion Injury  (IDA)
sciatic neuropathy  (IMP)
Sepsis  (IMP,ISO)
Spinal Cord Injuries  (IEP)
systemic scleroderma  (ISO)
Systemic Vasculitis  (ISO)
transient cerebral ischemia  (ISO)
Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury  (IMP)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(+)-pilocarpine  (EXP)
(-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate  (ISO)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (EXP,ISO)
1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene  (ISO)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (ISO)
17beta-hydroxy-17-methylestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (ISO)
2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid  (EXP)
2,6-dinitrotoluene  (EXP)
2-tert-butylhydroquinone  (ISO)
3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde  (EXP,ISO)
3-phenylprop-2-enal  (ISO)
3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione  (EXP)
4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane  (ISO)
4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene  (EXP)
5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine  (ISO)
5-azacytidine  (ISO)
5-fluorouracil  (ISO)
6-chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxamide  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
acetylsalicylic acid  (ISO)
acrolein  (ISO)
acteoside  (ISO)
afimoxifene  (ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
agomelatine  (EXP)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (ISO)
alendronic acid  (EXP)
alpha-mangostin  (ISO)
alpha-Solamarine  (ISO)
amitrole  (EXP)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
ampicillin  (ISO)
anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one  (ISO)
antirheumatic drug  (ISO)
apigenin  (ISO)
apocynin  (ISO)
aristolochic acid A  (ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
arsenous acid  (ISO)
astaxanthin  (EXP,ISO)
azathioprine  (ISO)
benzene  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide I  (ISO)
benzo[b]fluoranthene  (ISO)
berberine  (ISO)
bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide  (EXP)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether  (EXP)
Bisphenol B  (ISO)
bleomycin A2  (EXP,ISO)
butyric acid  (ISO)
C60 fullerene  (ISO)
cadmium atom  (EXP,ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (EXP,ISO)
caffeine  (ISO)
calciol  (EXP)
calcitriol  (EXP,ISO)
calycosin  (ISO)
carbamazepine  (ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
CGP 52608  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (EXP,ISO)
choline  (ISO)
chromium(6+)  (ISO)
chrysene  (ISO)
cisplatin  (ISO)
clotrimazole  (EXP)
cobalt dichloride  (ISO)
copper atom  (ISO)
copper(0)  (ISO)
copper(II) sulfate  (ISO)
corilagin  (EXP)
corticosterone  (ISO)
Corynoxine B  (ISO)
coumestrol  (ISO)
crocidolite asbestos  (ISO)
curcumin  (EXP)
cyclosporin A  (ISO)
cytarabine  (ISO)
D-glucose  (ISO)
dapagliflozin  (EXP)
decabromodiphenyl ether  (EXP)
dexamethasone  (EXP,ISO)
dextran sulfate  (ISO)
diarsenic trioxide  (ISO)
dibenziodolium  (ISO)
dibenzo[a,l]pyrene  (ISO)
dibutyl phthalate  (EXP)
diclofenac  (EXP,ISO)
dicloxacillin  (ISO)
dicrotophos  (ISO)
dienogest  (ISO)
dihydroartemisinin  (ISO)
Dihydrotanshinone I  (ISO)
dimethylarsinous acid  (ISO)
dioscin  (EXP)
dioxygen  (EXP,ISO)
diprotium oxide  (ISO)
diquat  (EXP)
doxorubicin  (EXP,ISO)
elemental selenium  (ISO)
enalapril  (EXP,ISO)
enalaprilat dihydrate  (EXP)
Enterolactone  (ISO)
enzyme inhibitor  (ISO)
Erionite  (ISO)
ethanol  (EXP,ISO)
ethyl methanesulfonate  (ISO)
Ethyl pyruvate  (ISO)
etoposide  (ISO)
febuxostat  (EXP)
flucloxacillin  (ISO)
flutamide  (ISO)
folic acid  (ISO)
fulvestrant  (ISO)
furosemide  (EXP)
gadolinium trichloride  (EXP)
galangin  (EXP)
galanthamine  (EXP)
gallic acid  (ISO)
Gastrodin  (EXP)
gefitinib  (ISO)
gentamycin  (EXP)
glucose  (ISO)
glycerol 2-phosphate  (ISO)
glycyrrhizinic acid  (EXP,ISO)
glyphosate  (ISO)
graphene oxide  (ISO)
halothane  (ISO)
hexadecanoic acid  (ISO)
Hexadimethrine bromide  (EXP)
hydrogen peroxide  (EXP,ISO)
ibuprofen  (ISO)
indometacin  (EXP,ISO)
indoprofen  (ISO)
iodixanol  (EXP)
iohexol  (EXP,ISO)
ionomycin  (ISO)
isoflurane  (ISO)
isoquinoline-1,5-diol  (ISO)
ivermectin  (ISO)
kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucosyl-(1->2)-beta-D-glucoside  (ISO)
kainic acid  (EXP)
L-ascorbic acid  (ISO)
L-methionine  (ISO)
lead diacetate  (EXP)
licoricidin  (ISO)
lidocaine  (ISO)
lignan  (ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (EXP,ISO)
lithium chloride  (EXP)
LY294002  (ISO)
lycopene  (ISO)
manganese(II) chloride  (ISO)
melatonin  (EXP,ISO)
meloxicam  (ISO)
Mesaconitine  (EXP)
mesalamine  (EXP)
metformin  (ISO)
methimazole  (EXP)
methyl methanesulfonate  (ISO)
methylparaben  (ISO)
methylphenidate  (EXP)
microcystin-LR  (ISO)
mirtazapine  (EXP)
monocrotaline  (EXP,ISO)
N(gamma)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester  (ISO)
N-acetyl-L-cysteine  (ISO)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (EXP)
N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine  (EXP,ISO)
naphthalene  (ISO)
nitrososulfamethoxazole  (ISO)
Nonylphenol  (EXP)
o-anisidine  (ISO)
olaparib  (EXP)
oleanolic acid  (ISO)
oroxylin A  (EXP)
oxaliplatin  (EXP)
ozone  (EXP)
paclitaxel  (EXP,ISO)
paracetamol  (ISO)
paraquat  (EXP)
parathion  (ISO)
pentachlorophenol  (ISO)
perampanel  (EXP)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (EXP)
perfluorooctanoic acid  (ISO)
permethrin  (ISO)
phenytoin  (ISO)
phorbol 13-acetate 12-myristate  (ISO)
poly(I:C)  (ISO)
polymyxin B2  (ISO)
potassium chromate  (ISO)
potassium nitrate  (ISO)
progesterone  (ISO)
propiconazole  (ISO)
pterostilbene  (ISO)
Pyridostigmine bromide  (ISO)
pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate  (ISO)
quercetin  (ISO)
raloxifene  (EXP,ISO)
resveratrol  (ISO)
rosmarinic acid  (EXP)
S-butyl-DL-homocysteine (S,R)-sulfoximine  (EXP,ISO)
saxagliptin  (EXP)
SB 203580  (ISO)
selenium atom  (ISO)
serpentine asbestos  (ISO)
Sesamol  (ISO)
sevoflurane  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (ISO)
simvastatin  (EXP,ISO)
sodium arsenate  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (EXP,ISO)
sorafenib  (ISO)
streptozocin  (ISO)
sulfadimethoxine  (EXP)
sulfasalazine  (EXP)
sulforaphane  (ISO)
sunitinib  (ISO)
taurine  (ISO)
tert-butyl hydroperoxide  (ISO)
testosterone  (ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (EXP,ISO)
tetraphene  (ISO)
thiacloprid  (EXP)
thimerosal  (ISO)
thioacetamide  (EXP,ISO)
thiram  (ISO)
toluene 2,4-diisocyanate  (ISO)
topotecan  (EXP,ISO)
triptonide  (ISO)
troglitazone  (ISO)
uranium atom  (ISO)
valproic acid  (ISO)
vincaleukoblastine  (ISO)
vinclozolin  (EXP)
vincristine  (EXP,ISO)
vitamin E  (ISO)
water  (ISO)
wortmannin  (ISO)
zinc protoporphyrin  (EXP,ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
actin cytoskeleton organization  (IDA)
activation of innate immune response  (ISO)
apoptotic cell clearance  (ISO,ISS)
autophagy  (IEA)
base-excision repair  (ISO)
cell morphogenesis  (IMP)
cellular response to interleukin-1  (IEP)
cellular response to interleukin-7  (ISO)
cellular response to lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
chemotaxis  (IDA,IEA)
chromatin organization  (ISO)
circadian rhythm  (IEP)
DNA geometric change  (IDA,ISS)
DNA recombination  (IEA)
DNA repair  (IEA)
double-strand break repair via nonhomologous end joining  (ISO)
endothelial cell chemotaxis  (ISO)
endothelial cell proliferation  (ISO)
eye development  (ISO)
glycogen catabolic process  (ISO)
heterochromatin formation  (ISO)
induction of positive chemotaxis  (IDA)
inflammatory response  (ISO)
inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus  (ISO)
innate immune response  (IEA)
lung development  (ISO)
macrophage activation involved in immune response  (ISO)
male-specific defense response to bacterium  (IDA)
MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway  (ISO)
myeloid cell differentiation  (ISO)
myeloid dendritic cell activation  (ISO)
myeloid progenitor cell differentiation  (ISO)
myoblast proliferation  (IMP)
negative regulation of apoptotic cell clearance  (ISO)
negative regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration  (ISO)
negative regulation of CD4-positive, alpha-beta T cell differentiation  (ISO)
negative regulation of DNA replication  (IDA)
negative regulation of RNA polymerase II transcription preinitiation complex assembly  (ISO)
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  (ISO)
negative regulation of type II interferon production  (ISO)
nervous system development  (IMP)
neuron apoptotic process  (IMP)
neuron projection development  (IGI)
neutrophil clearance  (ISO,ISS)
nucleosome assembly  (ISO)
plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation  (ISO)
positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation  (ISO)
positive regulation of apoptotic process  (IMP,ISO)
positive regulation of autophagy  (IMP,ISO)
positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration  (ISO)
positive regulation of cell migration  (IDA)
positive regulation of cell population proliferation  (IDA)
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production  (ISO)
positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration  (ISO)
positive regulation of dendritic cell differentiation  (ISO)
positive regulation of DNA ligation  (IDA)
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade  (ISO)
positive regulation of glycogen catabolic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of innate immune response  (ISO)
positive regulation of interferon-alpha production  (ISO)
positive regulation of interferon-beta production  (ISO)
positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta production  (ISO)
positive regulation of interleukin-1 production  (IDA,ISO)
positive regulation of interleukin-10 production  (ISO)
positive regulation of interleukin-12 production  (ISO)
positive regulation of interleukin-6 production  (IDA,IMP,ISO)
positive regulation of interleukin-8 production  (IDA,ISO)
positive regulation of JNK cascade  (ISO)
positive regulation of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha production  (IDA)
positive regulation of MAPK cascade  (ISO)
positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation  (IDA)
positive regulation of mismatch repair  (ISO)
positive regulation of mitotic cell cycle  (IDA)
positive regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production  (ISO)
positive regulation of monocyte chemotaxis  (ISO)
positive regulation of myeloid cell apoptotic process  (IDA)
positive regulation of myeloid cell differentiation  (ISO)
positive regulation of myeloid progenitor cell differentiation  (ISO)
positive regulation of myoblast differentiation  (IMP)
positive regulation of neuron projection development  (IMP)
positive regulation of non-canonical NF-kappaB signal transduction  (ISO)
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation  (ISO)
positive regulation of smooth muscle cell migration  (IDA)
positive regulation of sprouting angiogenesis  (ISO)
positive regulation of toll-like receptor 2 signaling pathway  (ISO)
positive regulation of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway  (ISO)
positive regulation of toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway  (ISS)
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  (ISO)
positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production  (IDA,IMP,ISO)
positive regulation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation  (ISO)
positive regulation of wound healing  (ISO)
protein-containing complex assembly  (IDA)
regulation of nucleotide-excision repair  (ISO)
regulation of T cell mediated immune response to tumor cell  (ISO,ISS)
regulation of tolerance induction  (ISO)
regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  (IBA)
response to glucocorticoid  (ISO)
response to glucose  (IEP)
response to insulin  (IEP)
response to lipopolysaccharide  (IEP)
response to type II interferon  (IMP)
response to xenobiotic stimulus  (IEP)
signal transduction  (IEA)
T-helper 1 cell activation  (ISO)
T-helper 1 cell differentiation  (ISO)
toll-like receptor 2 signaling pathway  (ISO)
toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway  (ISO)
transcription by RNA polymerase II  (ISO)
V(D)J recombination  (ISO)

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. GR and HMGB1 interact only within chromatin and influence each other's residence time. Agresti A, etal., Mol Cell. 2005 Apr 1;18(1):109-21.
2. Protection by 20-5,14-HEDGE against surgically induced ischemia reperfusion lung injury in rats. Ali I, etal., Ann Thorac Surg. 2012 Jan;93(1):282-8. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.08.074. Epub 2011 Nov 23.
3. High mobility group 1 protein (HMG-1) stimulates proinflammatory cytokine synthesis in human monocytes. Andersson U, etal., J Exp Med. 2000 Aug 21;192(4):565-70.
4. Intraocular expression and release of high-mobility group box 1 protein in retinal detachment. Arimura N, etal., Lab Invest. 2009 Mar;89(3):278-89. Epub 2009 Jan 12.
5. Interactions of recombinant HMGB proteins with branched RNA substrates. Bell AJ Jr, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Dec 5;377(1):262-7. Epub 2008 Oct 7.
6. The DNA binding site of HMG1 protein is composed of two similar segments (HMG boxes), both of which have counterparts in other eukaryotic regulatory proteins. Bianchi ME, etal., EMBO J. 1992 Mar;11(3):1055-63.
7. Alzheimer's disease and retinal neurodegeneration share a consistent stress response of the neurovascular unit. Busch S, etal., Cell Physiol Biochem. 2012;30(6):1436-43. doi: 10.1159/000343331. Epub 2012 Nov 22.
8. Identity of nuclear high-mobility-group protein, HMG-1, and sulfoglucuronyl carbohydrate-binding protein, SBP-1, in brain. Chou DK, etal., J Neurochem 2001 Apr;77(1):120-31.
9. The high mobility group (HMG) boxes of the nuclear protein HMG1 induce chemotaxis and cytoskeleton reorganization in rat smooth muscle cells. Degryse B, etal., J Cell Biol. 2001 Mar 19;152(6):1197-206.
10. Mechanical ventilation enhances HMGB1 expression in an LPS-induced lung injury model. Ding N, etal., PLoS One. 2013 Sep 10;8(9):e74633. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074633. eCollection 2013.
11. HMGB1 interacts with many apparently unrelated proteins by recognizing short amino acid sequences. Dintilhac A and Bernues J, J Biol Chem 2002 Mar 1;277(9):7021-8.
12. Effects of HMGB1 on PMN apoptosis during LPS-induced acute lung injury. Feng Y, etal., Exp Mol Pathol. 2008 Dec;85(3):214-22. Epub 2008 Oct 8.
13. Cardiac nuclear high mobility group box 1 prevents the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Funayama A, etal., Cardiovasc Res. 2013 Sep 1;99(4):657-64. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvt128. Epub 2013 May 25.
14. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
15. High mobility group box 1 induces a negative inotropic effect on the left ventricle in an isolated rat heart model of septic shock: a pilot study. Hagiwara S, etal., Circ J. 2008 Jun;72(6):1012-7.
16. Effects of hyperglycemia and insulin therapy on high mobility group box 1 in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in a rat model. Hagiwara S, etal., Crit Care Med. 2008 Aug;36(8):2407-13.
17. High-dose antithrombin III prevents heat stroke by attenuating systemic inflammation in rats. Hagiwara S, etal., Inflamm Res. 2010 Jul;59(7):511-8. doi: 10.1007/s00011-009-0155-y. Epub 2010 Jan 3.
18. The Effect of Experimental Diabetes on High Mobility Group Box 1 Protein Expression in Endotoxin-Induced Acute Lung Injury. Hagiwara S, etal., J Surg Res. 2009 Aug 26.
19. Recombinant thrombomodulin prevents heatstroke by inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 protein in sera of rats. Hagiwara S, etal., Shock. 2010 Oct;34(4):402-6.
20. HDAC4/5-HMGB1 signalling mediated by NADPH oxidase activity contributes to cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion injury. He M, etal., J Cell Mol Med. 2013 Apr;17(4):531-42. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.12040. Epub 2013 Mar 11.
21. Intramyocardial delivery of HMGB1 by a novel thermosensitive hydrogel attenuates cardiac remodeling and improves cardiac function after myocardial infarction. He YY, etal., J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2013 Apr;61(4):283-90. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e31827ecd50.
22. Intrathecal Lentivirus-mediated Transfer of Interleukin-10 Attenuates Chronic Constriction Injury-induced Neuropathic Pain through Modulation of Spinal High-mobility Group Box 1 in Rats. He Z, etal., Pain Physician. 2013 Sep-Oct;16(5):E615-25.
23. Gabexate mesilate inhibits the expression of HMGB1 in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury. Hidaka S, etal., J Surg Res. 2011 Jan;165(1):142-50. Epub 2009 Jun 25.
24. Diurnal rhythm of the chromatin protein Hmgb1 in rat photoreceptors is under circadian regulation. Hoppe G, etal., J Comp Neurol. 2007 Mar 10;501(2):219-30.
25. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a cellular binding site for amphoterin. Mediation of neurite outgrowth and co-expression of rage and amphoterin in the developing nervous system. Hori O, etal., J Biol Chem 1995 Oct 27;270(43):25752-61.
26. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in Kawasaki disease. Hoshina T, etal., Scand J Rheumatol. 2008 Nov-Dec;37(6):445-9. doi: 10.1080/03009740802144143.
27. Preconditioning with high mobility group box 1 protein protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Hu X, etal., Int J Cardiol. 2010 Nov 5;145(1):111-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.05.057. Epub 2009 Jun 18.
28. [Influence of splenic high mobility group box-1 protein on immune function of regulatory T lymphocytes in scald rats]. Huang LF, etal., Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2010 Apr;26(2):104-8.
29. Glucocorticoid modulates high-mobility group box 1 expression and Toll-like receptor activation in obstructive jaundice. Huang YH, etal., J Surg Res. 2011 Sep;170(1):e47-55. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2011.05.033. Epub 2011 Jun 15.
30. Elevated serum autoantibody against high mobility group box 1 as a potent surrogate biomarker for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Hwang CS, etal., Neurobiol Dis. 2013 Oct;58:13-8. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2013.04.013. Epub 2013 Apr 29.
31. p35 deficiency accelerates HMGB-1-mediated neuronal death in the early stages of an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Jang A, etal., Curr Alzheimer Res. 2013 Oct;10(8):829-43.
32. Insulin attenuates the systemic inflammatory response in endotoxemic rats. Jeschke MG, etal., Endocrinology. 2004 Sep;145(9):4084-93. Epub 2004 Jun 10.
33. Borna disease virus phosphoprotein binds a neurite outgrowth factor, amphoterin/HMG-1. Kamitani W, etal., J Virol. 2001 Sep;75(18):8742-51.
34. Extracellular high mobility group box 1 plays a role in the effect of bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation for heart failure. Kaneko M, etal., PLoS One. 2013 Oct 18;8(10):e76908. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076908. eCollection 2013.
35. High-mobility group box 1 protein activates hepatic stellate cells in vitro. Kao YH, etal., Transplant Proc. 2008 Oct;40(8):2704-5.
36. High mobility group box 1 is upregulated after spinal cord injury and is associated with neuronal cell apoptosis. Kawabata H, etal., Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 May 15;35(11):1109-15.
37. Neuroprotection by biodegradable PAMAM ester (e-PAM-R)-mediated HMGB1 siRNA delivery in primary cortical cultures and in the postischemic brain. Kim ID, etal., J Control Release. 2009 Nov 26.
38. High mobility group box chromosomal protein 1: a novel proinflammatory mediator in synovitis. Kokkola R, etal., Arthritis Rheum 2002 Oct;46(10):2598-603.
39. RAGE is the major receptor for the proinflammatory activity of HMGB1 in rodent macrophages. Kokkola R, etal., Scand J Immunol. 2005 Jan;61(1):1-9.
40. STR/ort mice, a model for spontaneous osteoarthritis, exhibit elevated levels of both local and systemic inflammatory markers. Kyostio-Moore S, etal., Comp Med. 2011 Aug;61(4):346-55.
41. Proteomic characterisation of neuronal sphingolipid-cholesterol microdomains: role in plasminogen activation. Ledesma MD, etal., Brain Res. 2003 Oct 10;987(1):107-16.
42. Ethyl pyruvate inhibits retinal pathogenic neovascularization by downregulating HMGB1 expression. Lee YM, etal., J Diabetes Res. 2013;2013:245271. doi: 10.1155/2013/245271. Epub 2013 Nov 25.
43. Cisplatin ototoxicity to the rat inner ear: a role for HMG1 and iNOS. Li G, etal., Neurotoxicology. 2006 Jan;27(1):22-30. Epub 2005 Aug 24.
44. Mechanisms and functions of DNA mismatch repair. Li GM Cell Res. 2008 Jan;18(1):85-98.
45. Recombinant HMGB1 with cytokine-stimulating activity. Li J, etal., J Immunol Methods. 2004 Jun;289(1-2):211-23.
46. Blockade of high-mobility group box-1 ameliorates acute on chronic liver failure in rats. Li X, etal., Inflamm Res. 2013 Jul;62(7):703-9. doi: 10.1007/s00011-013-0624-1. Epub 2013 Apr 17.
47. Correlation of synovial fluid HMGB-1 levels with radiographic severity of knee osteoarthritis. Li ZC, etal., Clin Invest Med. 2011 Oct 1;34(5):E298.
48. Sodium butyrate protects against severe burn-induced remote acute lung injury in rats. Liang X, etal., PLoS One. 2013 Jul 11;8(7):e68786. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068786. Print 2013.
49. alpha-Synuclein filaments bind the transcriptional regulator HMGB-1. Lindersson EK, etal., Neuroreport. 2004 Dec 22;15(18):2735-9.
50. HMGB1 in ischemic and non-ischemic liver after selective warm ischemia/reperfusion in rat. Liu A, etal., Histochem Cell Biol. 2011 May;135(5):443-52. doi: 10.1007/s00418-011-0802-6. Epub 2011 Mar 24.
51. Oxidation of HMGB1 causes attenuation of its pro-inflammatory activity and occurs during liver ischemia and reperfusion. Liu A, etal., PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e35379. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035379. Epub 2012 Apr 13.
52. Role of HMGB1 in Post-traumatic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Rat Lung Tissues. Lu JF, etal., Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2018 Aug;34(4):347-351. doi: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2018.04.001. Epub 2018 Aug 25.
53. Downregulation of HMGB1 protects against the development of acute lung injury after severe acute pancreatitis. Luan ZG, etal., Immunobiology. 2013 Oct;218(10):1261-70. doi: 10.1016/j.imbio.2013.04.013. Epub 2013 Apr 28.
54. HMGB binding to DNA: single and double box motifs. McCauley MJ, etal., J Mol Biol. 2007 Dec 7;374(4):993-1004. Epub 2007 Sep 29.
55. 30-kDa heparin-binding protein of brain (amphoterin) involved in neurite outgrowth. Amino acid sequence and localization in the filopodia of the advancing plasma membrane. Merenmies J, etal., J Biol Chem 1991 Sep 5;266(25):16722-9.
56. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
57. High-mobility group box-1 protein activates inflammatory signaling pathway components and disrupts retinal vascular-barrier in the diabetic retina. Mohammad G, etal., Exp Eye Res. 2013 Feb;107:101-9. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2012.12.009. Epub 2012 Dec 21.
58. Neuropathic pain in rats with a partial sciatic nerve ligation is alleviated by intravenous injection of monoclonal antibody to high mobility group box-1. Nakamura Y, etal., PLoS One. 2013 Aug 21;8(8):e73640. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073640. eCollection 2013.
59. HMGB1 localization during experimental periodontitis. Nogueira AV, etal., Mediators Inflamm. 2014;2014:816320. doi: 10.1155/2014/816320. Epub 2014 Feb 20.
60. Dietary linoleic acid and glucose enhances azoxymethane-induced colon cancer and metastases via the expression of high-mobility group box 1. Ohmori H, etal., Pathobiology. 2010;77(4):210-7. doi: 10.1159/000296305. Epub 2010 Jul 7.
61. Anti-high mobility group box-1 antibody therapy for traumatic brain injury. Okuma Y, etal., Ann Neurol. 2012 Sep;72(3):373-84. doi: 10.1002/ana.23602. Epub 2012 Aug 22.
62. Alveolar macrophage suppression in sepsis is associated with high mobility group box 1 transmigration. Pahuja M, etal., Shock. 2008 Jun;29(6):754-60.
63. Extracellular HMGB1, a signal of tissue damage, induces mesoangioblast migration and proliferation. Palumbo R, etal., J Cell Biol. 2004 Feb 2;164(3):441-9. Epub 2004 Jan 26.
64. Nucleotide sequence of rat liver HMG1 cDNA. Paonessa G, etal., Nucleic Acids Res 1987 Nov 11;15(21):9077.
65. Proteomic profiling of adipose tissue from Zmpste24-/- mice, a model of lipodystrophy and premature aging, reveals major changes in mitochondrial function and vimentin processing. Peinado JR, etal., Mol Cell Proteomics. 2011 Nov;10(11):M111.008094. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M111.008094. Epub 2011 Aug 9.
66. Knocking down HMGB1 using dendrimer-delivered siRNA unveils its key role in NMDA-induced autophagy in rat cortical neurons. Perez-Carrion MD and Cena V, Pharm Res. 2013 Oct;30(10):2584-95. doi: 10.1007/s11095-013-1049-9. Epub 2013 Apr 19.
67. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
68. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
69. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
70. The amphoterin (HMGB1)/receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) pair modulates myoblast proliferation, apoptosis, adhesiveness, migration, and invasiveness. Functional inactivation of RAGE in L6 myoblasts results in tumor formation in vivo. Riuzzi F, etal., J Biol Chem. 2006 Mar 24;281(12):8242-53. Epub 2006 Jan 9.
71. HMGB1 promotes the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats. Sadamura-Takenaka Y, etal., PLoS One. 2014 Jul 17;9(7):e102482. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102482. eCollection 2014.
72. Release of chromatin protein HMGB1 by necrotic cells triggers inflammation. Scaffidi P, etal., Nature 2002 Jul 11;418(6894):191-5.
73. Systemic involvement of high-mobility group box 1 protein and therapeutic effect of anti-high-mobility group box 1 protein antibody in a rat model of crush injury. Shimazaki J, etal., Shock. 2012 Jun;37(6):634-8. doi: 10.1097/SHK.0b013e31824ed6b7.
74. Amphoterin stimulates myogenesis and counteracts the antimyogenic factors basic fibroblast growth factor and S100B via RAGE binding. Sorci G, etal., Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Jun;24(11):4880-94.
75. Interleukin-1 stimulates beta-cell necrosis and release of the immunological adjuvant HMGB1. Steer SA, etal., PLoS Med. 2006 Feb;3(2):e17. Epub 2005 Dec 20.
76. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. Strausberg RL, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Dec 24;99(26):16899-903. Epub 2002 Dec 11.
77. A role of basic residues and the putative intercalating phenylalanine of the HMG-1 box B in DNA supercoiling and binding to four-way DNA junctions. Stros M and Muselikova E, J Biol Chem. 2000 Nov 17;275(46):35699-707.
78. HMG1 protein stimulates DNA end joining by promoting association of DNA molecules via their ends. Stros M, etal., Eur J Biochem. 2000 Jul;267(13):4088-97.
79. Neutralization of receptor for advanced glycation end-products and high mobility group box-1 attenuates septic diaphragm dysfunction in rats with peritonitis. Susa Y, etal., Crit Care Med. 2009 Sep;37(9):2619-24. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181a930f7.
80. Blockade of RAGE-amphoterin signalling suppresses tumour growth and metastases. Taguchi A, etal., Nature. 2000 May 18;405(6784):354-60.
81. Modulated inflammation by injection of high-mobility group box 1 recovers post-infarction chronically failing heart. Takahashi K, etal., Circulation. 2008 Sep 30;118(14 Suppl):S106-14.
82. Functional role of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products in stroke. Tang SC, etal., Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013 Mar;33(3):585-94. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.300523. Epub 2013 Jan 3.
83. Aging-related loss of the chromatin protein HMGB2 in articular cartilage is linked to reduced cellularity and osteoarthritis. Taniguchi N, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jan 27;106(4):1181-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0806062106. Epub 2009 Jan 12.
84. Inhibition of transcription by platinum antitumor compounds. Todd RC and Lippard SJ, Metallomics. 2009;1(4):280-91. doi: 10.1039/b907567d.
85. High mobility group B1 protein interacts with its receptor RAGE in tumor cells but not in normal tissues. Todorova J and Pasheva E, Oncol Lett. 2012 Jan;3(1):214-218. Epub 2011 Oct 24.
86. Ulinastatin preconditioning attenuates inflammatory reaction of hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in rats via high mobility group box 1(HMGB1) inhibition. Tong Y, etal., Int J Med Sci. 2014 Feb 11;11(4):337-43. doi: 10.7150/ijms.7861. eCollection 2014.
87. HMGB1 protein inhibits DNA replication in vitro: a role of the acetylation and the acidic tail. Topalova D, etal., Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40(8):1536-42. Epub 2007 Dec 3.
88. Dobutamine-mediated heme oxygenase-1 induction via PI3K and p38 MAPK inhibits high mobility group box 1 protein release and attenuates rat myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo. Wang J, etal., J Surg Res. 2013 Aug;183(2):509-16. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2013.02.051. Epub 2013 Mar 17.
89. Tanshinone II A down-regulates HMGB1, RAGE, TLR4, NF-kappaB expression, ameliorates BBB permeability and endothelial cell function, and protects rat brains against focal ischemia. Wang L, etal., Brain Res. 2010 Jan 4.
90. Expression analysis of high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB-1) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of the congenital hydrocephalus (H-Tx) rat. Watanabe M, etal., Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2012;113:91-6. doi: 10.1007/978-3-7091-0923-6_19.
91. Galantamine anti-colitic effect: Role of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in modulating Jak/STAT3, NF-κB/HMGB1/RAGE and p-AKT/Bcl-2 pathways. Wazea SA, etal., Sci Rep. 2018 Mar 23;8(1):5110. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-23359-6.
92. Down-regulation of vascular HMGB1 and RAGE expression by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is accompanied by amelioration of chronic vasculopathy of small bowel allografts. Wei W, etal., J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Oct;23(10):1333-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2011.08.002. Epub 2012 Jan 2.
93. [Effects of hydrogen gas inhalation on serum high mobility group box 1 levels in severe septic mice]. Xie KL, etal., Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2010 Sep;39(5):454-7.
94. DNA binding by single HMG box model proteins. Xin H, etal., Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Oct 15;28(20):4044-50.
95. Deleterious role of anti-high mobility group box 1 monoclonal antibody in retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Yang H, etal., Curr Eye Res. 2011 Nov;36(11):1037-46. doi: 10.3109/02713683.2011.594201.
96. Blocking the receptor for advanced glycation end product activation attenuates autoimmune myocarditis. Yang WI, etal., Circ J. 2014;78(5):1197-205. Epub 2014 Mar 6.
97. [The effect of simvastatin on the expression of high mobility group box-1 protein in atherosclerotic rats]. Yin YX, etal., Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2010 May;22(5):306-8.
98. Clinical significance of serum HMGB-1 and sRAGE levels in systemic sclerosis: association with disease severity. Yoshizaki A, etal., J Clin Immunol. 2009 Mar;29(2):180-9. doi: 10.1007/s10875-008-9252-x. Epub 2008 Sep 30.
99. The high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 is expressed in the human and rat testis where it may function as an antibacterial factor. Zetterstrom CK, etal., Hum Reprod. 2006 Nov;21(11):2801-9. Epub 2006 Sep 22.
100. Overexpression of miR-381 relieves neuropathic pain development via targeting HMGB1 and CXCR4. Zhan LY, etal., Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Nov;107:818-823. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.08.053. Epub 2018 Aug 22.
101. Borna disease virus phosphoprotein represses p53-mediated transcriptional activity by interference with HMGB1. Zhang G, etal., J Virol. 2003 Nov;77(22):12243-51.
102. Protective effect of dioscin against thioacetamide-induced acute liver injury via FXR/AMPK signaling pathway in vivo. Zheng L, etal., Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Jan;97:481-488. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.10.153. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
103. [Effects of lymphatic drainage and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats]. Zhou KG, etal., Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2011 Jul 5;91(25):1775-9.
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Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr81211,009,236 - 11,015,941 (+)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.2125,972,950 - 5,979,658 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl125,901,586 - 5,978,565 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1634,028,446 - 34,030,648 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx126,644,838 - 6,651,551 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0127,267,954 - 7,274,667 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0126,295,972 - 6,302,685 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0127,082,529 - 7,090,246 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1637,500,017 - 37,502,237 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0129,177,615 - 9,178,878 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.11637,462,230 - 37,464,451 (+)NCBI
Celera127,732,744 - 7,737,689 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map12p11NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh381330,456,704 - 30,617,597 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl1330,456,704 - 30,617,597 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh371331,030,841 - 31,191,734 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 361329,930,877 - 29,938,081 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Celera1312,102,423 - 12,109,630 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map13q12.3NCBI
HuRef1311,850,667 - 11,857,904 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_11331,000,434 - 31,007,630 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.01329,679,118 - 29,839,654 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm395148,983,512 - 148,989,867 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl5148,983,512 - 149,121,299 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm385149,046,702 - 149,053,057 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl5149,046,702 - 149,184,489 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv375149,858,803 - 149,864,613 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv365149,357,579 - 149,363,386 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera5147,061,615 - 147,067,633 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map5G3NCBI
cM Map589.18NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_00495543115,373,207 - 15,377,339 (+)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_00495543115,373,207 - 15,377,339 (+)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1-v21430,044,445 - 30,202,275 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1-v2
NHGRI_mPanPan11321,152,234 - 21,308,975 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v01311,737,942 - 11,894,923 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.11330,173,875 - 30,179,527 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl1330,174,899 - 30,179,527 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.1259,431,223 - 9,558,167 (+)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl259,431,218 - 9,558,165 (+)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha259,596,948 - 9,603,279 (+)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.0259,542,952 - 9,670,011 (+)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl259,663,749 - 9,670,011 (+)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.1259,558,389 - 9,564,743 (+)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.0259,566,227 - 9,572,605 (+)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.0259,608,257 - 9,614,621 (+)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_024404945170,705,559 - 170,715,427 (+)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_00493647225,236,728 - 25,246,580 (-)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_00493647225,236,728 - 25,246,585 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1117,195,556 - 7,321,071 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.2117,006,105 - 7,131,947 (+)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.139,353,333 - 9,357,765 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_02366605735,008,842 - 35,015,311 (+)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_0046247767,793,259 - 7,863,184 (+)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_0046247767,858,400 - 7,862,716 (+)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Hmgb1
37 total Variants

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
1300174Bw15Body weight QTL 152.93body mass (VT:0001259)body weight loss (CMO:0001399)1219318387Rat
2312418Kidm41Kidney mass QTL 413.70.0001kidney mass (VT:0002707)single kidney wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000622)12119611090Rat
10755457Coatc14Coat color QTL 140.01759coat/hair pigmentation trait (VT:0010463)pigmented ventral coat/hair area to total ventral coat/hair area ratio (CMO:0001812)12122591684Rat
6893681Bw109Body weight QTL 1092.30.004body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)12123297788Rat
1581516Cm56Cardiac mass QTL 564.20.05heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000530)12129333307Rat
1598855Bp294Blood pressure QTL 2943.5arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)12134851688Rat
7411660Foco28Food consumption QTL 2810.90.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)12142110980Rat
9590086Insglur6Insulin/glucose ratio QTL 618.970.001blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)calculated plasma insulin level (CMO:0002170)12142110980Rat
8694179Bw150Body weight QTL 1502.90.001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)12142110980Rat
7411586Foco5Food consumption QTL 55.40.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)12142110980Rat
7411595Foco9Food consumption QTL 940.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)12142110980Rat
7411545Bw128Body weight QTL 1285.20.001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)12142110980Rat
9590147Scort7Serum corticosterone level QTL 713.610.001blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)12142110980Rat
2303575Insul14Insulin level QTL 144blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)blood insulin level (CMO:0000349)12142450532Rat
737979Pia22Pristane induced arthritis QTL 2253.1joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)12144465750Rat
634351Apr5Acute phase response QTL 56.7blood interleukin-6 amount (VT:0008595)plasma interleukin-6 level (CMO:0001927)12144503507Rat
2302042Pia38Pristane induced arthritis QTL 383.50.001blood immunoglobulin amount (VT:0002460)serum immunoglobulin G1 level (CMO:0002115)12144503507Rat
7243862Mcs30Mammary carcinoma susceptibility QTL 308.62mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)mammary tumor number (CMO:0000343)127977298525593Rat
634350Apr4Acute phase response QTL 46orosomucoid 1 amount (VT:0010541)plasma orosomucoid 1 level (CMO:0001467)12117200546172005Rat
724526Uae3Urinary albumin excretion QTL 34.90.0001urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)12390696910373166Rat
8552918Pigfal7Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level QTL 7blood insulin-like growth factor amount (VT:0010479)plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level (CMO:0001299)12556449546669029Rat
7411547Bw129Body weight QTL 1290.001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)6556449546669029Rat
7411597Foco10Food consumption QTL 100.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)12556449546669029Rat
7411641Foco19Food consumption QTL 1927.70.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)12556449546669029Rat
8552964Pigfal17Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level QTL 173.5blood insulin-like growth factor amount (VT:0010479)plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level (CMO:0001299)12556449546669029Rat
7411588Foco6Food consumption QTL 60.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)12556449546669029Rat
8552912Pigfal6Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level QTL 65blood insulin-like growth factor amount (VT:0010479)plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level (CMO:0001299)12556449846669029Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
Cytogenetic Map12p11UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2125,978,946 - 5,979,110 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0127,092,572 - 7,092,735NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_6.0127,090,628 - 7,090,791NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0129,179,260 - 9,179,423UniSTSRnor5.0
Rnor_5.0129,177,316 - 9,177,479UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4126,480,818 - 6,480,981UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera127,738,071 - 7,738,234UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map1242.3UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map12p11UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
Rnor_5.0129,173,110 - 9,173,476NCBIRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4126,476,220 - 6,476,585UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera127,735,031 - 7,735,396UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map12p11UniSTS


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 3 43 57 41 19 41 8 11 74 35 39 11 8
Low 2
Below cutoff


Nucleotide Sequences
RefSeq Transcripts NM_012963 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  XM_039089112 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  XM_063271080 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  XM_063271081 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  XM_063271082 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
GenBank Nucleotide AC128270 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  AF275734 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  BC061779 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  BC081839 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  BC088402 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  BC168143 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  CH474012 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FQ217681 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FQ222862 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FQ230734 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  JAXUCZ010000012 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  M64986 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  Y00463 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles

RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000047163   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000049627
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl125,901,586 - 5,975,540 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000081634   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000069851
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1634,028,446 - 34,030,648 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1637,500,017 - 37,502,237 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000089476   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000070959
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl125,901,586 - 5,976,095 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000098255   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000078668
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl125,972,960 - 5,978,565 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_012963   ⟹   NP_037095
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr81211,009,236 - 11,015,941 (+)NCBI
mRatBN7.2125,972,950 - 5,979,658 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.0127,082,529 - 7,090,246 (+)NCBI
Rnor_5.0129,177,615 - 9,178,878 (+)NCBI
Celera127,732,744 - 7,737,689 (+)RGD
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039089112   ⟹   XP_038945040
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr81211,010,816 - 11,014,848 (+)NCBI
mRatBN7.2125,974,235 - 5,978,565 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_063271080   ⟹   XP_063127150
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr81211,010,202 - 11,014,848 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_063271081   ⟹   XP_063127151
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr81211,009,484 - 11,014,848 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_063271082   ⟹   XP_063127152
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr81211,010,929 - 11,014,848 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_037095   ⟸   NM_012963
- UniProtKB: P27428 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P27109 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P07155 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   Q548R9 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P63159 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   B4F758 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   D3ZXR5 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000069851   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000081634
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038945040   ⟸   XM_039089112
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: P27428 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P27109 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P07155 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   Q548R9 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P63159 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   B4F758 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   D3ZXR5 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000049627   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000047163
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000070959   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000089476
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000078668   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000098255
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_063127151   ⟸   XM_063271081
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: Q548R9 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P63159 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P27428 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P27109 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P07155 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   D3ZXR5 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   B4F758 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_063127150   ⟸   XM_063271080
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: Q548R9 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P63159 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P27428 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P27109 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P07155 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   D3ZXR5 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   B4F758 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_063127152   ⟸   XM_063271082
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: Q548R9 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P63159 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P27428 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P27109 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P07155 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   D3ZXR5 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   B4F758 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
Protein Domains
HMG box

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P63159-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P63159 1-215 view protein structure
AF-F1LNG6-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold F1LNG6 1-231 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:2802 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-20170 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000029813 Ensembl, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOG00000058908 Ensembl, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOG00055003707 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00060001541 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00065006245 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000047163.5 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000081634.2 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000089476.2 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000098255.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00055005819 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00060002337 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00065009537 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Gene3D-CATH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro HMG_box_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  HMG_box_dom_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  HMG_boxA_CS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:25459 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam HMG_box UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  HMG_box_2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Hmgb1 PhenoGen
PROSITE HMG_BOX_1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  HMG_BOX_2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000029813 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00000058908 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00055003707 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00060001541 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00065006245 RatGTEx
SMART HMG UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Superfamily-SCOP SSF47095 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
UniProt A0A0G2JZ95_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  HMGB1_RAT UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
UniProt Secondary P07155 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  P27109 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  P27428 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  Q548R9 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2013-03-29 Hmgb1  high mobility group box 1  LOC100361707  Ac2-008-like  Data merged from RGD:2319567 737654 PROVISIONAL
2010-05-05 LOC100361707  Ac2-008-like      Symbol and Name status set to provisional 70820 PROVISIONAL
2002-02-27 Hmgb1  high mobility group box 1      Symbol and Name updated to reflect Human and Mouse nomenclature 70292 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_cellular_localization localized to plasma membrane filopodia in actively spreading cells 728426