Xdh (xanthine dehydrogenase) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Xdh (xanthine dehydrogenase) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Xdh
Name: xanthine dehydrogenase
RGD ID: 62043
Description: Enables several functions, including 2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding activity; molybdopterin cofactor binding activity; and oxidoreductase activity, acting on CH or CH2 groups. Involved in several processes, including cellular response to cytokine stimulus; purine nucleobase catabolic process; and purine ribonucleoside catabolic process. Located in extracellular space. Is active in cytosol and peroxisome. Used to study several diseases, including hypertension; hyperuricemia; interstitial nephritis; kidney failure (multiple); and renal fibrosis. Biomarker of several diseases, including cholestasis; liver disease (multiple); obesity; pancreatitis; and peritonitis. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in several diseases, including Lesch-Nyhan syndrome; artery disease (multiple); chronic kidney disease; hyperuricemia; and xanthinuria type I. Orthologous to human XDH (xanthine dehydrogenase); PARTICIPATES IN adenine phoshoribosyltransferase deficiency pathway; adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency pathway; adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency pathway; INTERACTS WITH (+)-taxifolin; (R)-adrenaline; (R)-lipoic acid.
Type: protein-coding
Previously known as: xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase; xanthine oxidase; xanthine oxidoreductase; XOR
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Orthologs
More Info more info ...
Allele / Splice: Xdhem1Mcwi   Xdhem2Mcwi  
Genetic Models: SS-Xdhem1Mcwi-/- SS-Xdhem1Mcwi+/- SS-Xdhem2Mcwi
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr8627,282,319 - 27,344,022 (+)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.2621,530,463 - 21,592,172 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl621,530,113 - 21,592,268 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx621,859,036 - 21,920,809 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0622,174,874 - 22,236,649 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0621,655,317 - 21,717,086 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0625,149,570 - 25,211,273 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl625,149,235 - 25,211,494 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0634,996,983 - 35,059,195 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4621,417,685 - 21,590,015 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1621,420,637 - 21,592,968 (+)NCBI
Celera621,081,179 - 21,143,279 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map6q13NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
acute kidney failure  (IDA,ISO)
Acute Lung Injury  (IEP)
Animal Mammary Neoplasms  (ISO)
Arterial Thrombosis  (IMP)
autistic disorder  (ISO)
Autoinflammation with Infantile Enterocolitis  (ISO)
Brain Injuries  (IEP)
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  (IEP,IMP)
carcinoma  (ISO)
cardiomyopathy  (IDA,IMP)
cardiovascular system disease  (ISO)
carotid artery disease  (ISO)
cataract  (IEP,ISO)
cholestasis  (IEP)
chronic kidney disease  (IDA,ISO)
Colonic Neoplasms  (IEP)
congestive heart failure  (ISO)
Diabetic Cardiomyopathies  (IDA)
Diabetic Nephropathies  (IDA,ISO)
Dwarfism  (ISO)
Eczema  (ISO)
Experimental Arthritis  (IEP)
Experimental Diabetes Mellitus  (IEP)
Experimental Liver Neoplasms  (IEP)
Experimental Mammary Neoplasms  (ISO)
familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome 4  (ISO)
Fetal Growth Retardation  (ISO)
genetic disease  (ISO)
gout  (ISO)
heart disease  (ISO)
hepatocellular carcinoma  (IEP)
hereditary spastic paraplegia 4  (ISO)
hydronephrosis  (ISO)
Hyperoxaluria  (IEP)
Hyperoxic Lung Injury  (IEP)
hypertension  (IDA,IEP,ISO)
hyperuricemia  (IDA,ISO)
Hypotension  (IEP)
interstitial nephritis  (IMP)
Intestinal Reperfusion Injury  (IEP)
ischemia  (ISO)
kidney failure  (ISO)
Kidney Reperfusion Injury  (IMP)
laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma  (ISO)
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy  (ISO)
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome  (ISO)
Liver Reperfusion Injury  (IEP)
major depressive disorder  (ISO)
middle cerebral artery infarction  (ISO)
multiple myeloma  (ISO)
Multiple Organ Failure  (ISO)
muscular disease  (IEP)
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury  (IEP)
Nerve Degeneration  (ISO)
neutropenia  (ISO)
obesity  (IEP)
pancreatitis  (IEP)
Penetrating Wounds  (IEP)
peritonitis  (IEP)
Pneumoperitoneum  (IDA)
portal hypertension  (IEP)
protein-losing enteropathy  (ISO)
Pseudovaginal Perineoscrotal Hypospadias  (ISO)
pulmonary embolism  (ISO)
Puromycin Aminonucleoside Nephrosis  (IEP)
renal fibrosis  (IMP)
Renal Ischemia  (IEP)
Reperfusion Injury  (IDA,ISO)
Retina Reperfusion Injury  (IMP)
Sepsis  (IDA)
Shock  (IMP)
Spinal Cord Injuries  (IEP)
Testis Reperfusion Injury  (IDA)
thrombocytopenia  (ISO)
Transplant Rejection  (IMP)
Urachal Cyst  (ISO)
urinary bladder cancer  (ISO)
xanthinuria  (ISO)
xanthinuria type I  (ISO)
xanthinuria type II  (ISO)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(+)-taxifolin  (EXP,ISO)
(R)-adrenaline  (EXP)
(R)-lipoic acid  (EXP)
(S)-naringenin  (EXP)
(S)-nicotine  (EXP)
1,1-dichloroethene  (ISO)
1,2-dichloroethane  (ISO)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
1,4-dithiothreitol  (EXP)
1-methyl-7H-xanthine  (ISO)
1-methyluric acid  (ISO)
1-naphthyl isothiocyanate  (ISO)
11-deoxycorticosterone  (EXP)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (EXP)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-estradiol 3-benzoate  (EXP)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,4-diaminotoluene  (ISO)
2,4-dinitrotoluene  (EXP)
2-acetamidofluorene  (EXP)
2-amino-2-deoxy-D-galactopyranose  (EXP)
2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose  (EXP)
2-hydroxypropanoic acid  (ISO)
2-nitroanisole  (ISO)
2-nitrofluorene  (EXP,ISO)
3',5'-cyclic GMP  (EXP)
3'-amino-3'-deoxy-N(6),N(6)-dimethyladenosine  (EXP)
3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl  (EXP,ISO)
3,7-dihydropurine-6-thione  (EXP)
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine  (ISO)
3-methylcholanthrene  (EXP,ISO)
3-phenylprop-2-enal  (EXP)
4'-epidoxorubicin  (EXP)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (ISO)
4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)butan-1-one  (EXP)
4-hydroxynon-2-enal  (ISO)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
5-azaorotic acid  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
7,12-dimethyltetraphene  (EXP,ISO)
7,9-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6,8(3H)-trione  (EXP,ISO)
7H-xanthine  (EXP,ISO)
9H-xanthine  (EXP,ISO)
acetaldehyde  (ISO)
acetic acid  (ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (EXP,ISO)
Aflatoxin B2 alpha  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucosamine  (EXP)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (EXP)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (ISO)
allantoin  (EXP)
allopurinol  (EXP,ISO)
alloxan  (EXP)
alloxanthine  (EXP)
aluminium atom  (EXP)
aluminium(0)  (EXP)
amitrole  (EXP)
ammonium acetate  (EXP)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
anthocyanin  (EXP)
apocynin  (EXP)
aristolochic acid A  (ISO)
Aroclor 1254  (ISO)
arsane  (ISO)
arsenic atom  (ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
aspartame  (ISO)
avobenzone  (ISO)
baicalein  (ISO)
baicalin  (ISO)
Benoxacor  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (EXP,ISO)
Benzoyl peroxide  (ISO)
beta-D-glucosamine  (EXP)
beta-naphthoflavone  (ISO)
bezafibrate  (EXP)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol F  (EXP)
bosentan  (ISO)
buspirone  (EXP)
butanal  (ISO)
C60 fullerene  (EXP)
cadmium dichloride  (ISO)
caffeine  (ISO)
carbon monoxide  (EXP)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
carboplatin  (EXP)
carvacrol  (ISO)
Chloramine  (EXP)
chloroprene  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (EXP)
chlorzoxazone  (ISO)
chromium(6+)  (ISO)
cis-caffeic acid  (ISO)
cisplatin  (EXP,ISO)
clofibrate  (EXP)
clofibric acid  (EXP)
cobalt dichloride  (EXP)
cocaine  (EXP)
copper atom  (EXP)
copper(0)  (EXP)
cordycepin  (ISO)
crocidolite asbestos  (ISO)
curcumin  (EXP)
cycloartenol  (ISO)
cyclophosphamide  (EXP)
cyclosporin A  (ISO)
cyhalothrin  (EXP)
D-glucose  (EXP)
dehydroepiandrosterone  (EXP)
dexamethasone  (EXP,ISO)
dextromethorphan  (ISO)
diallyl trisulfide  (ISO)
diethylstilbestrol  (EXP,ISO)
diisopropyl fluorophosphate  (EXP)
diosmin  (EXP,ISO)
dioxygen  (EXP,ISO)
diquat  (ISO)
diuron  (EXP)
dizocilpine maleate  (EXP)
doxorubicin  (EXP,ISO)
edaravone  (EXP)
endosulfan  (EXP)
enzyme inhibitor  (EXP)
epoxiconazole  (ISO)
erdosteine  (EXP)
ethanol  (EXP,ISO)
ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid  (ISO)
febuxostat  (ISO)
fipronil  (EXP)
flavonoids  (EXP)
fluocinolone acetonide  (ISO)
fluoranthene  (ISO)
formaldehyde  (ISO)
fructose  (EXP,ISO)
gallic acid  (EXP)
genistein  (ISO)
glucose  (EXP)
glutathione  (EXP)
glyburide  (ISO)
hydrogen peroxide  (EXP,ISO)
hydroxyl  (ISO)
hydroxytyrosol  (EXP)
hypoxanthine  (EXP,ISO)
indometacin  (EXP,ISO)
isoprenaline  (EXP,ISO)
isotretinoin  (ISO)
L-1,4-dithiothreitol  (EXP)
L-ascorbic acid  (ISO)
L-glutamine  (EXP)
L-methionine  (EXP)
lead(0)  (ISO)
lipoic acid  (EXP)
lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
liraglutide  (ISO)
Lithospermic acid  (EXP)
lupeol  (ISO)
mercaptopurine  (EXP)
Mesaconitine  (EXP)
methamphetamine  (ISO)
methapyrilene  (EXP)
methimazole  (EXP)
methylglyoxal  (ISO)
methylisothiazolinone  (ISO)
mitomycin C  (ISO)
molybdate  (ISO)
monosodium L-glutamate  (ISO)
myo-inositol hexakisphosphate  (EXP)
myricetin  (EXP)
N-acetyl-L-cysteine  (ISO)
N-acetyl-L-tryptophan  (ISO)
N-nitrosodiethylamine  (EXP)
N-nitrosodimethylamine  (EXP)
nefazodone  (EXP)
nickel atom  (ISO)
nicorandil  (EXP,ISO)
nicotine  (EXP)
nitric oxide  (ISO)
nitroprusside  (EXP)
O-methyleugenol  (ISO)
obeticholic acid  (ISO)
ochratoxin A  (ISO)
palytoxin  (ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP,ISO)
paraquat  (EXP,ISO)
pentachlorophenol  (ISO)
pentanal  (ISO)
pentetrazol  (EXP)
perfluorononanoic acid  (ISO)
perfluorooctanoic acid  (EXP)
permethrin  (ISO)
phenobarbital  (EXP,ISO)
phorbol 13-acetate 12-myristate  (ISO)
piperonyl butoxide  (EXP)
pirinixic acid  (EXP,ISO)
Potassium 2,6-dihydroxytriazinecarboxylate  (ISO)
potassium bromate  (EXP)
pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile  (EXP)
progesterone  (EXP,ISO)
propanal  (ISO)
propiconazole  (ISO)
purine-6-thiol  (EXP)
quercetin  (EXP,ISO)
rac-lactic acid  (ISO)
raloxifene  (ISO)
reactive oxygen species  (EXP,ISO)
resveratrol  (EXP)
rotenone  (EXP,ISO)
rutin  (EXP)
SB 203580  (EXP)
Senkirkine  (ISO)
serotonin  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (EXP,ISO)
silver atom  (ISO)
silver(0)  (ISO)
sodium acetate trihydrate  (EXP)
sodium arsenate  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (EXP,ISO)
sodium benzoate  (EXP)
sodium disulfite  (EXP)
sodium fluoride  (ISO)
sodium molybdate (anhydrous)  (ISO)
sodium nitrate  (ISO)
sodium tungstate  (EXP,ISO)
streptozocin  (EXP)
sulfadimethoxine  (EXP)
superoxide  (ISO)
taurine  (EXP)
testosterone  (EXP)
tetrachloromethane  (EXP,ISO)
thioacetamide  (EXP)
toluene  (EXP)
trans-caffeic acid  (ISO)
trichostatin A  (ISO)
trimellitic anhydride  (ISO)
trovafloxacin  (ISO)
tubocurarine  (EXP)
tungsten  (EXP,ISO)
valproic acid  (EXP,ISO)
vinclozolin  (EXP)
vitamin E  (EXP)
zearalenone  (EXP)
zinc atom  (EXP,ISO)
zinc sulfate  (EXP)
zinc(0)  (EXP,ISO)
zoledronic acid  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
adenosine catabolic process  (IDA,IEA,ISO)
allantoin metabolic process  (IDA,IEA,ISO)
amide catabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
AMP catabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
cellular response to interleukin-1  (IEP)
cellular response to tumor necrosis factor  (IEP)
dAMP catabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
deoxyadenosine catabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
deoxyguanosine catabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
deoxyinosine catabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
dGMP catabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
GMP catabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
guanine catabolic process  (IDA,IEA,ISO)
hypoxanthine catabolic process  (IDA,IEA,ISO)
IMP catabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
inosine catabolic process  (IDA,IEA,ISO)
iron-sulfur cluster assembly  (IEA,ISO)
lactation  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of endothelial cell differentiation  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of gene expression  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal transduction  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of protein phosphorylation  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of vasculogenesis  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of p38MAPK cascade  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of epithelial cell differentiation  (ISO)
response to aluminum ion  (IDA)
response to azide  (IEP)
response to carbon monoxide  (IEP)
response to hydrogen peroxide  (IEP)
response to lipopolysaccharide  (IEP)
xanthine catabolic process  (IBA,IDA,IEA,ISO,ISS)

Cellular Component
cytoplasm  (IEA)
cytosol  (IDA,IEA,ISO)
extracellular space  (IBA,IDA)
peroxisome  (IDA,IEA)
sarcoplasmic reticulum  (IEA,ISO)


References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Activities of xanthine oxidoreductase and antioxidant enzymes in different tissues of diabetic rats. Aliciguzel Y, etal., J Lab Clin Med 2003 Sep;142(3):172-7.
2. Proteolytic conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase from the NAD-dependent type to the O2-dependent type. Amino acid sequence of rat liver xanthine dehydrogenase and identification of the cleavage sites of the enzyme protein during irreversible conversion by trypsin. Amaya Y, etal., J Biol Chem 1990 Aug 25;265(24):14170-5.
3. Hypovolemic shock promotes neutrophil sequestration in lungs by a xanthine oxidase-related mechanism. Anderson BO, etal., J Appl Physiol (1985). 1991 Nov;71(5):1862-5.
4. Localization of xanthine oxidase in crystalline cores of peroxisomes. A cytochemical and biochemical study. Angermüller S, etal., Eur J Cell Biol. 1987 Dec;45(1):137-44.
5. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in cancerous bladder tissue and their relation with bacterial infection: a controlled clinical study. Bayraktar N, etal., J Clin Lab Anal. 2010;24(1):25-30. doi: 10.1002/jcla.20356.
6. Modification of the xanthine-converting enzyme of perfused rat heart during ischemia and oxidative stress. Bindoli A, etal., Free Radic Biol Med. 1988;4(3):163-7.
7. Effects of imperatorin, the active component from Radix Angelicae (Baizhi), on the blood pressure and oxidative stress in 2K,1C hypertensive rats. Cao YJ, etal., Phytomedicine. 2013 Jun 6. pii: S0944-7113(13)00199-2. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2013.04.021.
8. Polydatin ameliorates renal injury by attenuating oxidative stress-related inflammatory responses in fructose-induced urate nephropathic mice. Chen L, etal., Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Feb;52:28-35. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2012.10.037. Epub 2012 Nov 5.
9. [Study on Therapeutic Effects of Ermiao Pill and Ermiao Pill Categorized Formula in Hyperuricemic Rats Using Spectroscopic Methods]. Chen WJ, etal., Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2015 Apr;35(4):956-60.
10. Identification of the rat xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase promoter. Chow CW, etal., Nucleic Acids Res 1994 May 25;22(10):1846-54.
11. Modulation of renal xanthine oxidoreductase in aging: gene expression and reactive oxygen species generation. Chung HY, etal., J Nutr Health Aging. 1999;3(1):19-23.
12. Lack of conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase during warm renal ischemia. Cighetti G, etal., FEBS Lett. 1990 Nov 12;274(1-2):82-4.
13. Protective effect of endogenous hydrogen sulfide against oxidative stress in gastric ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cui J, etal., Exp Ther Med. 2013 Mar;5(3):689-694. Epub 2012 Dec 20.
14. Taurine ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetic renal injury, oxidative stress-related signaling pathways and apoptosis in rats. Das J and Sil PC, Amino Acids. 2012 Oct;43(4):1509-23.
15. The effects of Nigella sativa oil, thymoquinone, propolis, and caffeic acid phenethyl ester on radiation-induced cataract. Demir E, etal., Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2016 Dec;128(Suppl 8):587-595. doi: 10.1007/s00508-015-0736-4. Epub 2015 Apr 10.
16. Lung oxidant changes after zymosan peritonitis: relationship between physiologic and biochemical changes. Demling R, etal., Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992 Nov;146(5 Pt 1):1272-8.
17. The effect of acute nonbacterial dependent peritonitis on lung and liver oxidant stress and antioxidant activity. Demling R, etal., Surgery. 1993 Sep;114(3):571-8.
18. Adenosine deaminase, 5' nucleotidase, xanthine oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities in cancerous and noncancerous human laryngeal tissues. Durak I, etal., Free Radic Biol Med. 1993 Dec;15(6):681-4. doi: 10.1016/0891-5849(93)90174-s.
19. Xanthine oxidase inhibition alleviates the cardiac complications of insulin resistance: effect on low grade inflammation and the angiotensin system. El-Bassossy HM and Watson ML, J Transl Med. 2015 Mar 6;13:82. doi: 10.1186/s12967-015-0445-9.
20. Hyperoxia and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase activities in rat lung and heart. Elsayed NM and Tierney DF, Arch Biochem Biophys. 1989 Sep;273(2):281-6.
21. Effect of allopurinol on blood pressure of adolescents with newly diagnosed essential hypertension: a randomized trial. Feig DI, etal., JAMA. 2008 Aug 27;300(8):924-32. doi: 10.1001/jama.300.8.924.
22. Remote ischemic preconditioning differentially affects NADPH oxidase isoforms during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion. Garab D, etal., Life Sci. 2014 Jun 6;105(1-2):14-21. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2014.04.014. Epub 2014 Apr 24.
23. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
24. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
25. Mobilization of xanthine oxidase from the gastrointestinal tract in acute pancreatitis. Granell S, etal., BMC Gastroenterol. 2004 Jan 19;4:1.
26. Xanthine oxidoreductase and neurological sequelae of carbon monoxide poisoning. Han ST, etal., Toxicol Lett. 2007 Apr 25;170(2):111-5. Epub 2007 Feb 20.
27. Upregulation of xanthine oxidase by lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-1, and hypoxia. Role in acute lung injury. Hassoun PM, etal., Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998 Jul;158(1):299-305.
28. The prophylactic protective effect of sesamol against ferric-nitrilotriacetate-induced acute renal injury in mice. Hsu DZ, etal., Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Aug;46(8):2736-41. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.04.029. Epub 2008 Apr 29.
29. [The protective effects of carbachol on visceral ischemia-induced lipid peroxidation injury in rats with sepsis]. Hu S, etal., Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2009 Sep;21(9):552-4.
30. High Sodium-Induced Oxidative Stress and Poor Anticrystallization Defense Aggravate Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation in Rat Hyperoxaluric Kidneys. Huang HS and Ma MC, PLoS One. 2015 Aug 4;10(8):e0134764. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134764. eCollection 2015.
31. Identification of two mutations in human xanthine dehydrogenase gene responsible for classical type I xanthinuria. Ichida K, etal., J Clin Invest. 1997 May 15;99(10):2391-7.
32. Subcellular localization of xanthine oxidase in rat hepatocytes: high-resolution immunoelectron microscopic study combined with biochemical analysis. Ichikawa M, etal., J Histochem Cytochem. 1992 Aug;40(8):1097-103. doi: 10.1177/40.8.1619276.
33. Decreased concentration of xanthine dehydrogenase (EC in rat hepatomas. Ikegami T, etal., Cancer Res. 1986 Aug;46(8):3838-41.
34. The efficacy and safety of febuxostat for urate lowering in gout patients >/=65 years of age. Jackson RL, etal., BMC Geriatr. 2012 Mar 21;12:11. doi: 10.1186/1471-2318-12-11.
35. Xanthine oxidoreductase inhibition by NADH as a regulatory factor of purine metabolism. Jezewska MM and Kaminski ZW, Adv Exp Med Biol. 1979;122B:35-40.
36. Xanthine oxidase mediates cytokine-induced, but not hormone-induced bone resorption. Kanczler JM, etal., Free Radic Res. 2003 Feb;37(2):179-87.
37. Allopurinol benefits left ventricular mass and endothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease. Kao MP, etal., J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 Jul;22(7):1382-9. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2010111185. Epub 2011 Jun 30.
38. KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes KEGG
39. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of darbepoetin-a against traumatic brain injury in rats. Kertmen H, etal., Arch Med Sci. 2015 Oct 12;11(5):1119-28. doi: 10.5114/aoms.2015.54869.
40. Mannitol attenuates kidney damage induced by xanthine oxidase-associated pancreas ischemia-reperfusion. Khoury W, etal., J Surg Res. 2010 May 1;160(1):163-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2008.10.016. Epub 2008 Dec 30.
41. Renal oxidative stress following CO2 pneumoperitoneum-like conditions. Khoury W, etal., Surg Endosc. 2009 Apr;23(4):776-82. doi: 10.1007/s00464-008-0054-2. Epub 2008 Jul 16.
42. Serum level of Xanthine oxidase, Uric Acid, and NADPH oxidase1 in Stage I of Multiple Myeloma. Kohsari M, etal., Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2020 Aug 1;21(8):2237-2242. doi: 10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.8.2237.
43. Effect of lowering uric acid on renal disease in the type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Kosugi T, etal., Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009 Aug;297(2):F481-8. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.00092.2009. Epub 2009 May 20.
44. Role of xanthine oxidoreductase in the anti-thrombotic effects of nitrite in rats in vivo. Kramkowski K, etal., Platelets. 2016;27(3):245-53. doi: 10.3109/09537104.2015.1083545. Epub 2015 Sep 16.
45. Multiple antioxidants improve cardiac complications and inhibit cardiac cell death in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Kumar S, etal., PLoS One. 2013 Jul 2;8(7):e67009. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067009. Print 2013.
46. Mammary inflammation around parturition appeared to be attenuated by consumption of fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lin S, etal., Lipids Health Dis. 2013 Dec 31;12:190. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-12-190.
47. Xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase: a simple procedure for the simultaneous purification from rat liver. Maia L and Mira L, Arch Biochem Biophys 2002 Apr 1;400(1):48-53.
48. Nitrite reductase activity of rat and human xanthine oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase: evaluation of their contribution to NO formation in vivo. Maia LB, etal., Biochemistry. 2015 Jan 27;54(3):685-710. doi: 10.1021/bi500987w. Epub 2015 Jan 8.
49. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
50. Xanthine oxidase activity in intestinal tumors induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride. Mitidieri E, etal., Arch Geschwulstforsch. 1988;58(2):79-80.
51. New developments in anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Mordente A, etal., Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(13):1656-72.
52. Aluminium increases xanthine oxidase activity and disturbs antioxidant status in the rat. Moumen R, etal., J Trace Elem Med Biol 2001;15(2-3):89-93.
53. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
54. Mechanism of the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase: identification of the two cysteine disulfide bonds and crystal structure of a non-convertible rat liver xanthine dehydrogenase mutant. Nishino T, etal., J Biol Chem. 2005 Jul 1;280(26):24888-94. Epub 2005 May 4.
55. Xanthine oxidoreductase depletion induces renal interstitial fibrosis through aberrant lipid and purine accumulation in renal tubules. Ohtsubo T, etal., Hypertension. 2009 Oct;54(4):868-76. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.135152. Epub 2009 Aug 10.
56. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
57. Use of xanthine oxidase inhibitor febuxostat inhibits renal interstitial inflammation and fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstructive nephropathy. Omori H, etal., Clin Exp Nephrol. 2012 Aug;16(4):549-56. doi: 10.1007/s10157-012-0609-3. Epub 2012 Feb 18.
58. Sialic acid supplementation ameliorates puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis in rats. Pawluczyk IZ, etal., Lab Invest. 2015 Sep;95(9):1019-28. doi: 10.1038/labinvest.2015.78. Epub 2015 Jun 29.
59. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
60. SMPDB Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import SMPDB annotations from SMPDB into RGD
61. A mouse model of early-onset renal failure due to a xanthine dehydrogenase nonsense mutation. Piret SE, etal., PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e45217. Epub 2012 Sep 14.
62. Malignant transformation-linked imbalance: decreased xanthine oxidase activity in hepatomas. Prajda N and Weber G, FEBS Lett. 1975 Nov 15;59(2):245-9.
63. The role of xanthine oxidase in platelet activating factor induced intestinal injury in the rat. Qu XW, etal., Gut. 1999 Feb;44(2):203-11.
64. The role of xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase in skin ischemia. Rees R, etal., J Surg Res. 1994 Feb;56(2):162-7.
65. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
66. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
67. Concentrations of adenosine and its metabolites in the rat retina/choroid during reperfusion after ischemia. Roth S, etal., Curr Eye Res. 1997 Sep;16(9):875-85.
68. A tungsten supplemented diet attenuates bacterial translocation in chronic portal hypertensive and cholestatic rats: role of xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase. Schimpl G, etal., Gut. 1999 Dec;45(6):904-10.
69. The impact of hepatic xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase activities on liver function in chronic cholestasis. Schimpl G, etal., Pediatr Surg Int. 2000;16(4):297-301.
70. Febuxostat improves the local and remote organ changes induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Shafik AN, Dig Dis Sci. 2013 Mar;58(3):650-9. doi: 10.1007/s10620-012-2391-1. Epub 2012 Sep 26.
71. Simultaneous treatment with citrate prevents nephropathy induced by FYX-051, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, in rats. Shimo T, etal., Toxicol Sci. 2005 Sep;87(1):267-76. Epub 2005 Jun 2.
72. The effect of hyperthermia on conversion of rat hepatic xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase. Skibba JL, etal., Biochem Pharmacol. 1988 Dec 1;37(23):4592-5.
73. The xanthine oxidase inhibitor oxypurinol reduces cancer cachexia-induced cardiomyopathy. Springer J, etal., Int J Cardiol. 2013 Jun 7. pii: S0167-5273(13)00991-1. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.05.063.
74. Nephroprotective efficacy of chrysin against cisplatin-induced toxicity via attenuation of oxidative stress. Sultana S, etal., J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012 Jun;64(6):872-81. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2012.01470.x. Epub 2012 Mar 22.
75. Nicorandil, a K(atp) channel opener, alleviates chronic renal injury by targeting podocytes and macrophages. Tamura Y, etal., Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012 Aug 1;303(3):F339-49. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.00158.2012. Epub 2012 May 23.
76. Effect of allopurinol on cardiovascular incidence among hypertensive nephropathy patients: the Gonryo study. Terawaki H, etal., Clin Exp Nephrol. 2012 Nov 29.
77. Leukocytes in carbon monoxide-mediated brain oxidative injury. Thom SR, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1993 Dec;123(2):234-47.
78. Efficacy and safety of allopurinol in patients with hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. Torres RJ, etal., Metabolism. 2007 Sep;56(9):1179-86.
79. Febuxostat suppressed renal ischemia-reperfusion injury via reduced oxidative stress. Tsuda H, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Oct 19;427(2):266-72. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.09.032. Epub 2012 Sep 17.
80. Methane biogenesis during sodium azide-induced chemical hypoxia in rats. Tuboly E, etal., Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013 Jan 15;304(2):C207-14. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00300.2012. Epub 2012 Nov 21.
81. Exaggerated liver injury induced by renal ischemia reperfusion in diabetes: effect of exenatide. Vaghasiya JD, etal., Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2010 Jul-Sep;16(3):174-80. doi: 10.4103/1319-3767.65187.
82. Xanthine oxidase activity in the dexamethasone-induced hypertensive rat. Wallwork CJ, etal., Microvasc Res. 2003 Jul;66(1):30-7.
83. Quercetin Protects against Cadmium-Induced Renal Uric Acid Transport System Alteration and Lipid Metabolism Disorder in Rats. Wang J, etal., Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:548430. doi: 10.1155/2012/548430. Epub 2012 May 29.
84. Oxidative state and oxidative metabolism in the brain of rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Wendt MM, etal., Exp Mol Pathol. 2015 Jun;98(3):549-57. doi: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2015.04.002. Epub 2015 Apr 11.
85. Dietary nicotinamide supplementation increases xanthine oxidoreductase activity in the kidney and heart but not liver of obese Zucker rats. Wu X and Wang M, J Nutr. 1995 Jul;125(7):1841-6.
86. Xanthine oxidase in experimental spinal cord injury. Xu J, etal., J Neurotrauma. 1991 Spring;8(1):11-8.
87. Associations of hypertension and its complications with variations in the xanthine dehydrogenase gene. Yang J, etal., Hypertens Res. 2008 May;31(5):931-40. doi: 10.1291/hypres.31.931.
88. Lipid peroxidation and changes in cytochrome c oxidase and xanthine oxidase activity in organophosphorus anticholinesterase induced myopathy. Yang ZP and Dettbarn WD, J Physiol Paris. 1998 Jun-Aug;92(3-4):157-61.
89. Hypouricemic effect of the methanol extract from Prunus mume fruit in mice. Yi LT, etal., Pharm Biol. 2012 Nov;50(11):1423-7. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2012.683115. Epub 2012 Sep 11.
90. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Rats Attenuates Ischemia-reperfusion Testicular Injury Through Blockade of Oxidative Stress, Suppression of Inflammation, and Reduction of Nitric Oxide Formation. Zhang Y, etal., Urology. 2013 Jun 12. pii: S0090-4295(13)00472-X. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2013.04.016.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:8670112   PMID:12502743   PMID:12969896   PMID:14588143   PMID:15201549   PMID:15201667   PMID:15932896   PMID:16109514   PMID:16407880   PMID:16502470   PMID:17031261   PMID:17301076  
PMID:17301077   PMID:17370312   PMID:17440754   PMID:17597094   PMID:17765919   PMID:17920330   PMID:18083771   PMID:18386220   PMID:18424432   PMID:18487445   PMID:18818408   PMID:18974366  
PMID:19800018   PMID:20167676   PMID:20399619   PMID:20555367   PMID:21077683   PMID:21295134   PMID:22231435   PMID:22648241   PMID:22688000   PMID:24014679   PMID:24448833   PMID:25486021  
PMID:25751622   PMID:25817260   PMID:26119820   PMID:26663724   PMID:27078869   PMID:27198514   PMID:27573711   PMID:27585949   PMID:28025796   PMID:30059711   PMID:38358003  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr8627,282,319 - 27,344,022 (+)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.2621,530,463 - 21,592,172 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl621,530,113 - 21,592,268 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx621,859,036 - 21,920,809 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0622,174,874 - 22,236,649 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0621,655,317 - 21,717,086 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0625,149,570 - 25,211,273 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl625,149,235 - 25,211,494 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0634,996,983 - 35,059,195 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4621,417,685 - 21,590,015 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1621,420,637 - 21,592,968 (+)NCBI
Celera621,081,179 - 21,143,279 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map6q13NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38231,334,321 - 31,414,742 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl231,334,321 - 31,414,742 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37231,557,187 - 31,637,608 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36231,410,692 - 31,491,115 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 34231,470,146 - 31,549,264NCBI
Celera231,399,873 - 31,481,045 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map2p23.1NCBI
HuRef231,294,906 - 31,375,846 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1231,487,808 - 31,568,252 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.0231,378,697 - 31,459,436 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm391774,190,890 - 74,257,191 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl1774,190,890 - 74,257,191 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm381773,883,895 - 73,950,397 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl1773,883,895 - 73,950,196 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv371774,233,248 - 74,299,522 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv361773,788,790 - 73,855,081 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera1778,175,030 - 78,239,710 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map17E2NCBI
cM Map1745.25NCBI
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1-v21295,076,064 - 95,156,263 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1-v2
NHGRI_mPanPan12A95,080,039 - 95,160,238 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v02A31,356,011 - 31,435,111 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.12A31,425,183 - 31,504,455 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl2A31,425,183 - 31,504,455 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.11724,900,708 - 24,960,748 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl1724,901,447 - 24,971,935 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha1724,694,965 - 24,754,929 (-)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.01725,464,496 - 25,524,534 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl1725,465,095 - 25,524,434 (-)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.11724,767,742 - 24,827,816 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.01724,830,189 - 24,890,224 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.01724,929,639 - 24,989,647 (-)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440629269,015,034 - 69,076,787 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049364931,762,869 - 1,823,238 (+)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_0049364931,762,814 - 1,824,501 (+)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl3107,987,126 - 108,053,169 (+)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.13107,987,060 - 108,052,043 (+)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.23114,732,427 - 114,796,636 (+)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.11476,084,693 - 76,162,840 (+)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl1476,085,368 - 76,163,936 (+)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_02366604535,902,856 - 35,979,384 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_00462473813,115,982 - 13,181,352 (-)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_00462473813,116,317 - 13,180,935 (-)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Xdh
513 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:53
Count of miRNA genes:48
Interacting mature miRNAs:49
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (http://mirgate.bioinfo.cnio.es/).
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
8552962Pigfal16Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level QTL 169.4blood insulin-like growth factor amount (VT:0010479)plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level (CMO:0001299)6141223769Rat
1549905Stresp10Stress response QTL 106.830.0066stress-related behavior trait (VT:0010451)number of approaches toward negative stimulus before onset of defensive burying response (CMO:0001960)6127574569Rat
10401812Kidm54Kidney mass QTL 54kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight (CMO:0000085)61436878859368788Rat
1331743Uae28Urinary albumin excretion QTL 284.5urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin level (CMO:0000130)6134235784Rat
2292589Emca10Estrogen-induced mammary cancer QTL 100.048mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)post-insult time to mammary tumor formation (CMO:0000345)61653614061536140Rat
10401800Kidm49Kidney mass QTL 49kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight (CMO:0000085)61436878859368788Rat
1300164Rf15Renal function QTL 153.12renal blood flow trait (VT:2000006)absolute change in renal blood flow rate (CMO:0001168)6507449754641141Rat
9589129Insul24Insulin level QTL 2419.060.001blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)plasma insulin level (CMO:0000342)6141223769Rat
1578758Tcas9Tongue tumor susceptibility QTL 93.29tongue integrity trait (VT:0010553)number of squamous cell tumors of the tongue with diameter greater than 3 mm (CMO:0001950)6137618905Rat
4145119Mcs25Mammary carcinoma susceptibility QTL 250.0001mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)ratio of deaths to total study population during a period of time (CMO:0001023)610894415110548006Rat
7411603Foco13Food consumption QTL 135.50.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)6141223769Rat
1598843Cm63Cardiac mass QTL 632.6heart mass (VT:0007028)heart weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000074)6139036266Rat
738024Sach5Saccharine consumption QTL 53.90.00039consumption behavior trait (VT:0002069)saccharin intake volume to total fluid intake volume ratio (CMO:0001601)6143394190Rat
7411542Bw127Body weight QTL 1275.50.001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)6141223769Rat
9589048Scfw3Subcutaneous fat weight QTL 34.570.001subcutaneous adipose mass (VT:1000472)abdominal subcutaneous fat pad weight (CMO:0002069)6141223769Rat
738023Alc17Alcohol consumption QTL 173.10.003consumption behavior trait (VT:0002069)ethanol drink intake rate to body weight ratio (CMO:0001616)6127574569Rat
1354616Despr12Despair related QTL 120.0012locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of experiment time spent in a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000958)6127574569Rat
2293839Kiddil2Kidney dilation QTL 24.8kidney pelvis morphology trait (VT:0004194)hydronephrosis severity score (CMO:0001208)62086642281133036Rat
1576309Emca7Estrogen-induced mammary cancer QTL 74mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)mammary tumor number (CMO:0000343)615107216107351382Rat
2293709Bss23Bone structure and strength QTL 235.180.0001femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)femur cross-sectional area (CMO:0001661)6142487980Rat
2293650Bss31Bone structure and strength QTL 315.050.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femur midshaft polar moment of inertia (CMO:0001669)6142487980Rat
7411584Foco4Food consumption QTL 44.30.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)6142838846Rat
1578665Bss16Bone structure and strength QTL 164.4femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)bone trabecular cross-sectional area (CMO:0002311)61173566972593685Rat
2293841Kiddil4Kidney dilation QTL 44.4kidney pelvis morphology trait (VT:0004194)hydronephrosis severity score (CMO:0001208)62086642281133036Rat
2300176Bmd51Bone mineral density QTL 5111.70.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)bone mineral density (CMO:0001226)6127574569Rat
1300128Rf16Renal function QTL 163.89renal blood flow trait (VT:2000006)absolute change in renal blood flow rate (CMO:0001168)6507449734434305Rat
1641898Colcr4Colorectal carcinoma resistance QTL43.710.0007intestine integrity trait (VT:0010554)well differentiated malignant colorectal tumor surface area measurement (CMO:0002077)62033877762613667Rat
1578668Bmd14Bone mineral density QTL 143.8femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)total volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001728)61173566972593685Rat
2301972Bp325Blood pressure QTL 3254.8arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)6172227641Rat
2293656Bss28Bone structure and strength QTL 286.790.0001femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)femur midshaft cortical cross-sectional area (CMO:0001663)6142487980Rat
1359023Bp272Blood pressure QTL 2722.5arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)61653614027261739Rat
1354664Slep2Serum leptin concentration QTL 24.49blood leptin amount (VT:0005667)serum leptin level (CMO:0000780)61653614071636405Rat
2300190Bmd52Bone mineral density QTL 5211.20.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)6127574569Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2621,420,196 - 21,420,428 (-)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2621,420,196 - 21,420,428 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0625,321,298 - 25,321,529NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_6.0622,591,778 - 22,592,009NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0635,169,195 - 35,169,426UniSTSRnor5.0
Rnor_5.0632,478,223 - 32,478,454UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4621,447,493 - 21,447,724UniSTSRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.4621,447,492 - 21,447,724RGDRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1621,450,277 - 21,450,691RGD
Celera620,970,862 - 20,971,109UniSTS
SHRSP x BN Map620.6398RGD
SHRSP x BN Map620.6398UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map6q13UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2621,592,194 - 21,592,392 (-)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0625,149,350 - 25,149,547NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0634,996,763 - 34,996,960UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4621,590,038 - 21,590,235UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera621,143,302 - 21,143,499UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map6q13UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2621,456,451 - 21,456,635 (-)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0625,285,094 - 25,285,277NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0635,132,991 - 35,133,174UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4621,483,767 - 21,483,950UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera621,007,206 - 21,007,389UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map6q13UniSTS

Genetic Models
This gene Xdh is modified in the following models/strains:


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 2 14 37 23 17 23 7 10 17 12 11 7
Low 1 19 16 14 2 14 1 1 37 16 22 1
Below cutoff 10 4 4 4 35 2 7


Nucleotide Sequences
RefSeq Transcripts NM_017154 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
GenBank Nucleotide AC128261 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  AH000836 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  DQ104432 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FB789770 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FB794695 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FB798942 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FB811713 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FB848248 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FB866510 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FB885376 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FB890763 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FB896523 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  HB659829 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  HB664754 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  HB669001 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  HB681772 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  HB718307 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  HB736569 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  HB755435 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  HB760822 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  HB766582 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  J05579 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  JAXUCZ010000006 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  U08123 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles

RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000009634   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000009634
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl621,530,481 - 21,592,268 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl625,149,235 - 25,211,494 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000101107   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000076909
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl621,530,113 - 21,589,971 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000110434   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000079949
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl621,541,111 - 21,592,268 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_017154   ⟹   NP_058850
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr8627,282,319 - 27,344,022 (+)NCBI
mRatBN7.2621,530,463 - 21,592,172 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.0625,149,570 - 25,211,273 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.0634,996,983 - 35,059,195 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.4621,417,685 - 21,590,015 (+)RGD
Celera621,081,179 - 21,143,279 (+)RGD
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_058850   ⟸   NM_017154
- UniProtKB: Q63157 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P22985 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6H9Z6 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   F1LQS6 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000009634   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000009634
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000076909   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000101107
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000079949   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000110434
Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P22985-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P22985 1-1331 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13694425
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R4950
Type:initiation region
Description:xanthine dehydrogenase
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database, http://epd.vital-it.ch/)
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.0625,211,266 - 25,211,326EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:62043 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-38428 BioCyc
BioCyc Pathway PWY-5695 [inosine 5'-phosphate degradation] BioCyc
  PWY-6608 [guanosine nucleotides degradation III] BioCyc
  SALVADEHYPOX-PWY [adenosine nucleotides degradation II] BioCyc
BioCyc Pathway Image PWY-5695 BioCyc
  PWY-6608 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000007081 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000009634 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000009634.7 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000101107.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000110434.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Gene3D-CATH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  3.30.465.10 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  [2Fe-2S]-binding domain UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Aldehyde oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase, a/b hammerhead UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Aldehyde oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase, molybdopterin binding domain UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  CO dehydrogenase flavoprotein, C-terminal domain UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro 2Fe-2S-bd UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  2Fe-2S-bd_dom_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  2Fe-2S_ferredoxin-like_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  2Fe-2S_ferredoxin-type UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  2Fe2S_fd_BS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Ald_Oxase/Xan_DH_a/b UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Ald_Oxase/Xan_DH_a/b_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Ald_Oxase/xanthine_DH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  AldOxase/xan_DH_MoCoBD2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  AldOxase/xan_DH_Mopterin-bd UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  AldOxase/xan_DH_Mopterin-bd_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Beta-grasp_dom_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  CO_DH_flav_C UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  CO_DH_flav_C_dom_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  FAD-bd_PCMH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  FAD-bd_PCMH-like_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  FAD-bd_PCMH_sub1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  FAD-bd_PCMH_sub2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Mopterin_DH_FAD-bd UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  OxRdtase_Mopterin_BS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Xanthine_DH_ssu UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:497811 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Pfam Ald_Xan_dh_C UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Ald_Xan_dh_C2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  CO_deh_flav_C UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  FAD_binding_5 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Fer2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Fer2_2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  MoCoBD_2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Xdh PhenoGen
PIRSF Xanthine_DH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PROSITE 2FE2S_FER_1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  2FE2S_FER_2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  FAD_PCMH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000007081 RatGTEx
SMART Ald_Xan_dh_C UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  CO_deh_flav_C UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Superfamily-SCOP SSF47741 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF54292 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF54665 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF55447 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF56003 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF56176 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
UniProt A0A8I5Y0Y5_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  XDH_RAT UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
UniProt Secondary Q63157 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2002-06-10 Xdh  xanthine dehydrogenase      Name updated 70584 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference