NPPB (natriuretic peptide B) - Rat Genome Database

Send us a Message

Submit Data |  Help |  Video Tutorials |  News |  Publications |  Download |  REST API |  Citing RGD |  Contact   
Gene: NPPB (natriuretic peptide B) Homo sapiens
Symbol: NPPB
Name: natriuretic peptide B
RGD ID: 69139
HGNC Page HGNC:7940
Description: Enables hormone receptor binding activity. Involved in antimicrobial humoral immune response mediated by antimicrobial peptide; protein folding; and receptor guanylyl cyclase signaling pathway. Part of protein-containing complex. Implicated in atherosclerosis; hypertension; myocardial infarction; obesity; and systolic heart failure. Biomarker of several diseases, including Kawasaki disease; artery disease (multiple); diabetes mellitus (multiple); heart disease (multiple); and kidney failure (multiple).
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: REVIEWED
Previously known as: BNP; brain natriuretic factor prohormone; brain type natriuretic peptide; gamma-brain natriuretic peptide; Iso-ANP; natriuretic peptide precursor B; natriuretic peptides B; natriuretic protein; preproBNP; proBNP
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Allele / Splice: See ClinVar data
Latest Assembly: GRCh38 - Human Genome Assembly GRCh38
NCBI Annotation Information: Note: This gene has been reviewed for its involvement in coronavirus biology, and is relevant for COVID-19 prognosis.
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38111,857,464 - 11,858,945 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl111,857,464 - 11,858,945 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37111,917,521 - 11,919,002 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36111,840,108 - 11,841,579 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 34111,851,789 - 11,853,254NCBI
Celera111,031,156 - 11,032,627 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map1p36.22NCBI
HuRef111,073,021 - 11,074,492 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1111,905,417 - 11,906,888 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.0111,401,560 - 11,403,041 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
acute kidney failure  (IEP,ISO)
adult respiratory distress syndrome  (IEP)
Animal Disease Models  (EXP)
anti-basement membrane glomerulonephritis  (ISO)
aortic valve insufficiency  (EXP)
atherosclerosis  (IAGP,IEP)
atrial fibrillation  (EXP)
Brain Injuries  (EXP,IEP)
Cardiomegaly  (EXP,ISO)
cardiomyopathy  (EXP)
Cardiotoxicity  (EXP)
cardiovascular system disease  (EXP)
Cerebral Hemorrhage  (EXP)
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2  (IAGP)
chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome  (IAGP)
chronic kidney disease  (IEP)
congenital heart disease  (EXP)
congestive heart failure  (EXP,IEP,ISO)
Contrast-Induced Nephropathy  (IDA)
coronary artery disease  (EXP)
Death  (IEP)
diabetes mellitus  (IEP)
Diabetic Nephropathies  (IEP,ISO)
dilated cardiomyopathy  (EXP,IEP)
Dyspnea  (EXP)
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome kyphoscoliotic type 1  (IAGP)
Eisenmenger Complex  (IEP)
end stage renal disease  (IEP)
essential hypertension  (IEP)
Experimental Diabetes Mellitus  (ISO)
Familial Atrial Fibrillation 6  (IAGP)
genetic disease  (IAGP)
heart disease  (EXP,IEP,ISO)
High Cardiac Output  (EXP)
hyperhomocysteinemia  (ISO)
hypertension  (EXP,IAGP,ISO)
hypertensive heart disease  (ISO)
Hypertensive Nephropathy  (ISO)
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy  (ISO)
hypokalemia  (EXP)
Hyponatremia  (IEP)
Hypotension  (EXP)
Inflammation  (EXP)
Insulin Resistance  (IEP)
Kawasaki disease  (IEP)
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy  (IEP,ISO)
liver cirrhosis  (IEP)
Metabolic Side Effects of Drugs and Substances  (ISO)
migraine  (IEP)
morbid obesity  (IEP)
myocardial infarction  (IDA,ISO)
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury  (ISO)
nephrosis  (ISO)
obesity  (IDA,ISO)
Pain  (EXP)
polycystic kidney disease  (ISO)
Postoperative Complications  (EXP)
proteinuria  (ISO)
pulmonary embolism  (IEP)
pulmonary hypertension  (EXP,IEP,ISO)
renal hypertension  (IEP,ISO)
sickle cell anemia  (EXP,IEP)
systolic heart failure  (IDA,IEP)
type 2 diabetes mellitus  (IEP,ISO)
ureteral obstruction  (EXP)
Vasovagal Syncope  (IEP)
Ventricular Dysfunction, Left  (EXP,ISO)
Ventricular Dysfunction, Right  (EXP)
Ventricular Remodeling  (EXP,ISO)
Ventricular Tachycardia  (EXP)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(5Z,8Z,11Z,13E)-15-HETE  (EXP)
(R)-noradrenaline  (EXP)
1,10-phenanthroline  (EXP)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (ISO)
2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-\{[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl](methyl)amino\}-2-(propan-2-yl)pentanenitrile  (EXP)
3'-amino-3'-deoxy-N(6),N(6)-dimethyladenosine  (ISO)
3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
3,3',5'-triiodo-L-thyronine  (ISO)
3,3',5'-triiodothyronine  (ISO)
3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine  (ISO)
3-[3-acetyl-4-[3-(tert-butylamino)-2-hydroxypropoxy]phenyl]-1,1-diethylurea  (ISO)
3-methyladenine  (ISO)
3-methylcholanthrene  (ISO)
4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane  (ISO)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (EXP,ISO)
5-azacytidine  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (ISO)
acetylsalicylic acid  (EXP,ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (EXP)
aldosterone  (EXP)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
ammonium chloride  (ISO)
angiotensin II  (ISO)
anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one  (ISO)
arecoline  (ISO)
aspartame  (EXP)
atenolol  (EXP,ISO)
atorvastatin calcium  (ISO)
atrazine  (ISO)
bellidifolin  (ISO)
benazepril  (ISO)
benidipine  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (EXP,ISO)
beta-naphthoflavone  (EXP,ISO)
betaxolol  (ISO)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol F  (EXP,ISO)
bosentan  (EXP)
butyric acid  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (ISO)
caffeine  (ISO)
calcitriol  (ISO)
Candesartan cilexetil  (ISO)
captopril  (ISO)
carvedilol  (EXP,ISO)
chlorogenic acid  (ISO)
chlorpromazine  (ISO)
chromium atom  (EXP)
cisplatin  (EXP)
citronellal  (ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (EXP)
cobalt(2+) sulfate  (EXP)
copper atom  (EXP)
copper(0)  (EXP)
copper(II) sulfate  (EXP)
corilagin  (ISO)
crocidolite asbestos  (EXP)
crotonaldehyde  (ISO)
cucurbitacin I  (ISO)
cyclophosphamide  (EXP)
cyclosporin A  (EXP,ISO)
cytarabine  (EXP)
dantrolene  (ISO)
daunorubicin  (EXP,ISO)
decabromodiphenyl ether  (ISO)
dehydroepiandrosterone  (EXP)
dexamethasone  (EXP)
dibromine  (ISO)
diethylstilbestrol  (EXP)
digoxin  (EXP)
dinophysistoxin 1  (EXP)
dioxygen  (EXP,ISO)
dipyridamole  (EXP)
diquat  (ISO)
disulfiram  (EXP)
donepezil hydrochloride  (ISO)
dorsomorphin  (EXP)
doxazosin  (EXP,ISO)
doxorubicin  (EXP,ISO)
EC (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) inhibitor  (EXP,ISO)
enalapril  (ISO)
endosulfan  (ISO)
ethanol  (EXP,ISO)
famotidine  (ISO)
fasudil  (ISO)
febuxostat  (ISO)
fenofibrate  (ISO)
folic acid  (ISO)
formaldehyde  (ISO)
fructose  (ISO)
fulvestrant  (EXP)
furan  (ISO)
gefitinib  (ISO)
gentamycin  (ISO)
glyburide  (ISO)
graphite  (ISO)
GW 501516  (ISO)
HET0016  (ISO)
hydralazine  (ISO)
hydrochlorothiazide  (ISO)
idarubicin  (EXP)
Ile(5)-angiotensin II  (ISO)
indoxyl sulfate  (ISO)
isoprenaline  (EXP,ISO)
ivermectin  (EXP)
lead nitrate  (ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
lithium chloride  (ISO)
losartan  (ISO)
melatonin  (ISO)
melphalan  (EXP)
mercury dibromide  (EXP)
mercury dichloride  (ISO)
methamphetamine  (ISO)
methotrexate  (EXP)
methylmercury chloride  (EXP)
metoprolol  (ISO)
mirtazapine  (ISO)
mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP)
monocrotaline  (ISO)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (ISO)
nebivolol  (EXP)
nickel sulfate  (EXP)
nifedipine  (ISO)
nitric oxide  (ISO)
nitrofen  (ISO)
nitroprusside  (EXP)
Olmesartan medoxomil  (ISO)
p-chloromercuribenzoic acid  (EXP)
paracetamol  (ISO)
Pentoxifylline  (EXP)
perfluorohexanesulfonic acid  (ISO)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (EXP,ISO)
phenylephrine  (ISO)
phenylhydrazine  (ISO)
phenylmercury acetate  (EXP)
pioglitazone  (EXP)
Pirarubicin  (ISO)
pirinixic acid  (ISO)
Plantamajoside  (ISO)
platycodin D  (ISO)
plumbagin  (ISO)
potassium chromate  (EXP)
pregabalin  (ISO)
progesterone  (ISO)
propranolol  (ISO)
prostaglandin E1  (EXP)
prostaglandin E2  (ISO)
pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate  (ISO)
quercetin  (ISO)
ramipril  (ISO)
resveratrol  (EXP,ISO)
rifampicin  (EXP)
rotenone  (EXP)
SB 203580  (ISO)
SB 431542  (EXP)
serpentine asbestos  (EXP)
sildenafil citrate  (EXP,ISO)
silicon dioxide  (EXP)
silver atom  (EXP,ISO)
silver(0)  (EXP,ISO)
simvastatin  (ISO)
sirolimus  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (EXP,ISO)
spironolactone  (EXP)
streptozocin  (ISO)
sunitinib  (EXP,ISO)
tacrolimus hydrate  (ISO)
Tanshinone I  (ISO)
telmisartan  (EXP,ISO)
Temocapril hydrochloride  (EXP)
tert-butyl hydroperoxide  (EXP)
thalidomide  (EXP)
Theaflavin 3,3'-digallate  (ISO)
thiabendazole  (ISO)
thymoquinone  (ISO)
trichloroethene  (ISO)
trichostatin A  (EXP)
triclosan  (EXP)
triptonide  (ISO)
troglitazone  (ISO)
valproic acid  (EXP)
valsartan  (EXP,ISO)
verapamil  (EXP)
verteporfin  (ISO)
vitamin E  (ISO)
vorinostat  (EXP)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
antimicrobial humoral immune response mediated by antimicrobial peptide  (IDA)
blood vessel diameter maintenance  (IEA,NAS)
body fluid secretion  (TAS)
cardiac conduction system development  (NAS)
cardiac muscle hypertrophy in response to stress  (ISO)
cell growth involved in cardiac muscle cell development  (ISO)
cell surface receptor signaling pathway  (NAS)
cellular response to mechanical stimulus  (ISO)
cGMP biosynthetic process  (IBA,IDA,IEA)
cGMP-mediated signaling  (IBA,IEA)
coronary vasculature development  (ISO)
endothelial cell proliferation  (ISO)
heart development  (ISO)
homeostasis of number of cells  (ISO)
MAPK cascade  (ISO)
negative regulation of angiogenesis  (TAS)
negative regulation of cell growth  (ISO,NAS)
negative regulation of cholangiocyte proliferation  (ISO)
negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation  (ISO)
negative regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure  (IBA,IEA,ISO)
neuropeptide signaling pathway  (IBA,IEA)
positive regulation of cGMP-mediated signaling  (ISO)
positive regulation of collecting lymphatic vessel constriction  (ISO)
positive regulation of renal sodium excretion  (TAS)
positive regulation of urine volume  (ISO,TAS)
protein folding  (IDA)
receptor guanylyl cyclase signaling pathway  (IBA,IDA,IEA)
regulation of blood pressure  (NAS)
regulation of vascular permeability  (TAS)
response to 3-methylcholanthrene  (ISO)
response to calcium ion  (ISO)
response to hypoxia  (ISO)
response to lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
response to nutrient  (ISO)
response to nutrient levels  (ISO)
response to organic cyclic compound  (ISO)
response to oxygen levels  (ISO)
response to peptide hormone  (ISO)
response to xenobiotic stimulus  (ISO)
system process  (IEA)
vasodilation  (IEA)

Cellular Component

Molecular Function

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
Phenotype Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Human Phenotype

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. 3-methylcholanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene modulate cardiac cytochrome P450 gene expression and arachidonic acid metabolism in male Sprague Dawley rats. Aboutabl ME, etal., Br J Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;158(7):1808-19. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00461.x.
2. Ultrastructural changes, increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered cardiac hypertrophic gene expressions in heart tissues of rats exposed to incense smoke. Al-Attas OS, etal., Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015 Jul;22(13):10083-93. doi: 10.1007/s11356-015-4212-5. Epub 2015 Feb 18.
3. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide as an indicator of disease severity in a heterogeneous group of patients with chronic precapillary pulmonary hypertension. Andreassen AK, etal., Am J Cardiol. 2006 Aug 15;98(4):525-9. Epub 2006 Jun 28.
4. Prognostic role of B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with diabetes and acute decompensated heart failure. Aspromonte N, etal., Diabet Med. 2007 Feb;24(2):124-30.
5. Log-transformed plasma level of brain natriuretic peptide during the acute phase of Kawasaki disease is quantitatively associated with myocardial dysfunction. Bang S, etal., Korean J Pediatr. 2011 Aug;54(8):340-4. Epub 2011 Aug 31.
6. Cardioprotective role of growth/differentiation factor 1 in post-infarction left ventricular remodelling and dysfunction. Bao MW, etal., J Pathol. 2015 Jul;236(3):360-72. doi: 10.1002/path.4523. Epub 2015 Mar 30.
7. Impact of the Look AHEAD Intervention on NT-pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Overweight and Obese Adults With Diabetes. Bertoni AG, etal., Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Sep 29. doi: 10.1038/oby.2011.296.
8. Impact of obesity on the expression profile of natriuretic Peptide system in a rat experimental model. Cabiati M, etal., PLoS One. 2013 Aug 29;8(8):e72959. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072959.
9. Long-term cardiac pro-B-type natriuretic peptide gene delivery prevents the development of hypertensive heart disease in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Cataliotti A, etal., Circulation. 2011 Mar 29;123(12):1297-305. Epub 2011 Mar 14.
10. Ventricular function and natriuretic peptides in sequentially combined models of hypertension. Cavallero S, etal., Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010 Apr;298(4):H1290-9. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00911.2009. Epub 2010 Feb 5.
11. Novel protein therapeutics for systolic heart failure: chronic subcutaneous B-type natriuretic peptide. Chen HH, etal., J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Dec 4;60(22):2305-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.07.056. Epub 2012 Nov 1.
12. Increased natriuretic peptide receptor A and C gene expression in rats with pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy. Christoffersen TE, etal., Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 Apr;290(4):H1635-41. Epub 2005 Nov 4.
13. Serum levels of N--terminal proB--type natriuretic peptide in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients -- relation to tidal volume size and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Determann RM, etal., BMC Pulm Med. 2013 Jul 9;13(1):42.
14. B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in contemporary Eisenmenger syndrome patients: predictive value and response to disease targeting therapy. Diller GP, etal., Heart. 2012 May;98(9):736-42. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2011-301522. Epub 2012 Mar 7.
15. N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide, but not brain natriuretic peptide, is increased in patients with severe obesity. Fernandes F, etal., Braz J Med Biol Res. 2007 Feb;40(2):153-8.
16. Prognostic value of NT-proBNP in patients with severe COVID-19. Gao L, etal., Respir Res. 2020 Apr 15;21(1):83. doi: 10.1186/s12931-020-01352-w.
17. Long-term effects of B-type natriuretic peptide infusion after acute myocardial infarction in a rat model. George I, etal., J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2010 Jan;55(1):14-20.
18. GOAs Human GO annotations GOA_HUMAN data from the GO Consortium
19. Plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in the general population: screening for left ventricular hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction. Goetze JP, etal., Eur Heart J. 2006 Dec;27(24):3004-10. Epub 2006 Nov 21.
20. Enhanced expression of DYRK1A in cardiomyocytes inhibits acute NFAT activation but does not prevent hypertrophy in vivo. Grebe C, etal., Cardiovasc Res. 2011 Jun 1;90(3):521-8. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvr023. Epub 2011 Jan 27.
21. [Effects of buyang huanwu decoction on the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake in abdominal aortic constriction induced myocardial hypertrophic rats]. Gu YP, etal., Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2013 May;33(5):627-31.
22. Parallel gene expressions of IL-6 and BNP during cardiac hypertrophy complicated with diastolic dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Haugen E, etal., Int J Cardiol. 2007 Jan 31;115(1):24-8. Epub 2006 Jun 8.
23. Studies on biochemical markers in cryoinfarction in rats. Hemalatha T, etal., Cryo Letters. 2006 Sep-Oct;27(5):311-8.
24. Hyperhomocysteinemia and myocardial expression of brain natriuretic peptide in rats. Herrmann M, etal., Clin Chem. 2007 Apr;53(4):773-80. Epub 2007 Feb 15.
25. B-type natriuretic peptide infusions in acute myocardial infarction. Hillock RJ, etal., Heart. 2008 May;94(5):617-22. Epub 2007 Jul 16.
26. Increased plasma levels and blunted effects of brain natriuretic peptide in rats with congestive heart failure. Hoffman A, etal., Am J Hypertens. 1991 Jul;4(7 Pt 1):597-601.
27. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Deletion Leads to Progressive Hypertension, Associated Organ Damage, and Reduced Survival: Novel Model for Human Hypertension. Holditch SJ, etal., Hypertension. 2015 Jul;66(1):199-210. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.05610. Epub 2015 May 11.
28. B-type natriuretic peptide overexpression ameliorates hepatorenal fibrocystic disease in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease. Holditch SJ, etal., Kidney Int. 2017 Sep;92(3):657-668. doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2017.02.017. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
29. Effects of brain natriuretic peptide on contraction and intracellular Ca2+ in ventricular myocytes from the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Howarth FC, etal., Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Nov;1084:155-65.
30. Regional cardiac expression and concentration of natriuretic peptides in patients with severe chronic heart failure. Hystad ME, etal., Acta Physiol Scand. 2001 Apr;171(4):395-403.
31. Molecular forms of human brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in plasma of patients on hemodialysis (HD). Ishizaka Y, etal., Clin Nephrol. 1995 Apr;43(4):237-42.
32. B-type natriuretic peptide versus amino terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide: selecting the optimal heart failure marker in patients with impaired kidney function. Jafri L, etal., BMC Nephrol. 2013 May 31;14:117. doi: 10.1186/1471-2369-14-117.
33. B-type natriuretic peptide and risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction: a substudy from the HORIZONS-AMI trial. Jarai R, etal., Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2012 Dec;5(6):813-20. doi: 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.112.972356. Epub 2012 Nov 27.
34. A new, fast and reliable radioimmunoassay of brain natriuretic peptide in human plasma. Reference values in healthy subjects and in patients with different diseases. Jensen KT, etal., Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1997 Oct;57(6):529-40.
35. Altered regulation of nitric oxide and natriuretic peptide system in cisplatin-induced nephropathy. Kim CS, etal., Regul Pept. 2012 Feb 10;174(1-3):65-70. doi: 10.1016/j.regpep.2011.12.001. Epub 2011 Dec 28.
36. Increased plasma type B natriuretic peptide in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease. Kishimoto S, etal., Pediatr Int. 2011 Oct;53(5):736-41. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-200X.2011.03351.x.
37. A novel variable number of tandem repeat of the natriuretic peptide precursor B gene's 5'-flanking region is associated with essential hypertension among Japanese females. Kosuge K, etal., Int J Med Sci. 2007 May 16;4(3):146-52.
38. N-terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Risk of Diabetes. Lazo M, etal., Diabetes. 2013 Jun 3.
39. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and renal insufficiency as predictors of mortality in pulmonary hypertension. Leuchte HH, etal., Chest. 2007 Feb;131(2):402-9.
40. Clinical and pathological investigation of severe COVID-19 patients. Li S, etal., JCI Insight. 2020 May 19. pii: 138070. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.138070.
41. NT Pro BNP Plasma Level and Atrial Volume Are Linked to the Severity of Liver Cirrhosis. Licata A, etal., PLoS One. 2013 Aug 5;8(8):e68364. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068364. Print 2013.
42. Development of cardiac hypertrophy by sunitinib in vivo and in vitro rat cardiomyocytes is influenced by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathway. Maayah ZH, etal., Arch Toxicol. 2014 Mar;88(3):725-38. doi: 10.1007/s00204-013-1159-5. Epub 2013 Nov 19.
43. NT-pro brain natriuretic peptide levels and the risk of death in the cooperative study of sickle cell disease. Machado RF, etal., Br J Haematol. 2011 Aug;154(4):512-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2011.08777.x. Epub 2011 Jun 21.
44. Transgenic overexpression of brain natriuretic peptide prevents the progression of diabetic nephropathy in mice. Makino H, etal., Diabetologia. 2006 Oct;49(10):2514-24. Epub 2006 Aug 18.
45. Experimental mild renal insufficiency mediates early cardiac apoptosis, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction: a kidney-heart connection. Martin FL, etal., Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012 Jan 15;302(2):R292-9. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00194.2011. Epub 2011 Nov 9.
46. Increased S100B serum levels in dilated cardiomyopathy patients. Mazzini GS, etal., J Card Fail. 2007 Dec;13(10):850-4.
47. Cardiorenal syndrome in hypertensive rats: microalbuminuria, inflammation and ventricular hypertrophy. Moubarak M, etal., Physiol Res. 2012 Mar 6;61(1):13-24. Epub 2011 Dec 20.
48. Increased human brain natriuretic peptide in congestive heart failure. Mukoyama M, etal., N Engl J Med. 1990 Sep 13;323(11):757-8.
49. NT-proANP and BNP in renovascular and in severe and mild essential hypertension. Mussalo H, etal., Kidney Blood Press Res. 2003;26(1):34-41.
50. Rapid transcriptional activation and early mRNA turnover of brain natriuretic peptide in cardiocyte hypertrophy. Evidence for brain natriuretic peptide as an "emergency" cardiac hormone against ventricular overload. Nakagawa O, etal., J Clin Invest. 1995 Sep;96(3):1280-7.
51. Natriuretic peptides for early prediction of acute kidney injury in community-acquired pneumonia. Nowak A, etal., Clin Chim Acta. 2013 Apr 18;419:67-72. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2013.01.014. Epub 2013 Feb 13.
52. Relationship of brain natriuretic peptide with metabolic syndrome parameters: an observational study. Oztekin S, etal., Anadolu Kardiyol Derg. 2011 Dec;11(8):678-84. doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.188. Epub 2011 Oct 28.
53. Vitamin D receptor activation, left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. Panizo S, etal., Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2013 Sep 7.
54. Circulating atrial natriuretic peptide genetic association study identifies a novel gene cluster associated with stroke in whites. Pereira NL, etal., Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2015 Feb;8(1):141-9. doi: 10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.114.000624. Epub 2014 Dec 1.
55. SNP rs198389 (T-381 C) polymorphism in the B-type natriuretic peptide gene promoter in patients with atherosclerotic renovascular hypertension. Poreba R, etal., Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2009 Apr;119(4):219-24.
56. Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide is associated with increased mortality in patients with COVID-19: systematic review and meta-analysis. Pranata R, etal., Postgrad Med J. 2020 May 20. pii: postgradmedj-2020-137884. doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-137884.
57. B-type natriuretic peptide pretreatment attenuates heart ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Ren B, etal., Transplant Proc. 2010 Dec;42(10):4496-8.
58. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
59. B-type natriuretic peptides are reliable markers of cardiac strain in CKD pediatric patients. Rinat C, etal., Pediatr Nephrol. 2012 Apr;27(4):617-25. doi: 10.1007/s00467-011-2025-4. Epub 2011 Oct 27.
60. BMP type I receptor ALK2 is required for angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Shahid M, etal., Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016 Apr 15;310(8):H984-94. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00879.2015. Epub 2016 Feb 12.
61. Detection of membrane-bound guanylate cyclase activity in rat C6 glioma cells at different growth states following activation by natriuretic peptides. Sorci G, etal., Brain Res. 1995 Jun 12;683(1):51-8.
62. Overexpression of brain natriuretic peptide in mice ameliorates immune-mediated renal injury. Suganami T, etal., J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001 Dec;12(12):2652-63.
63. Posttranscriptional Control of BNP Gene Expression in Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension. Suo M, etal., Hypertension 2002 Mar 1;39(3):803-8.
64. The association of brain natriuretic peptide and insulin resistance in obesity-related hypertension. Tekes S and Cikim AS, J Hum Hypertens. 2007 Jul;21(7):546-50. Epub 2007 Mar 29.
65. Lack of association between polymorphisms of eight candidate genes and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: the CARDIGENE study. Tiret L, etal., J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Jan;35(1):29-35.
66. Upregulated neurohumoral factors are associated with left ventricular remodeling and poor prognosis in rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension. Usui S, etal., Circ J. 2006 Sep;70(9):1208-15.
67. Serum cytokine and pro-brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with migraine. Uzar E, etal., Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011 Oct;15(10):1111-6.
68. Forkhead class O transcription factor 3a activation and Sirtuin1 overexpression in the hypertrophied myocardium of the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rat. Vahtola E, etal., J Hypertens. 2008 Feb;26(2):334-44.
69. The prognostic value of pro-B-Type natriuretic peptide in acute pulmonary embolism. Verschuren F, etal., Thromb Res. 2013 Jun;131(6):e235-9. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2013.03.009. Epub 2013 Apr 4.
70. Opposite regulation of brain and C-type natriuretic peptides in the streptozotocin-diabetic cardiopathy. Walther T, etal., J Mol Endocrinol. 2000 Jun;24(3):391-5.
71. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with isolated traumatic brain injury: a prospective cohort study. Wu X, etal., J Trauma. 2011 Oct;71(4):820-5; discussion 825.
72. WY14643 improves left ventricular myocardial mitochondrial and systolic functions in obese rats under chronic persistent hypoxia via the PPARα pathway. Yan J, etal., Life Sci. 2021 Feb 1;266:118888. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118888. Epub 2020 Dec 10.
73. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with severe covid-19 with diabetes. Yan Y, etal., BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2020 Apr;8(1). pii: 8/1/e001343. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001343.
74. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels in normotensive noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients with microalbuminuria. Yano Y, etal., J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Jul;84(7):2353-6.
75. Increased plasma levels and effects of brain natriuretic peptide in experimental nephrosis. Yokota N, etal., Nephron. 1993;65(3):454-9.
76. B-type natriuretic peptide for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with heart failure undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Zhang J, etal., Acta Radiol. 2010 Jul;51(6):641-8. doi: 10.3109/02841851.2010.486804.
77. Diagnostic value of serum brain natriuretic peptide in syncope in children and adolescents. Zhang Q, etal., Acta Paediatr. 2013 May;102(5):e210-4. doi: 10.1111/apa.12182. Epub 2013 Feb 21.
78. Growth/differentiation factor 1 alleviates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. Zhang Y, etal., Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 Feb;1842(2):232-44. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.11.018. Epub 2013 Nov 23.
79. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with diabetes and secondary hyperglycaemia with coronavirus disease 2019: A single-centre, retrospective, observational study in Wuhan. Zhang Y, etal., Diabetes Obes Metab. 2020 May 14. doi: 10.1111/dom.14086.
80. Inhibition of CYP1B1 ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy induced by uremic toxin. Zhang Y, etal., Mol Med Rep. 2020 Jan;21(1):393-404. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2019.10810. Epub 2019 Nov 11.
81. Epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of 32 critical and 67 noncritical cases of COVID-19 in Chengdu. Zheng Y, etal., J Clin Virol. 2020 Jun;127:104366. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104366. Epub 2020 Apr 10.
82. Brain natriuretic peptide is related to carotid plaques and predicts atherosclerosis in pre-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease. Zhou W, etal., Eur J Intern Med. 2012 Sep;23(6):539-44. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2012.06.001. Epub 2012 Jun 24.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:1309330   PMID:1660465   PMID:1672777   PMID:2136732   PMID:2138890   PMID:2522777   PMID:2597152   PMID:7601467   PMID:7901875   PMID:8837222   PMID:8890728   PMID:9832489  
PMID:11120697   PMID:11410403   PMID:11750283   PMID:11999635   PMID:12015190   PMID:12084525   PMID:12477932   PMID:12601551   PMID:12612980   PMID:12727915   PMID:12742987   PMID:12771003  
PMID:12832317   PMID:12861161   PMID:12890912   PMID:14645255   PMID:14726474   PMID:14737067   PMID:14960748   PMID:14967157   PMID:15118286   PMID:15277419   PMID:15489334   PMID:15525883  
PMID:15604421   PMID:15616804   PMID:15619076   PMID:15644628   PMID:15686715   PMID:15689309   PMID:15709752   PMID:15732251   PMID:15735222   PMID:15875778   PMID:15911064   PMID:15947264  
PMID:16037399   PMID:16061439   PMID:16117728   PMID:16179421   PMID:16185779   PMID:16189514   PMID:16203929   PMID:16236896   PMID:16236924   PMID:16236931   PMID:16293687   PMID:16298451  
PMID:16338248   PMID:16338261   PMID:16338262   PMID:16338263   PMID:16338268   PMID:16377932   PMID:16386619   PMID:16446217   PMID:16495466   PMID:16546444   PMID:16594987   PMID:16600203  
PMID:16624649   PMID:16644347   PMID:16648193   PMID:16697117   PMID:16710414   PMID:16716660   PMID:16722030   PMID:16733597   PMID:16733598   PMID:16754798   PMID:16801175   PMID:16829184  
PMID:16831981   PMID:16870210   PMID:16875975   PMID:16937127   PMID:16940194   PMID:16962475   PMID:16962477   PMID:17086116   PMID:17097992   PMID:17099013   PMID:17112494   PMID:17149558  
PMID:17175893   PMID:17186137   PMID:17289171   PMID:17323015   PMID:17340039   PMID:17343213   PMID:17365940   PMID:17381357   PMID:17412758   PMID:17478552   PMID:17482153   PMID:17490778  
PMID:17517347   PMID:17519779   PMID:17567649   PMID:17607499   PMID:17607502   PMID:17643631   PMID:17662495   PMID:17669797   PMID:17690842   PMID:17719005   PMID:17721754   PMID:17785934  
PMID:17822384   PMID:17855407   PMID:17879024   PMID:17881654   PMID:17891611   PMID:17899307   PMID:17900714   PMID:17901852   PMID:17943627   PMID:17959862   PMID:17972161   PMID:17996240  
PMID:18037101   PMID:18037739   PMID:18037753   PMID:18049439   PMID:18054808   PMID:18055041   PMID:18077013   PMID:18160811   PMID:18163013   PMID:18177956   PMID:18191909   PMID:18194671  
PMID:18219371   PMID:18243818   PMID:18252905   PMID:18255169   PMID:18256871   PMID:18258801   PMID:18298592   PMID:18309461   PMID:18319268   PMID:18322550   PMID:18326895   PMID:18328262  
PMID:18335382   PMID:18347270   PMID:18353715   PMID:18353850   PMID:18362234   PMID:18374882   PMID:18375252   PMID:18378336   PMID:18388105   PMID:18394002   PMID:18394456   PMID:18418236  
PMID:18440296   PMID:18443568   PMID:18450924   PMID:18484161   PMID:18495276   PMID:18513509   PMID:18513528   PMID:18528966   PMID:18537757   PMID:18562472   PMID:18573197   PMID:18602177  
PMID:18609042   PMID:18609050   PMID:18632168   PMID:18632852   PMID:18649054   PMID:18649955   PMID:18654020   PMID:18660489   PMID:18701924   PMID:18703243   PMID:18706401   PMID:18712036  
PMID:18721456   PMID:18728335   PMID:18729306   PMID:18759301   PMID:18762474   PMID:18774614   PMID:18786480   PMID:18789145   PMID:18794210   PMID:18816264   PMID:18823968   PMID:18824845  
PMID:18835219   PMID:18855222   PMID:18923244   PMID:18948614   PMID:18957868   PMID:18971547   PMID:18971552   PMID:18971785   PMID:19008326   PMID:19028043   PMID:19032759   PMID:19042041  
PMID:19077418   PMID:19086053   PMID:19103499   PMID:19116708   PMID:19127569   PMID:19130415   PMID:19155075   PMID:19157602   PMID:19157978   PMID:19166616   PMID:19168558   PMID:19172697  
PMID:19183435   PMID:19189316   PMID:19194108   PMID:19194564   PMID:19210529   PMID:19214022   PMID:19219041   PMID:19221295   PMID:19237086   PMID:19247872   PMID:19262210   PMID:19263527  
PMID:19275472   PMID:19293713   PMID:19298805   PMID:19299763   PMID:19322079   PMID:19326473   PMID:19327104   PMID:19327608   PMID:19329198   PMID:19339274   PMID:19356487   PMID:19356514  
PMID:19356808   PMID:19359532   PMID:19359811   PMID:19377085   PMID:19386989   PMID:19387249   PMID:19387960   PMID:19391062   PMID:19394710   PMID:19398076   PMID:19407818   PMID:19424098  
PMID:19430483   PMID:19444135   PMID:19455566   PMID:19477027   PMID:19487972   PMID:19492165   PMID:19494782   PMID:19497572   PMID:19505208   PMID:19523464   PMID:19542490   PMID:19546389  
PMID:19560452   PMID:19568166   PMID:19581836   PMID:19584071   PMID:19606057   PMID:19615861   PMID:19615987   PMID:19635983   PMID:19638709   PMID:19642911   PMID:19643359   PMID:19653574  
PMID:19662018   PMID:19667278   PMID:19670155   PMID:19685518   PMID:19690080   PMID:19708225   PMID:19712988   PMID:19719987   PMID:19719993   PMID:19729213   PMID:19729800   PMID:19740358  
PMID:19755761   PMID:19808368   PMID:19809305   PMID:19815210   PMID:19816874   PMID:19830720   PMID:19838110   PMID:19843778   PMID:19844734   PMID:19845751   PMID:19860001   PMID:19897258  
PMID:19900726   PMID:19913121   PMID:19919978   PMID:19920165   PMID:19929142   PMID:19929271   PMID:19932518   PMID:19944367   PMID:19945451   PMID:19968983   PMID:20002300   PMID:20023254  
PMID:20024643   PMID:20034689   PMID:20038279   PMID:20051875   PMID:20083731   PMID:20087954   PMID:20090534   PMID:20102554   PMID:20113292   PMID:20140438   PMID:20142019   PMID:20142024  
PMID:20142028   PMID:20142114   PMID:20173383   PMID:20187770   PMID:20214692   PMID:20216395   PMID:20223915   PMID:20228511   PMID:20234137   PMID:20346360   PMID:20350538   PMID:20364046  
PMID:20368210   PMID:20370326   PMID:20373129   PMID:20378998   PMID:20407391   PMID:20441480   PMID:20470220   PMID:20470299   PMID:20485180   PMID:20492497   PMID:20505308   PMID:20505514  
PMID:20506274   PMID:20507952   PMID:20519808   PMID:20528912   PMID:20536328   PMID:20539839   PMID:20539843   PMID:20553977   PMID:20562693   PMID:20575653   PMID:20576043   PMID:20576050  
PMID:20581772   PMID:20598759   PMID:20610233   PMID:20628086   PMID:20636229   PMID:20655247   PMID:20660094   PMID:20674395   PMID:20690091   PMID:20700369   PMID:20701470   PMID:20709045  
PMID:20713912   PMID:20726994   PMID:20727348   PMID:20729741   PMID:20731986   PMID:20804651   PMID:20805692   PMID:20807228   PMID:20812386   PMID:20829070   PMID:20835904   PMID:20846963  
PMID:20849244   PMID:20883932   PMID:20887619   PMID:20930495   PMID:20947817   PMID:20956023   PMID:20978564   PMID:20979755   PMID:21041973   PMID:21067752   PMID:21070664   PMID:21086902  
PMID:21108561   PMID:21110196   PMID:21110214   PMID:21111985   PMID:21127887   PMID:21131173   PMID:21131684   PMID:21152016   PMID:21162718   PMID:21173540   PMID:21178638   PMID:21188387  
PMID:21194766   PMID:21199206   PMID:21200085   PMID:21214096   PMID:21215559   PMID:21217075   PMID:21225672   PMID:21234705   PMID:21261781   PMID:21273288   PMID:21297144   PMID:21304210  
PMID:21333352   PMID:21343155   PMID:21364112   PMID:21367474   PMID:21371160   PMID:21376713   PMID:21387129   PMID:21394710   PMID:21396728   PMID:21397374   PMID:21397962   PMID:21413834  
PMID:21435188   PMID:21450621   PMID:21450626   PMID:21464097   PMID:21464227   PMID:21470289   PMID:21473725   PMID:21480001   PMID:21486579   PMID:21498911   PMID:21514286   PMID:21516440  
PMID:21526421   PMID:21538234   PMID:21543459   PMID:21558448   PMID:21567460   PMID:21584749   PMID:21600847   PMID:21604967   PMID:21617607   PMID:21620395   PMID:21624043   PMID:21629202  
PMID:21663466   PMID:21689859   PMID:21696613   PMID:21697610   PMID:21700090   PMID:21701385   PMID:21714421   PMID:21763278   PMID:21779816   PMID:21792022   PMID:21795086   PMID:21798425  
PMID:21807382   PMID:21807423   PMID:21824924   PMID:21838836   PMID:21857933   PMID:21858735   PMID:21872142   PMID:21873635   PMID:21884743   PMID:21891968   PMID:21892902   PMID:21900689  
PMID:21909110   PMID:21939835   PMID:21952518   PMID:21955499   PMID:21955828   PMID:21960417   PMID:21993227   PMID:22000971   PMID:22018780   PMID:22072300   PMID:22087311   PMID:22105112  
PMID:22113444   PMID:22116811   PMID:22137497   PMID:22138041   PMID:22143056   PMID:22154198   PMID:22160408   PMID:22166506   PMID:22209994   PMID:22222353   PMID:22234370   PMID:22234513  
PMID:22242262   PMID:22251274   PMID:22286795   PMID:22307842   PMID:22310189   PMID:22313067   PMID:22316276   PMID:22322531   PMID:22325151   PMID:22327025   PMID:22349089   PMID:22368903  
PMID:22374183   PMID:22384001   PMID:22386698   PMID:22390472   PMID:22396190   PMID:22397400   PMID:22412224   PMID:22421508   PMID:22439818   PMID:22459392   PMID:22459404   PMID:22532404  
PMID:22536076   PMID:22541282   PMID:22543574   PMID:22545649   PMID:22546865   PMID:22547689   PMID:22559153   PMID:22581254   PMID:22592287   PMID:22608896   PMID:22626835   PMID:22629130  
PMID:22645408   PMID:22658561   PMID:22664008   PMID:22670496   PMID:22676431   PMID:22685586   PMID:22691215   PMID:22695938   PMID:22739685   PMID:22740123   PMID:22748606   PMID:22753861  
PMID:22773432   PMID:22785411   PMID:22825646   PMID:22834778   PMID:22841166   PMID:22847152   PMID:22878353   PMID:22878801   PMID:22914252   PMID:22921817   PMID:22926410   PMID:22938543  
PMID:22973461   PMID:22989031   PMID:22997250   PMID:22998064   PMID:23006812   PMID:23012317   PMID:23019395   PMID:23033840   PMID:23042311   PMID:23047817   PMID:23051933   PMID:23058722  
PMID:23064562   PMID:23071500   PMID:23084819   PMID:23114906   PMID:23119023   PMID:23132698   PMID:23149248   PMID:23152754   PMID:23152884   PMID:23183321   PMID:23207119   PMID:23217478  
PMID:23228375   PMID:23269269   PMID:23280329   PMID:23289011   PMID:23293174   PMID:23302112   PMID:23315043   PMID:23318845   PMID:23341901   PMID:23349346   PMID:23350927   PMID:23357662  
PMID:23377871   PMID:23382219   PMID:23391507   PMID:23419987   PMID:23422348   PMID:23471272   PMID:23477424   PMID:23483221   PMID:23496263   PMID:23499807   PMID:23516493   PMID:23518421  
PMID:23542086   PMID:23552626   PMID:23568644   PMID:23574011   PMID:23585345   PMID:23602778   PMID:23615024   PMID:23639511   PMID:23643288   PMID:23645505   PMID:23653297   PMID:23656924  
PMID:23667500   PMID:23668272   PMID:23669527   PMID:23684562   PMID:23723326   PMID:23747879   PMID:23789447   PMID:23792241   PMID:23801020   PMID:23803318   PMID:23826659   PMID:23831167  
PMID:23852911   PMID:23861381   PMID:23869896   PMID:23876603   PMID:23916937   PMID:23924312   PMID:23925410   PMID:23929789   PMID:23932576   PMID:23942766   PMID:23959302   PMID:23964619  
PMID:24015598   PMID:24030529   PMID:24036936   PMID:24054827   PMID:24060192   PMID:24065415   PMID:24080362   PMID:24093631   PMID:24101702   PMID:24119617   PMID:24126437   PMID:24169536  
PMID:24186915   PMID:24214578   PMID:24217044   PMID:24217163   PMID:24217402   PMID:24219732   PMID:24236118   PMID:24244755   PMID:24265747   PMID:24312541   PMID:24324290   PMID:24324775  
PMID:24327531   PMID:24334564   PMID:24334757   PMID:24340744   PMID:24356556   PMID:24361777   PMID:24372302   PMID:24388546   PMID:24393073   PMID:24402421   PMID:24412773   PMID:24421874  
PMID:24433615   PMID:24443352   PMID:24451016   PMID:24453873   PMID:24463920   PMID:24470529   PMID:24486650   PMID:24498905   PMID:24501104   PMID:24505034   PMID:24519407   PMID:24521195  
PMID:24522084   PMID:24523584   PMID:24524956   PMID:24525156   PMID:24593826   PMID:24598275   PMID:24610898   PMID:24612820   PMID:24634292   PMID:24655733   PMID:24657652   PMID:24671901  
PMID:24679693   PMID:24686994   PMID:24719984   PMID:24731743   PMID:24732340   PMID:24733401   PMID:24736765   PMID:24751887   PMID:24757103   PMID:24774264   PMID:24776201   PMID:24779290  
PMID:24794960   PMID:24795095   PMID:24795153   PMID:24798786   PMID:24800931   PMID:24805995   PMID:24821636   PMID:24823381   PMID:24841419   PMID:24841658   PMID:24885051   PMID:24887309  
PMID:24899611   PMID:24943350   PMID:24947203   PMID:24997011   PMID:25004239   PMID:25037453   PMID:25060790   PMID:25072816   PMID:25102374   PMID:25115253   PMID:25135237   PMID:25142830  
PMID:25151325   PMID:25188741   PMID:25194157   PMID:25231020   PMID:25248238   PMID:25250312   PMID:25257704   PMID:25287586   PMID:25322997   PMID:25328404   PMID:25360594   PMID:25370350  
PMID:25371308   PMID:25373384   PMID:25380904   PMID:25389283   PMID:25400811   PMID:25402208   PMID:25416956   PMID:25449518   PMID:25459239   PMID:25464207   PMID:25473804   PMID:25503636  
PMID:25511571   PMID:25523952   PMID:25524015   PMID:25526883   PMID:25561047   PMID:25561281   PMID:25569645   PMID:25571877   PMID:25586507   PMID:25604362   PMID:25604469   PMID:25605700  
PMID:25629204   PMID:25629540   PMID:25631382   PMID:25651741   PMID:25658326   PMID:25663560   PMID:25714960   PMID:25744196   PMID:25753178   PMID:25776937   PMID:25783741   PMID:25788439  
PMID:25825410   PMID:25833076   PMID:25847409   PMID:25864448   PMID:25867369   PMID:25918047   PMID:25934190   PMID:25955228   PMID:25959843   PMID:25975456   PMID:25980453   PMID:25991044  
PMID:25997425   PMID:25999400   PMID:26047677   PMID:26071618   PMID:26077878   PMID:26111773   PMID:26125712   PMID:26125769   PMID:26125903   PMID:26140435   PMID:26142965   PMID:26173591  
PMID:26190179   PMID:26201002   PMID:26209786   PMID:26299071   PMID:26323562   PMID:26331403   PMID:26359292   PMID:26387808   PMID:26433086   PMID:26452045   PMID:26488448   PMID:26495299  
PMID:26506995   PMID:26547915   PMID:26567814   PMID:26612590   PMID:26716583   PMID:26732551   PMID:26746175   PMID:26773184   PMID:26786210   PMID:26795264   PMID:26801306   PMID:26845306  
PMID:26849890   PMID:26852688   PMID:26868212   PMID:26892302   PMID:26910333   PMID:26922130   PMID:26922580   PMID:26949703   PMID:26957276   PMID:26968282   PMID:26987266   PMID:27005324  
PMID:27052066   PMID:27052075   PMID:27056603   PMID:27077910   PMID:27085779   PMID:27101535   PMID:27171378   PMID:27194537   PMID:27214686   PMID:27220692   PMID:27238916   PMID:27328493  
PMID:27328498   PMID:27339461   PMID:27342145   PMID:27347749   PMID:27426417   PMID:27455178   PMID:27468499   PMID:27471876   PMID:27522979   PMID:27567834   PMID:27601074   PMID:27619215  
PMID:27718443   PMID:27744141   PMID:27748006   PMID:27749513   PMID:27760526   PMID:27760764   PMID:27815796   PMID:27914003   PMID:27918957   PMID:27919715   PMID:27920275   PMID:27920547  
PMID:27983995   PMID:27983996   PMID:28002165   PMID:28028158   PMID:28039523   PMID:28045698   PMID:28069402   PMID:28079843   PMID:28132515   PMID:28135310   PMID:28138312   PMID:28183314  
PMID:28242284   PMID:28252040   PMID:28253498   PMID:28268080   PMID:28268084   PMID:28272231   PMID:28284500   PMID:28322314   PMID:28331244   PMID:28336204   PMID:28341776   PMID:28349264  
PMID:28456775   PMID:28458528   PMID:28473224   PMID:28554908   PMID:28570595   PMID:28587950   PMID:28623858   PMID:28724951   PMID:28753169   PMID:28765973   PMID:28774268   PMID:28791849  
PMID:28845719   PMID:28905172   PMID:28946871   PMID:28962547   PMID:28990414   PMID:29036547   PMID:29121498   PMID:29173327   PMID:29190613   PMID:29203579   PMID:29256043   PMID:29263170  
PMID:29290081   PMID:29302701   PMID:29327361   PMID:29334941   PMID:29355441   PMID:29431103   PMID:29478009   PMID:29532155   PMID:29564533   PMID:29569494   PMID:29581225   PMID:29604077  
PMID:29604419   PMID:29625779   PMID:29650297   PMID:29656687   PMID:29661151   PMID:29675571   PMID:29697035   PMID:29699498   PMID:29733490   PMID:29737871   PMID:29747827   PMID:29754152  
PMID:29775443   PMID:29793175   PMID:29877684   PMID:29885699   PMID:29951921   PMID:29998930   PMID:30001941   PMID:30057391   PMID:30111510   PMID:30153838   PMID:30158031   PMID:30196305  
PMID:30205090   PMID:30217946   PMID:30223365   PMID:30242998   PMID:30287475   PMID:30540645   PMID:30595763   PMID:30626934   PMID:30636655   PMID:30711264   PMID:30721554   PMID:30763368  
PMID:30772761   PMID:30786848   PMID:30819103   PMID:30820654   PMID:30866636   PMID:30883813   PMID:30906526   PMID:30919605   PMID:30943979   PMID:30953905   PMID:30963739   PMID:31003870  
PMID:31019148   PMID:31063194   PMID:31092393   PMID:31128228   PMID:31175403   PMID:31200964   PMID:31272739   PMID:31280356   PMID:31307994   PMID:31330506   PMID:31418487   PMID:31441355  
PMID:31446828   PMID:31466059   PMID:31471993   PMID:31477203   PMID:31515488   PMID:31582139   PMID:31679767   PMID:31813354   PMID:31852642   PMID:31875779   PMID:31982876   PMID:32021144  
PMID:32057273   PMID:32070921   PMID:32074200   PMID:32090237   PMID:32126847   PMID:32172336   PMID:32187034   PMID:32188793   PMID:32209724   PMID:32255302   PMID:32284480   PMID:32296183  
PMID:32347644   PMID:32354356   PMID:32402829   PMID:32418966   PMID:32431194   PMID:32450480   PMID:32515485   PMID:32538758   PMID:32558327   PMID:32589688   PMID:32636124   PMID:32657561  
PMID:32684218   PMID:32684607   PMID:32693619   PMID:32802835   PMID:32838754   PMID:32882353   PMID:32919941   PMID:32921207   PMID:32926931   PMID:32972251   PMID:32988848   PMID:33025531  
PMID:33058960   PMID:33121714   PMID:33128247   PMID:33133305   PMID:33160126   PMID:33221779   PMID:33245872   PMID:33248864   PMID:33270715   PMID:33279592   PMID:33353469   PMID:33375031  
PMID:33455978   PMID:33510196   PMID:33563897   PMID:33678076   PMID:33691659   PMID:33709785   PMID:33720941   PMID:33888145   PMID:33955184   PMID:33961781   PMID:33990410   PMID:34021479  
PMID:34044561   PMID:34044565   PMID:34087618   PMID:34143704   PMID:34215247   PMID:34227029   PMID:34286378   PMID:34415953   PMID:34507853   PMID:34556318   PMID:34586748   PMID:34702775  
PMID:34734498   PMID:34750462   PMID:34763639   PMID:34798808   PMID:34940836   PMID:34961527   PMID:34980326   PMID:35013570   PMID:35044418   PMID:35089974   PMID:35167908   PMID:35183528  
PMID:35215487   PMID:35287945   PMID:35443466   PMID:35666663   PMID:35928924   PMID:36152812   PMID:36180827   PMID:36228503   PMID:36332898   PMID:36606733   PMID:36756875   PMID:36765285  
PMID:37117140   PMID:37165917   PMID:37792781   PMID:37820655   PMID:37844875   PMID:37913506   PMID:38065584   PMID:38158669   PMID:38474245  


Comparative Map Data
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38111,857,464 - 11,858,945 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl111,857,464 - 11,858,945 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37111,917,521 - 11,919,002 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36111,840,108 - 11,841,579 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 34111,851,789 - 11,853,254NCBI
Celera111,031,156 - 11,032,627 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map1p36.22NCBI
HuRef111,073,021 - 11,074,492 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1111,905,417 - 11,906,888 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.0111,401,560 - 11,403,041 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm394148,070,264 - 148,071,662 (+)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl4148,070,245 - 148,071,662 (+)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm384147,985,786 - 147,987,205 (+)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl4147,985,788 - 147,987,205 (+)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv374147,359,898 - 147,361,314 (+)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv364146,829,697 - 146,830,998 (+)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera4150,250,201 - 150,251,617 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map4E1NCBI
cM Map478.57NCBI
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr85163,699,955 - 163,701,314 (+)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.25158,416,813 - 158,418,175 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl5158,416,866 - 158,418,168 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx5161,133,613 - 161,134,915 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.05162,961,436 - 162,962,738 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.05162,917,783 - 162,919,085 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.05164,796,176 - 164,797,538 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl5164,796,185 - 164,797,531 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.05168,454,278 - 168,455,640 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.45165,062,348 - 165,063,650 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.15165,072,535 - 165,073,838 (+)NCBI
Celera5156,698,873 - 156,700,175 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map5q36NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0NW_0049554862,054,775 - 2,056,130 (+)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1-v21216,361,604 - 216,364,862 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1-v2
NHGRI_mPanPan11215,008,742 - 215,011,988 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v0110,621,416 - 10,622,960 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.1111,838,518 - 11,839,999 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl111,838,518 - 11,839,995 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.1284,395,844 - 84,397,473 (+)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha280,929,289 - 80,930,932 (+)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.0285,060,368 - 85,062,010 (+)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl285,060,271 - 85,073,309 (+)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.1281,809,597 - 81,811,239 (+)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.0282,809,514 - 82,811,156 (+)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.0283,872,280 - 83,873,924 (+)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440505834,858,528 - 34,860,962 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_004936474683,325 - 684,665 (-)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_004936474683,325 - 684,662 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl671,930,382 - 71,932,254 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.1671,930,374 - 71,931,843 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.2665,840,061 - 65,841,530 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.120119,930,931 - 119,933,391 (+)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl20119,932,021 - 119,933,197 (+)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_02366605423,799,168 - 23,801,437 (+)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla 1.0NW_0046248181,139,776 - 1,141,010 (+)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in NPPB
11 total Variants

Clinical Variants
Name Type Condition(s) Position(s) Clinical significance
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.22-36.21(chr1:11654070-12768656)x3 copy number gain See cases [RCV000051460] Chr1:11654070..12768656 [GRCh38]
Chr1:11714127..12828807 [GRCh37]
Chr1:11636714..12751394 [NCBI36]
uncertain significance
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.22(chr1:11737130-12169786)x3 copy number gain See cases [RCV000051461] Chr1:11737130..12169786 [GRCh38]
Chr1:11797187..12229843 [GRCh37]
Chr1:11719774..12152430 [NCBI36]
uncertain significance
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.31-36.21(chr1:6652339-12724844)x3 copy number gain See cases [RCV000051794] Chr1:6652339..12724844 [GRCh38]
Chr1:6712399..12784811 [GRCh37]
Chr1:6634986..12707398 [NCBI36]
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.31-36.13(chr1:6853513-17326813)x3 copy number gain Developmental Delay and additional significant developmental and morphological phenotypes referred for genetic testing [RCV000051795]|Developmental delay and additional significant developmental and morphological phenotypes referred for genetic testing [RCV000051795]|See cases [RCV000051795] Chr1:6853513..17326813 [GRCh38]
Chr1:6913573..17685411 [GRCh37]
Chr1:6836160..17557998 [NCBI36]
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.22(chr1:11684360-11885011)x1 copy number loss Developmental Delay and additional significant developmental and morphological phenotypes referred for genetic testing [RCV000053184]|Developmental delay and additional significant developmental and morphological phenotypes referred for genetic testing [RCV000053184]|See cases [RCV000053184] Chr1:11684360..11885011 [GRCh38]
Chr1:11744417..11945068 [GRCh37]
Chr1:11667004..11867655 [NCBI36]
uncertain significance
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.32-36.21(chr1:2963330-12666744)x1 copy number loss Developmental Delay and additional significant developmental and morphological phenotypes referred for genetic testing [RCV000053713]|Developmental delay and additional significant developmental and morphological phenotypes referred for genetic testing [RCV000053713]|See cases [RCV000053713] Chr1:2963330..12666744 [GRCh38]
Chr1:2879895..12726755 [GRCh37]
Chr1:2869755..12649342 [NCBI36]
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.32-36.13(chr1:3006193-17688934)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000053714] Chr1:3006193..17688934 [GRCh38]
Chr1:2922757..18015429 [GRCh37]
Chr1:2912617..17888016 [NCBI36]
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.32-36.21(chr1:4898439-13111056)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000053724] Chr1:4898439..13111056 [GRCh38]
Chr1:4958499..13178528 [GRCh37]
Chr1:4858359..13101115 [NCBI36]
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.22-36.12(chr1:10556797-22557907)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000053760] Chr1:10556797..22557907 [GRCh38]
Chr1:10616854..22884400 [GRCh37]
Chr1:10539441..22756987 [NCBI36]
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.22-36.13(chr1:10621776-16520709)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000053763] Chr1:10621776..16520709 [GRCh38]
Chr1:10681833..16847204 [GRCh37]
Chr1:10604420..16719791 [NCBI36]
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.22-36.13(chr1:10809039-16422500)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000053765] Chr1:10809039..16422500 [GRCh38]
Chr1:10869096..16748995 [GRCh37]
Chr1:10791683..16621582 [NCBI36]
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.22-36.13(chr1:11121625-16324498)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000053766] Chr1:11121625..16324498 [GRCh38]
Chr1:11181682..16650993 [GRCh37]
Chr1:11104269..16523580 [NCBI36]
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.23-36.21(chr1:7165036-13111056)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000053755] Chr1:7165036..13111056 [GRCh38]
Chr1:7225096..13178528 [GRCh37]
Chr1:7147683..13101115 [NCBI36]
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.23-36.13(chr1:9034671-16441465)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000053756] Chr1:9034671..16441465 [GRCh38]
Chr1:9094730..16767960 [GRCh37]
Chr1:9017317..16640547 [NCBI36]
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.22-36.21(chr1:9406722-12852772)x1 copy number loss Developmental Delay and additional significant developmental and morphological phenotypes referred for genetic testing [RCV000053757]|Developmental delay and additional significant developmental and morphological phenotypes referred for genetic testing [RCV000053757]|See cases [RCV000053757] Chr1:9406722..12852772 [GRCh38]
Chr1:9466781..12912625 [GRCh37]
Chr1:9389368..12835212 [NCBI36]
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.22(chr1:10203955-12060262)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000053758] Chr1:10203955..12060262 [GRCh38]
Chr1:10264013..12120319 [GRCh37]
Chr1:10186600..12042906 [NCBI36]
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.23-36.21(chr1:9064492-12666744)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000133779] Chr1:9064492..12666744 [GRCh38]
Chr1:9124551..12726755 [GRCh37]
Chr1:9047138..12649342 [NCBI36]
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.23-36.22(chr1:8283694-12470133)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000135807] Chr1:8283694..12470133 [GRCh38]
Chr1:8343754..12530188 [GRCh37]
Chr1:8266341..12452775 [NCBI36]
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.33-36.22(chr1:844347-12470133)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000136695] Chr1:844347..12470133 [GRCh38]
Chr1:779727..12530188 [GRCh37]
Chr1:769590..12452775 [NCBI36]
pathogenic|likely pathogenic
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.32-36.21(chr1:4898439-12911913)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000137461] Chr1:4898439..12911913 [GRCh38]
Chr1:4958499..12971757 [GRCh37]
Chr1:4858359..12894344 [NCBI36]
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.31-36.21(chr1:6303641-15799093)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000137948] Chr1:6303641..15799093 [GRCh38]
Chr1:6363701..16125588 [GRCh37]
Chr1:6286288..15998175 [NCBI36]
pathogenic|likely benign
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.22(chr1:11737130-12006139)x3 copy number gain See cases [RCV000139615] Chr1:11737130..12006139 [GRCh38]
Chr1:11797187..12066196 [GRCh37]
Chr1:11719774..11988783 [NCBI36]
uncertain significance
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.22-36.21(chr1:9428538-15815791)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000140873] Chr1:9428538..15815791 [GRCh38]
Chr1:9488597..16142286 [GRCh37]
Chr1:9411184..16014873 [NCBI36]
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.22-36.21(chr1:11021751-15236671)x3 copy number gain See cases [RCV000141823] Chr1:11021751..15236671 [GRCh38]
Chr1:11081808..15563167 [GRCh37]
Chr1:11004395..15435754 [NCBI36]
likely pathogenic
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.22-36.21(chr1:10264397-15780840)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000141438] Chr1:10264397..15780840 [GRCh38]
Chr1:10324455..16107335 [GRCh37]
Chr1:10247042..15979922 [NCBI36]
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.31-36.13(chr1:6554885-16056011)x3 copy number gain See cases [RCV000142906] Chr1:6554885..16056011 [GRCh38]
Chr1:6614945..16382506 [GRCh37]
Chr1:6537532..16255093 [NCBI36]
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.31-36.13(chr1:5363826-18360302)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000142771] Chr1:5363826..18360302 [GRCh38]
Chr1:5423886..18686796 [GRCh37]
Chr1:5323746..18559383 [NCBI36]
Single allele complex Breast ductal adenocarcinoma [RCV000207058] Chr1:909238..24706269 [GRCh37]
uncertain significance
chr1:909238-16736132 complex variant complex Breast ductal adenocarcinoma [RCV000207094] Chr1:909238..16736132 [GRCh37]
uncertain significance
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.33-36.22(chr1:82154-12699337)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000239416] Chr1:82154..12699337 [GRCh37]
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.23-36.21(chr1:8255222-12785220)x3 copy number gain See cases [RCV000240284] Chr1:8255222..12785220 [GRCh37]
likely pathogenic
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.33-36.21(chr1:746608-15077159)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000240403] Chr1:746608..15077159 [GRCh37]
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.32-36.21(chr1:4558588-13187457)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000446359] Chr1:4558588..13187457 [GRCh37]
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.32-36.12(chr1:2749920-22564787)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000446470] Chr1:2749920..22564787 [GRCh37]
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.22-36.21(chr1:10722955-12910774)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000510444] Chr1:10722955..12910774 [GRCh37]
likely pathogenic
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.22-36.21(chr1:11143298-13709344)x3 copy number gain See cases [RCV000510407] Chr1:11143298..13709344 [GRCh37]
uncertain significance
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.33-q44(chr1:849467-249224684)x3 copy number gain See cases [RCV000510383] Chr1:849467..249224684 [GRCh37]
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.33-q44(chr1:849467-249224684) copy number gain See cases [RCV000510926] Chr1:849467..249224684 [GRCh37]
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.22-36.21(chr1:10722725-14267773)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000512501] Chr1:10722725..14267773 [GRCh37]
likely pathogenic
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.23-36.13(chr1:8850514-16272383)x1 copy number loss See cases [RCV000512226] Chr1:8850514..16272383 [GRCh37]
likely pathogenic
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.33-q44(chr1:47851-249228449)x3 copy number gain not provided [RCV000736295] Chr1:47851..249228449 [GRCh37]
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.33-q44(chr1:82154-249218992)x3 copy number gain not provided [RCV000736305] Chr1:82154..249218992 [GRCh37]
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.22(chr1:11831595-12128498)x3 copy number gain not provided [RCV000736406] Chr1:11831595..12128498 [GRCh37]
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.22-36.21(chr1:11794553-12786444)x3 copy number gain See cases [RCV000790593] Chr1:11794553..12786444 [GRCh37]
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.22-21.1(chr1:103343285-103455144)x3 copy number gain Global developmental delay [RCV000787285] Chr1:103343285..103455144 [GRCh37]
uncertain significance
NM_002521.3(NPPB):c.74G>T (p.Arg25Leu) single nucleotide variant not provided [RCV000882537] Chr1:11858760 [GRCh38]
Chr1:11918817 [GRCh37]
NM_002521.3(NPPB):c.280G>T (p.Val94Phe) single nucleotide variant not provided [RCV000969980] Chr1:11858322 [GRCh38]
Chr1:11918379 [GRCh37]
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.22-36.21(chr1:11690766-12835739) copy number loss not provided [RCV000767547] Chr1:11690766..12835739 [GRCh37]
NM_002521.3(NPPB):c.215G>A (p.Arg72His) single nucleotide variant not provided [RCV000895831] Chr1:11858387 [GRCh38]
Chr1:11918444 [GRCh37]
NM_002521.3(NPPB):c.54T>C (p.His18=) single nucleotide variant not provided [RCV000958421] Chr1:11858780 [GRCh38]
Chr1:11918837 [GRCh37]
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.22-36.21(chr1:10246640-12841900)x1 copy number loss not provided [RCV000846372] Chr1:10246640..12841900 [GRCh37]
uncertain significance
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.22(chr1:11846836-12055790)x1 copy number loss not provided [RCV000847324] Chr1:11846836..12055790 [GRCh37]
uncertain significance
NM_002521.3(NPPB):c.257G>A (p.Gly86Asp) single nucleotide variant Inborn genetic diseases [RCV003291415] Chr1:11858345 [GRCh38]
Chr1:11918402 [GRCh37]
uncertain significance
NM_002521.3(NPPB):c.237C>T (p.Ser79=) single nucleotide variant not provided [RCV000950045] Chr1:11858365 [GRCh38]
Chr1:11918422 [GRCh37]
NM_002521.3(NPPB):c.388+10C>A single nucleotide variant not provided [RCV000970036] Chr1:11858204 [GRCh38]
Chr1:11918261 [GRCh37]
NC_000001.11:g.(?_11012634)_(11934865_?)del deletion Atrial fibrillation, familial, 6 [RCV001031444] Chr1:11072691..11994922 [GRCh37]
uncertain significance
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.33-36.13(chr1:849466-17525065)x1 copy number loss not provided [RCV001832902] Chr1:849466..17525065 [GRCh37]
NC_000001.10:g.(?_6485016)_(12569078_?)del deletion not provided [RCV001940096] Chr1:6485016..12569078 [GRCh37]
uncertain significance
NC_000001.10:g.(?_11850737)_(12569078_?)dup duplication not provided [RCV001877528] Chr1:11850737..12569078 [GRCh37]
uncertain significance
NC_000001.10:g.(?_11906018)_(11994922_?)dup duplication Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliotic type 1 [RCV001991675] Chr1:11906018..11994922 [GRCh37]
uncertain significance
NC_000001.10:g.(?_8616514)_(12476900_?)dup duplication Immunodeficiency 14 [RCV001920571] Chr1:8616514..12476900 [GRCh37]
uncertain significance
NC_000001.10:g.(?_11847760)_(12066770_?)dup duplication Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliotic type 1 [RCV003110970] Chr1:11847760..12066770 [GRCh37]
uncertain significance
NC_000001.10:g.(?_11906066)_(12066770_?)dup duplication Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 [RCV003116795] Chr1:11906066..12066770 [GRCh37]
uncertain significance
NC_000001.10:g.(?_9304994)_(12569078_?)dup duplication Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 [RCV003119499] Chr1:9304994..12569078 [GRCh37]
uncertain significance
NC_000001.11:g.10115497_16283149dup duplication not specified [RCV002286386] Chr1:10115497..16283149 [GRCh38]
likely pathogenic
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.33-36.22(chr1:849467-12448956)x1 copy number loss not provided [RCV002473951] Chr1:849467..12448956 [GRCh37]
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.31-36.13(chr1:6758933-19287770)x1 copy number loss not provided [RCV002474779] Chr1:6758933..19287770 [GRCh37]
NM_002521.3(NPPB):c.268C>T (p.His90Tyr) single nucleotide variant Inborn genetic diseases [RCV002959353] Chr1:11858334 [GRCh38]
Chr1:11918391 [GRCh37]
uncertain significance
NM_002521.3(NPPB):c.25C>T (p.Arg9Trp) single nucleotide variant Inborn genetic diseases [RCV003205542] Chr1:11858809 [GRCh38]
Chr1:11918866 [GRCh37]
uncertain significance
NC_000001.10:g.4481271_20530242del deletion Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome [RCV003159574] Chr1:4481271..20530242 [GRCh37]
NM_002521.3(NPPB):c.188C>T (p.Ser63Phe) single nucleotide variant Inborn genetic diseases [RCV003202204] Chr1:11858414 [GRCh38]
Chr1:11918471 [GRCh37]
uncertain significance
GRCh38/hg38 1p36.33-35.1(chr1:99125-34026935)x3 copy number gain Trisomy 12p [RCV003447845] Chr1:99125..34026935 [GRCh38]
GRCh37/hg19 1p36.31-36.21(chr1:6330828-12910774)x1 copy number loss not specified [RCV003987128] Chr1:6330828..12910774 [GRCh37]
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:140
Count of miRNA genes:130
Interacting mature miRNAs:138
Prediction methods:Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

Markers in Region
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCh37111,918,885 - 11,919,009UniSTSGRCh37
Build 36111,841,472 - 11,841,596RGDNCBI36
Celera111,032,520 - 11,032,644RGD
Cytogenetic Map1p36.2UniSTS
HuRef111,074,385 - 11,074,509UniSTS
Whitehead-RH Map143.5UniSTS


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system sensory system adipose tissue appendage entire extraembryonic component
High 323 66 1 4
Medium 15 412 16 8 9 8 110 207 121 9 21 39 8 18
Low 770 997 528 119 252 81 1700 673 1791 47 561 511 43 494 1144 3
Below cutoff 1005 822 701 229 593 157 1823 888 1528 119 565 648 77 501 1209 1


RefSeq Acc Id: ENST00000376468   ⟹   ENSP00000365651
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl111,857,464 - 11,858,945 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_002521   ⟹   NP_002512
RefSeq Status: REVIEWED
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCh38111,857,464 - 11,858,945 (-)NCBI
GRCh37111,917,521 - 11,918,992 (-)ENTREZGENE
Build 36111,840,108 - 11,841,579 (-)NCBI Archive
HuRef111,073,021 - 11,074,492 (-)ENTREZGENE
CHM1_1111,905,417 - 11,906,888 (-)NCBI
T2T-CHM13v2.0111,401,560 - 11,403,041 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_002512   ⟸   NM_002521
- Peptide Label: preproprotein
- UniProtKB: Q6FGY0 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   B0ZBE9 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   Q9P2Q7 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P16860 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSP00000365651   ⟸   ENST00000376468

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P16860-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P16860 1-134 view protein structure

RGD ID:6854124
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_H227
Type:initiation region
Description:natriuretic peptide B
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCh38111,858,945 - 11,859,005EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene HGNC:7940 AgrOrtholog
Ensembl Genes ENSG00000120937 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Ensembl Transcript ENST00000376468 ENTREZGENE
  ENST00000376468.4 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
GTEx ENSG00000120937 GTEx
Human Proteome Map NPPB Human Proteome Map
InterPro Natr_peptide UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  Natr_peptide_CS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  Natriuretic_peptide_brain UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
KEGG Report hsa:4879 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
OMIM 600295 OMIM
Pfam ANP UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
SMART NAT_PEP UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
UniProt ANFB_HUMAN UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
UniProt Secondary B0ZBE9 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  Q6FGY0 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  Q9P2Q7 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2011-07-27 NPPB  natriuretic peptide B  NPPB  natriuretic peptide precursor B  Symbol and/or name change 5135510 APPROVED