Gstt1 (glutathione S-transferase theta 1) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Gstt1 (glutathione S-transferase theta 1) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Gstt1
Name: glutathione S-transferase theta 1
RGD ID: 2765
Description: Enables alkylhalidase activity; glutathione peroxidase activity; and glutathione transferase activity. Involved in several processes, including dichloromethane metabolic process; response to selenium ion; and response to vitamin E. Predicted to be located in cytosol. Predicted to be active in cytoplasm. Biomarker of obesity and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in several diseases, including autoimmune disease (multiple); cancer (multiple); cardiovascular system disease (multiple); eye disease (multiple); and lung disease (multiple). Orthologous to human GSTT1 (glutathione S-transferase theta 1); PARTICIPATES IN glutathione conjugation pathway; paracetamol pharmacokinetics pathway; glutathione metabolic pathway; INTERACTS WITH (+)-schisandrin B; (E)-1,3-dichloropropene; (R,R,R)-alpha-tocopherol.
Type: protein-coding
Previously known as: Glutathione S-transferase 1 (theta); glutathione S-transferase 5; glutathione S-transferase theta-1; glutathione S-transferase, theta 1; GST 5-5; GST class-theta-1; GSTYRS
RGD Orthologs
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr82012,856,068 - 12,873,020 (+)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.22012,856,613 - 12,873,586 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl2012,856,669 - 12,873,585 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx2013,563,264 - 13,580,163 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.02012,924,193 - 12,941,104 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.02013,396,180 - 13,413,203 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.02013,799,102 - 13,816,527 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl2013,799,102 - 13,816,526 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.02015,989,083 - 16,006,508 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.42013,604,355 - 13,621,456 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.12013,604,582 - 13,621,683 (-)NCBI
Celera2014,348,088 - 14,365,283 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map20p12NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
acute chest syndrome  (ISO)
acute lymphoblastic leukemia  (ISO)
acute myeloid leukemia  (ISO)
acute promyelocytic leukemia  (ISO)
aggressive periodontitis  (ISO)
alcohol dependence  (ISO)
Alcoholic Liver Diseases  (ISO)
Alzheimer's disease  (ISO)
amphetamine abuse  (ISO)
anemia  (ISO)
aplastic anemia  (ISO)
asbestosis  (ISO)
Asthenozoospermia  (ISO)
asthma  (ISO)
atopic dermatitis  (ISO)
beta thalassemia  (ISO)
breast cancer  (ISO)
bronchopulmonary dysplasia  (ISO)
cancer  (ISO)
carcinoma  (ISO)
cardiovascular system disease  (ISO)
cataract  (ISO)
cervical cancer  (ISO)
cervix carcinoma  (ISO)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury  (ISO)
Chromosome Aberrations  (ISO)
Chronic Bronchitis  (ISO)
Chronic Hepatitis C  (ISO)
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  (ISO)
colorectal adenocarcinoma  (ISO)
colorectal cancer  (ISO)
colorectal carcinoma  (ISO)
Congenital Abnormalities  (ISO)
congenital heart disease  (ISO)
coronary artery disease  (ISO)
Crohn's disease  (ISO)
cystic fibrosis  (ISO)
diabetes mellitus  (ISO)
Diabetic Nephropathies  (ISO)
diabetic retinopathy  (ISO)
diffuse large B-cell lymphoma  (ISO)
disease of cellular proliferation  (ISO)
Disease Susceptibility  (ISO)
drug allergy  (ISO)
Drug-induced Anemia  (ISO)
Drug-Induced Immune Thrombocytopenia  (ISO)
Drug-Induced Leukopenia  (ISO)
Drug-induced Neutropenia  (ISO)
end stage renal disease  (ISO)
epilepsy  (ISO)
Epistaxis  (ISO)
esophageal cancer  (ISO)
Esophageal Neoplasms  (ISO)
esophagus adenocarcinoma  (ISO)
esophagus squamous cell carcinoma  (ISO)
exfoliation syndrome  (ISO)
Fanconi anemia  (ISO)
Femur Head Necrosis  (ISO)
Fetal Growth Retardation  (ISO)
Fever  (ISO)
genetic disease  (ISO)
glioblastoma  (ISO)
head and neck cancer  (ISO)
Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced  (ISO)
Hematologic Neoplasms  (ISO)
hepatocellular carcinoma  (ISO)
Hirschsprung's disease  (ISO)
Hodgkin's lymphoma  (ISO)
hypertension  (ISO)
hypospadias  (ISO)
infectious mononucleosis  (ISO)
inflammatory bowel disease  (ISO)
Iron Overload  (ISO)
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis  (ISO)
Kidney Neoplasms  (ISO)
Kidney Reperfusion Injury  (IEP)
Kuhnt-Junius degeneration  (ISO)
leukemia  (ISO)
leukopenia  (ISO)
Leukoplakia  (ISO)
liver cirrhosis  (ISO)
liver disease  (ISO)
lung cancer  (ISO)
lung disease  (ISO)
Lung Neoplasms  (ISO)
lymphoid leukemia  (ISO)
Lynch syndrome  (ISO)
medulloblastoma  (ISO)
metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease  (ISO)
Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective  (ISO)
motor neuron disease  (ISO)
Mouth Abnormalities  (ISO)
mucositis  (ISO)
multiple myeloma  (ISO)
multiple sclerosis  (ISO)
myelodysplastic syndrome  (ISO)
myeloid leukemia  (ISO)
Nasal Polyps  (ISO)
neutropenia  (ISO)
obesity  (IEP)
optic neuritis  (ISO)
oral cavity cancer  (ISO)
oral mucosa leukoplakia  (ISO)
oral submucous fibrosis  (ISO)
orofacial cleft  (ISO)
ovarian carcinoma  (ISO)
ovary epithelial cancer  (ISO)
pancreatic adenocarcinoma  (ISO)
Parkinson's disease  (ISO)
Perinatal Asphyxia  (ISO)
peripheral nervous system disease  (ISO)
pre-malignant neoplasm  (ISO)
Premature Birth  (ISO)
Presbycusis  (ISO)
primary open angle glaucoma  (ISO)
prostate cancer  (ISO)
Prostatic Neoplasms  (ISO)
pulmonary tuberculosis  (ISO)
Raynaud disease  (ISO)
renal cell carcinoma  (ISO)
rheumatoid arthritis  (ISO)
senile cataract  (ISO)
sickle cell anemia  (ISO)
skin melanoma  (ISO)
Skin Neoplasms  (ISO)
stomach cancer  (ISO)
Therapy-related Acute Myeloid Leukemia  (ISO)
transitional cell carcinoma  (ISO)
Transplant Rejection  (ISO)
type 1 diabetes mellitus  (IEP)
type 2 diabetes mellitus  (ISO)
ulcerative colitis  (ISO)
urinary bladder cancer  (ISO)
Vaso-occlusive Crisis  (ISO)
venous insufficiency  (ISO)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(+)-schisandrin B  (EXP)
(1->4)-beta-D-glucan  (ISO)
(E)-1,3-dichloropropene  (EXP)
(R,R,R)-alpha-tocopherol  (EXP)
1,1,1-Trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane  (EXP)
1,2-dibromoethane  (EXP,ISO)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
1,2-epoxy-3-(4-nitrophenoxy)propane  (EXP,ISO)
1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene  (ISO)
1-naphthyl isothiocyanate  (EXP)
17beta-estradiol  (ISO)
1H-pyrazole  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (ISO)
2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid  (EXP)
2,4,6-trinitrotoluene  (EXP)
2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol  (EXP)
2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose  (ISO)
2-amino-7-methyl-1,7-dihydro-6H-purin-6-one  (ISO)
2-butoxyethanol  (ISO)
2-methylcholine  (ISO)
3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A  (ISO)
3-chloropropane-1,2-diol  (EXP)
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine  (ISO)
3-phenylprop-2-enal  (ISO)
3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione  (EXP)
4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane  (ISO)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (ISO)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
5-fluorouracil  (ISO)
5-methoxy-2-\{[(4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridin-2-yl)methyl]sulfinyl\}-1H-benzimidazole  (EXP)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
7,9-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6,8(3H)-trione  (ISO)
acetylsalicylic acid  (EXP)
acrylamide  (EXP,ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (EXP,ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucosamine  (ISO)
amiodarone  (EXP)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
amphotericin B  (EXP)
angelica lactone  (EXP)
aristolochic acid A  (EXP)
arsane  (ISO)
arsenic atom  (ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
arsenous acid  (ISO)
asbestos  (ISO)
atrazine  (EXP)
benzbromarone  (EXP)
benzene  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
benzyl isothiocyanate  (EXP)
beta-D-glucosamine  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
bromobenzene  (EXP)
bromodichloromethane  (EXP,ISO)
bromomethane  (ISO)
busulfan  (ISO)
buta-1,3-diene  (ISO)
butylated hydroxyanisole  (EXP)
cadmium dichloride  (EXP)
carbamazepine  (ISO)
carbon disulfide  (ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
carmustine  (ISO)
chenodeoxycholic acid  (ISO)
chloroethene  (ISO)
chlorohydrocarbon  (ISO)
chloromethane  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (EXP)
cisplatin  (ISO)
clofibrate  (EXP,ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (EXP)
copper atom  (EXP)
copper(0)  (EXP)
coumarin  (EXP)
cumene hydroperoxide  (ISO)
Cuprizon  (EXP)
cyclosporin A  (ISO)
cylindrospermopsin  (ISO)
cyproconazole  (ISO)
deoxycholic acid  (ISO)
Deoxycorticosterone acetate  (EXP)
dexamethasone  (EXP,ISO)
Diallyl sulfide  (EXP)
diarsenic trioxide  (ISO)
diazinon  (EXP)
dibromomethane  (EXP,ISO)
dichloromethane  (EXP,ISO)
diclofenac  (ISO)
diepoxybutane  (EXP,ISO)
diethyl maleate  (EXP)
dimethylarsinic acid  (ISO)
disodium selenite  (ISO)
elemental selenium  (EXP)
ellagic acid  (EXP)
epoxiconazole  (ISO)
ethanol  (ISO)
ethoxyquin  (EXP,ISO)
folic acid  (ISO)
formaldehyde  (ISO)
furan  (EXP)
genistein  (ISO)
glutathione  (EXP,ISO)
glycochenodeoxycholic acid  (ISO)
glycocholic acid  (ISO)
glycodeoxycholic acid  (ISO)
graphite  (EXP)
herbicide  (EXP)
hydrogen peroxide  (ISO)
hydroquinone  (ISO)
ibuprofen  (EXP)
indole-3-methanol  (EXP)
indometacin  (EXP)
inulin  (ISO)
isoniazide  (ISO)
isothiocyanate  (ISO)
L-ascorbic acid  (ISO)
L-ethionine  (EXP)
lead nitrate  (ISO)
lead(0)  (ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
malonaldehyde  (ISO)
MeIQx  (ISO)
mercury atom  (ISO)
mercury(0)  (ISO)
methamphetamine  (ISO)
methimazole  (EXP)
methoxyacetic acid  (EXP)
methylarsonic acid  (ISO)
microcystin  (EXP)
microcystin RR  (ISO)
microcystin-LR  (ISO)
muconic acid  (ISO)
N-acetyl-S-phenyl-L-cysteine  (ISO)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea  (ISO)
naphthalene  (ISO)
nickel atom  (ISO)
nickel dichloride  (ISO)
nickel subsulfide  (ISO)
nitrogen dioxide  (ISO)
obeticholic acid  (ISO)
ochratoxin A  (EXP)
oltipraz  (EXP)
omeprazole  (EXP)
oxirane  (ISO)
ozone  (ISO)
p-nitrobenzyl chloride  (ISO)
paclitaxel  (ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP,ISO)
paraquat  (ISO)
parathion-methyl  (ISO)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (ISO)
perfluorooctanoic acid  (ISO)
phenethyl isothiocyanate  (EXP)
phenobarbital  (EXP,ISO)
phlorizin  (ISO)
phorbol 13-acetate 12-myristate  (ISO)
pioglitazone  (ISO)
pirinixic acid  (EXP,ISO)
piroxicam  (EXP)
potassium chloride  (EXP)
potassium dichromate  (ISO)
progesterone  (ISO)
propargite  (ISO)
propiconazole  (ISO)
pyrazinecarboxamide  (ISO)
quercetin  (ISO)
radon atom  (ISO)
radon(0)  (ISO)
rifampicin  (ISO)
selenium atom  (EXP)
senecionine  (ISO)
sirolimus  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (ISO)
sodium dichromate  (EXP)
sterigmatocystin  (EXP)
stilbene oxide  (EXP)
styrene  (ISO)
styrene oxide  (ISO)
sulforaphane  (EXP,ISO)
sulindac  (EXP)
Sunset Yellow FCF  (ISO)
tartrazine  (ISO)
tert-butyl hydroperoxide  (ISO)
testosterone  (ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (EXP,ISO)
thiabendazole  (EXP)
thimerosal  (ISO)
thioacetamide  (EXP)
triadimefon  (ISO)
trichloroethene  (EXP,ISO)
triclosan  (ISO)
triphenyl phosphate  (EXP)
troglitazone  (ISO)
tunicamycin  (ISO)
valproic acid  (ISO)
vinclozolin  (EXP)
xanthohumol  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Cellular Component
cytoplasm  (IBA,IEA)
cytosol  (ISO)

Molecular Function


References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 and CYP1A1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to esophageal cancer in a French population: different pattern of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Abbas A, etal., World J Gastroenterol. 2004 Dec 1;10(23):3389-93.
2. T null and M null genotypes of the glutathione S-transferase gene are risk factor for CAD independent of smoking. Abu-Amero KK, etal., BMC Med Genet. 2006 Apr 19;7:38.
3. GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion genotypes in various spontaneous optic neuropathies in Arabs. Abu-Amero KK, etal., Br J Ophthalmol. 2009 Aug;93(8):1101-4. Epub 2009 Mar 13.
4. Audioprofiles and antioxidant enzyme genotypes in presbycusis. Angeli SI, etal., Laryngoscope. 2012 Nov;122(11):2539-42. doi: 10.1002/lary.23577. Epub 2012 Sep 10.
5. Increased risk for acute myeloid leukaemia in individuals with glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) and theta 1 (GSTT1) gene defects. Arruda VR, etal., Eur J Haematol. 2001 Jun;66(6):383-8.
6. Genetic polymorphism of glutathione S transferases M1 and T1 in Indian patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Asim M, etal., Dis Markers. 2010;28(6):369-76. doi: 10.3233/DMA-2010-0717.
7. Glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphisms in presbycusis. Ates NA, etal., Otol Neurotol. 2005 May;26(3):392-7.
8. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms may predict adverse effects after therapy in children with medulloblastoma. Barahmani N, etal., Neuro Oncol. 2009 Jun;11(3):292-300. Epub 2008 Oct 24.
9. GSTT1 polymorphism and oral leukoplakia. Barroso Duarte EC, etal., Anticancer Res. 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1A):427-30.
10. Glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) gene defect in myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukaemia. Basu T, etal., Lancet. 1997 May 17;349(9063):1450.
11. Glutathione S-transferase activity and subunit composition in transitional cell cancer and mucosa of the human bladder. Berendsen CL, etal., Urology. 1997 Apr;49(4):644-51.
12. Biobreeding rat islets exhibit reduced antioxidative defense and N-acetyl cysteine treatment delays type 1 diabetes. Bogdani M, etal., J Endocrinol. 2013 Jan 18;216(2):111-23. doi: 10.1530/JOE-12-0385. Print 2013 Feb.
13. Genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferases and disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis. Bohanec Grabar P, etal., Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2009 Mar-Apr;27(2):229-36.
14. Profile of polymorphisms of drug-metabolising enzymes and the risk of therapy-related leukaemia. Bolufer P, etal., Br J Haematol. 2007 Feb;136(4):590-6.
15. Possible gene dosage effect of glutathione-S-transferases on atopic asthma: using real-time PCR for quantification of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene copy numbers. Brasch-Andersen C, etal., Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):208-14.
16. Association study of multiple gene polymorphisms with the risk of adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma in a Mexican population. Buentello-Volante B, etal., Exp Eye Res. 2013 Feb;107:59-64. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2012.11.013. Epub 2012 Nov 30.
17. Glutathione S-transferases M1-1 and T1-1 as risk modifiers for renal cell cancer associated with occupational exposure to chemicals. Buzio L, etal., Occup Environ Med. 2003 Oct;60(10):789-93.
18. Glutathione S-transferases M1, T1 genotypes and the risk of gastric cancer: a case-control study. Cai L, etal., World J Gastroenterol. 2001 Aug;7(4):506-9. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v7.i4.506.
19. The influence of genetic variation in oxidative stress genes on human noise susceptibility. Carlsson PI, etal., Hear Res. 2005 Apr;202(1-2):87-96.
20. Genetic polymorphisms of microsomal epoxide hydroxylase and glutathione S-transferases M1, T1 and P1, interactions with smoking, and risk for esophageal (Barrett) adenocarcinoma. Casson AG, etal., Cancer Detect Prev. 2006;30(5):423-31. Epub 2006 Oct 24.
21. Increased risk for myelodysplastic syndromes in individuals with glutathione transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) gene defect. Chen H, etal., Lancet. 1996 Feb 3;347(8997):295-7.
22. Genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes CYP1A1, CYP2D6, GSTM1 and GSTT1 and leukemia susceptibility. Chen HC, etal., Eur J Cancer Prev. 2008 Jun;17(3):251-8. doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0b013e3282b72093.
23. A meta-analysis of the relationship between glutathione S-transferases gene polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma in Asian population. Chen J, etal., Mol Biol Rep. 2012 Dec;39(12):10383-93. doi: 10.1007/s11033-012-1917-0. Epub 2012 Oct 10.
24. Glutathione-S-transferase genotypes influence the risk of chemotherapy-related toxicities and prognosis in Korean patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Cho HJ, etal., Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010 Apr 1;198(1):40-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cancergencyto.2009.12.004.
25. Association of glutathione-S-transferase polymorphisms with atopic dermatitis risk in preschool age children. Chung J, etal., Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47(12):1475-81.
26. Impact on response and survival of DNA repair single nucleotide polymorphisms in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma patients treated with thalidomide. Cibeira MT, etal., Leuk Res. 2011 Sep;35(9):1178-83. doi: 10.1016/j.leukres.2011.02.009. Epub 2011 Mar 23.
27. Association of periodontitis with GSTM1/GSTT1-null variants--a pilot study. Concolino P, etal., Clin Biochem. 2007 Sep;40(13-14):939-45. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2007.04.012. Epub 2007 Apr 27.
28. Maternal and paternal environmental risk factors, metabolizing GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms, and congenital heart disease. Cresci M, etal., Am J Cardiol. 2011 Dec 1;108(11):1625-31. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.07.022. Epub 2011 Sep 3.
29. GST genotype may modify clinical phenotype in patients with Fanconi anaemia. Davies SM, etal., Br J Haematol. 2005 Oct;131(1):118-22.
30. Genetic interaction of GSH metabolic pathway genes in cystic fibrosis. de Lima Marson FA, etal., BMC Med Genet. 2013 Jun 10;14:60. doi: 10.1186/1471-2350-14-60.
31. Association between the genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1 and GSTT1) and the clinical manifestations in sickle cell anemia. de Oliveira Filho RA, etal., Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2013 Aug;51(2):76-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bcmd.2013.03.003. Epub 2013 Apr 13.
32. Association of combined genetic variations in SOD3, GPX3, PON1, and GSTT1 with hypertension and severity of coronary artery disease. Decharatchakul N, etal., Heart Vessels. 2020 Jul;35(7):918-929. doi: 10.1007/s00380-020-01564-6. Epub 2020 Feb 8.
33. A case-control study of CYP1A1, GSTT1 and GSTM1 gene polymorphisms, pregnancy smoking and fetal growth restriction. Delpisheh A, etal., Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009 Mar;143(1):38-42. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2008.11.006. Epub 2009 Jan 14.
34. Glutathione S transferase theta 1 gene (GSTT1) null genotype is associated with an increased risk for acquired aplastic anemia in children. Dirksen U, etal., Pediatr Res. 2004 Mar;55(3):466-71. Epub 2003 Dec 17.
35. Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes is associated with the glutathione S transferase theta-null genotype: a Go-DARTS study. Doney AS, etal., Circulation. 2005 Jun 7;111(22):2927-34. Epub 2005 May 31.
36. Genetic polymorphisms of carcinogen metabolizing enzymes are associated with oral leukoplakia development and p53 overexpression. Duarte EC, etal., Anticancer Res. 2008 Mar-Apr;28(2A):1101-6.
37. A population-based, case-control study of polymorphisms in carcinogen-metabolizing genes, smoking, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma risk. Duell EJ, etal., J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Feb 20;94(4):297-306. doi: 10.1093/jnci/94.4.297.
38. Glutathione S-transferase T1-null seems to be associated with graft failure in hematopoietic SCT. Elhasid R, etal., Bone Marrow Transplant. 2010 Dec;45(12):1728-31. doi: 10.1038/bmt.2010.61. Epub 2010 Mar 29.
39. Genetic polymorphism of GSTT1 and GSTM1 and susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Faramawy MM, etal., J Crit Care. 2009 Sep;24(3):e7-10.
40. Correlating of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genetic polymorphisms with the risk and expressions in children with isolated Hirschsprung disease. Gao H, etal., Int J Colorectal Dis. 2011 Jan;26(1):117-25. doi: 10.1007/s00384-010-1013-7. Epub 2010 Jul 27.
41. Glutathione S-transferase mu and theta polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility. Garcia-Closas M, etal., J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Nov 17;91(22):1960-4.
42. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
43. Association analysis of TNFR2, VDR, A2M, GSTT1, GSTM1, and ACE genes with rheumatoid arthritis in South Asians and Caucasians of East Midlands in the United Kingdom. Ghelani AM, etal., Rheumatol Int. 2010 Apr 18.
44. Association of CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 gene polymorphism with risk of oral submucous fibrosis in a section of North Indian population. Ghosh T, etal., Mol Biol Rep. 2012 Oct;39(10):9383-9. doi: 10.1007/s11033-012-1802-x. Epub 2012 Jul 1.
45. Inheritance and Myelodysplasia progression. Giannouli S and Voulgarelis M, Leuk Res. 2013 Oct;37(10):1185-6. doi: 10.1016/j.leukres.2013.06.001. Epub 2013 Jul 13.
46. Dichloromethane mediated in vivo selection and functional characterization of rat glutathione S-transferase theta 1-1 variants. Gisi D, etal., Eur J Biochem. 2001 Jul;268(14):4001-10.
47. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
48. Evaluating glutathione S-transferase (GST) null genotypes (GSTT1 and GSTM1) as a potential biomarker of predisposition for developing leukopenia. Goncalves MS, etal., Int J Lab Hematol. 2010 Feb;32(1 Pt 1):e49-56. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-553X.2009.01169.x. Epub 2009 Jun 23.
49. Association GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 (Ile105Val) genetic polymorphisms in mothers with risk of congenital malformations in their children in Western Siberia: a case-control study. Gordeeva LA, etal., Prenat Diagn. 2013 Nov;33(11):1095-101. doi: 10.1002/pd.4204. Epub 2013 Aug 24.
50. The role of genetic determinant in the development of severe perinatal asphyxia. Gorovenko NG, etal., Tsitol Genet. 2010 Sep-Oct;44(5):41-6.
51. [Analysis of genetic predisposition to pulmonary tuberculosis in native Russians]. Gra OA, etal., Genetika. 2010 Feb;46(2):262-71.
52. [Correlation between smoking and the polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 1A1-Msp I and glutathione S-transferase T1 genes and oral cancer]. Guo L, etal., Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2012 Apr;30(2):187-91.
53. Increased risk for therapy-associated hematologic malignancies in patients with carcinoma of the breast and combined homozygous gene deletions of glutathione transferases M1 and T1. Haase D, etal., Leuk Res. 2002 Mar;26(3):249-54.
54. A common variant in the glutathione S transferase gene is associated with elevated markers of inflammation and lipid peroxidation in subjects with diabetes mellitus. Hayek T, etal., Atherosclerosis. 2006 Feb;184(2):404-12. Epub 2005 Jul 5.
55. Rat liver theta-class glutathione S-transferases T1-1 and T2-2: their chromatographic, electrophoretic, immunochemical, and functional properties. Hiratsuka A, etal., Anal Biochem. 1997 Oct 15;252(2):229-37.
56. Combined glutathione S-transferase T1 and M1 positive genotypes afford protection against type 2 diabetes in Japanese. Hori M, etal., Pharmacogenomics. 2007 Oct;8(10):1307-14.
57. Genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding antioxidant enzymes are associated with diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes. Hovnik T, etal., Diabetes Care. 2009 Dec;32(12):2258-62. doi: 10.2337/dc09-0852. Epub 2009 Sep 14.
58. Association of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms (GSTM1 and GSTT1) with primary open-angle glaucoma: an evidence-based meta-analysis. Huang W, etal., Gene. 2013 Sep 10;526(2):80-6. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.05.032. Epub 2013 Jun 4.
59. Glutathione S-Transferase M1 and T1 Gene Polymorphisms and the Outcome of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Egyptian Patients. Ibrahim AM, etal., Ann Hum Genet. 2016 Jan;80(1):32-7. doi: 10.1111/ahg.12138. Epub 2015 Nov 9.
60. Influence of glutathione-related genes on symptoms and immunologic markers among vulcanization workers in the southern Sweden rubber industries. Jonsson LS, etal., Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2008 Jul;81(7):913-9. Epub 2007 Dec 8.
61. Interaction of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genotypes and malignant melanoma. Kanetsky PA, etal., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001 May;10(5):509-13.
62. Influence of glutathione-S-transferase theta (GSTT1) and micro (GSTM1) gene polymorphisms on the susceptibility of hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan. Kao CC, etal., J Surg Oncol. 2010 Sep 15;102(4):301-7. doi: 10.1002/jso.21643.
63. Non-Jewish Israeli IBD patients have significantly higher glutathione S-transferase GSTT1-null frequency. Karban A, etal., Dig Dis Sci. 2011 Jul;56(7):2081-7. Epub 2011 Jan 18.
64. Effect of interactions of glutathione S-transferase T1, M1, and P1 and HMOX1 gene promoter polymorphisms with heavy smoking on the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Keenan BT, etal., Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Nov;62(11):3196-210. doi: 10.1002/art.27639.
65. The association of glutathione S-transferase GSTT1 and GSTM1 gene polymorphism with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma in a Pakistani population. Khan MI, etal., Mol Vis. 2010 Oct 26;16:2146-52.
66. Combined analysis of germline polymorphisms of p53, GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1, and CYP2E1: relation to the incidence rate of cervical carcinoma. Kim JW, etal., Cancer. 2000 May 1;88(9):2082-91.
67. Genetic polymorphisms in the cytochromes P-450 (1A1, 2E1), microsomal epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferase M1, T1, and P1 genes, and their relationship with chronic bronchitis and relapsing pneumonia in children. Korytina GF, etal., J Mol Med. 2005 Sep;83(9):700-10. Epub 2005 Jun 1.
68. Polymorphisms of the glutathione S-transferases mu-1 (GSTM1) and theta-1 (GSTT1) and the risk of advanced alcoholic liver disease. Ladero JM, etal., Scand J Gastroenterol. 2005 Mar;40(3):348-53. doi: 10.1080/00365520510012109.
69. Clinical significance of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia of intermediate-risk cytogenetics. Lee HS, etal., Leuk Res. 2009 Mar;33(3):426-33. doi: 10.1016/j.leukres.2008.07.021. Epub 2008 Aug 29.
70. [Genetic polymorphism of GST gene in children with infectious mononucleosis and acute lymphocytic leukemia]. Li YH, etal., Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2012 Apr;14(4):260-3.
71. Maternal smoking and oral clefts: the role of detoxification pathway genes. Lie RT, etal., Epidemiology. 2008 Jul;19(4):606-15. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181690731.
72. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene mutations and glutathione S-transferase null genotypes in cystic fibrosis patients in Brazil. Lima CS, etal., J Bras Pneumol. 2012 Jan-Feb;38(1):50-6. doi: 10.1590/s1806-37132012000100008.
73. Xenobiotic gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to multiple myeloma. Lincz LF, etal., Haematologica. 2004 May;89(5):628-9.
74. Polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase mu1 (GSTM1) and theta 1 (GSTT1) genes in chronic myeloid leukaemia. Lourenco GJ, etal., Eur J Haematol. 2005 Dec;75(6):530-1.
75. Are glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms (GSTM1, GSTT1) associated with primary open angle glaucoma? A meta-analysis. Lu Y, etal., Gene. 2013 Sep 15;527(1):311-5. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.06.031. Epub 2013 Jul 1.
76. Association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: results from a case-control study in Kashmir, India. Makhdoomi MA, etal., Tumour Biol. 2015 Apr;36(4):2613-9. doi: 10.1007/s13277-014-2882-0. Epub 2014 Nov 29.
77. GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and the risk of prostate cancer in a Caribbean population of African descent. Mallick S, etal., Urology. 2007 Jun;69(6):1165-9.
78. Gluthatione-S-transferase T1-null genotype predisposes adults to acute promyelocytic leukemia; a case-control study. Mandegary A, etal., Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(5):1279-82.
79. Glutathione S-transferase T1- and M1-null genotypes and coronary artery disease risk in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Manfredi S, etal., Pharmacogenomics. 2009 Jan;10(1):29-34.
80. Glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms in MS: their relationship to disability. Mann CL, etal., Neurology. 2000 Feb 8;54(3):552-7.
81. ADH1B, ALDH2, GSTM1 and GSTT1 Gene Polymorphic Frequencies among Alcoholics and Controls in the Arcadian Population of Central India Mansoori AA and Jain SK, Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018 Mar 27;19(3):725-731. doi: 10.22034/APJCP.2018.19.3.725.
82. Polymorphisms in the glutathione pathway modulate cystic fibrosis severity: a cross-sectional study. Marson FA, etal., BMC Med Genet. 2014 Mar 4;15:27. doi: 10.1186/1471-2350-15-27.
83. GSTT1 and GSTM1 null genotypes may facilitate hepatitis C virus infection becoming chronic. Martínez C, etal., J Infect Dis. 2007 May 1;195(9):1320-3. doi: 10.1086/513569. Epub 2007 Mar 15.
84. Glutathione S-transferases mu 1, theta 1, pi 1, alpha 1 and mu 3 genetic polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal and gastric cancers in humans. Martínez C, etal., Pharmacogenomics. 2006 Jul;7(5):711-8. doi: 10.2217/14622416.7.5.711.
85. Influence of glutathione S-transferase T1 donor/recipient mismatch and anti-GSTT1 antibodies in hepatic graft-versus-host-disease. Martínez-Bravo MJ, etal., Immunol Lett. 2011 Dec 30;141(1):140-4. doi: 10.1016/j.imlet.2011.09.005. Epub 2011 Sep 24.
86. Epidemiological factors related to GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes deletion in colon and rectum cancers: A case-control study. Masood N, etal., Cancer Biomark. 2015;15(5):583-9. doi: 10.3233/CBM-150498.
87. Protection conferred by selenium deficiency against aflatoxin B1 in the rat is associated with the hepatic expression of an aldo-keto reductase and a glutathione S-transferase subunit that metabolize the mycotoxin. McLeod R, etal., Cancer Res. 1997 Oct 1;57(19):4257-66.
88. Polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 gene LOCI in COPD. Mehrotra S, etal., Int J Immunogenet. 2010 Aug;37(4):263-7. Epub 2010 Apr 6.
89. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
90. Analysis of polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and polymorphic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in inflammatory bowel disease: study from northern India. Mittal RD, etal., J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Jun;22(6):920-4.
91. Genetic polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism and their association to hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer. Moisio AL, etal., Gastroenterology. 1998 Dec;115(6):1387-94.
92. Glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms, cruciferous vegetable intake and cancer risk in the Central and Eastern European Kidney Cancer Study. Moore LE, etal., Carcinogenesis. 2007 Sep;28(9):1960-4. Epub 2007 Jul 7.
93. Role of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms in patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma: results from the HD2000 GISL trial. Morabito F, etal., Leuk Lymphoma. 2012 Mar;53(3):406-10. doi: 10.3109/10428194.2011.623254.
94. Gene-environment interaction in preterm delivery with special reference to organochlorine pesticides. Mustafa MD, etal., Mol Hum Reprod. 2013 Jan;19(1):35-42. doi: 10.1093/molehr/gas039. Epub 2012 Sep 3.
95. The role of glutathione-S-transferase polymorphisms in ovarian cancer survival. Nagle CM, etal., Eur J Cancer. 2007 Jan;43(2):283-90. Epub 2006 Nov 3.
96. Possible influence of glutathione S-transferase GSTT1 null genotype on age of onset of sporadic colorectal adenocarcinoma. Nascimento H, etal., Dis Colon Rectum. 2003 Apr;46(4):510-5. doi: 10.1007/s10350-004-6591-4.
97. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
98. The Interaction between GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1 Ile105Val Gene Polymorphisms and Environmental Risk Factors in Premalignant Gastric Lesions Risk. Negovan A, etal., Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:7365080. doi: 10.1155/2017/7365080. Epub 2017 Jan 15.
99. Association of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions with risk of head and neck cancer in Pakistan: a case control study. Nosheen M, etal., Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010;11(4):881-5.
100. Molecular cloning and amino acid sequencing of rat liver class theta glutathione S-transferase Yrs-Yrs inactivating reactive sulfate esters of carcinogenic arylmethanols. Ogura K, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1991 Dec 31;181(3):1294-300.
101. Isolation and characterization of the gene encoding rat class theta glutathione S-transferase subunit yrs. Ogura K, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994 Dec 15;205(2):1250-6.
102. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (TM). Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (TM).
103. Polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase mu1 (GSTM1) and theta1 (GSTT1) genes in multiple myeloma. Ortega MM, etal., Acta Haematol. 2003;109(2):108-9.
104. [Cytochrome P4501A1, glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms in chronic myeloid leukemia]. Ovsepian VA, etal., Genetika. 2010 Oct;46(10):1360-2.
105. Glutathione s-transferase m1, t1, and p1 gene polymorphism in exudative age-related macular degeneration: a preliminary report. Oz O, etal., Eur J Ophthalmol. 2006 Jan - Feb;16(1):105-110. doi: 10.5301/EJO.2008.3524.
106. The glutathione-S-transferase gene polymorphisms (Gstt1, Gstm1, and Gstp1) in patients with non-allergic nasal polyposis. Ozcan C, etal., Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2010 Feb;267(2):227-32. Epub 2009 Aug 23.
107. The impact of smoking on clinical features of Behcet's disease patients with glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms. Ozer HT, etal., Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2012 May-Jun;30(3 Suppl 72):S14-7. Epub 2012 Oct 8.
108. Quantitative dimensions of histopathological attributes and status of GSTM1-GSTT1 in oral submucous fibrosis. Pal M, etal., Tissue Cell. 2008 Dec;40(6):425-35. doi: 10.1016/j.tice.2008.04.003. Epub 2008 Jun 24.
109. GPX3 and GSTT1 as biomarkers related to oxidative stress during renal ischemia reperfusion injuries and their relationship with immune infiltration. Pei J, etal., Front Immunol. 2023 Mar 22;14:1136146. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1136146. eCollection 2023.
110. An evolutionary perspective on glutathione transferases inferred from class-theta glutathione transferase cDNA sequences. Pemble SE and Taylor JB, Biochem J 1992 Nov 1;287 ( Pt 3):957-63.
111. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
112. SMPDB Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import SMPDB annotations from SMPDB into RGD
113. Cytochrome P4501A1 and glutathione S transferase gene polymorphisms in patients with aplastic anemia in India. Poonkuzhali B, etal., Acta Haematol. 2005;114(3):127-32.
114. Glutathione S-transferase T1 polymorphisms are associated with outcome in colorectal cancer. Rajagopal R, etal., Carcinogenesis. 2005 Dec;26(12):2157-63. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgi195. Epub 2005 Jul 28.
115. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
116. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
117. GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Rohr P, etal., Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2008 Jan-Feb;26(1):151-5.
118. Glutathione transferase theta 1-1-dependent metabolism of the water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane. Ross MK and Pegram RA, Chem Res Toxicol. 2003 Feb;16(2):216-26.
119. Polymorphisms of GSTP1 and GSTT1, but not of CYP2A6, CYP2E1 or GSTM1, modify the risk for esophageal cancer in a western population. Rossini A, etal., Carcinogenesis. 2007 Dec;28(12):2537-42. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgm222. Epub 2007 Oct 4.
120. Genetic Association and Gene-Gene Interaction Reveal Genetic Variations in ADH1B, GSTM1 and MnSOD Independently Confer Risk to Alcoholic Liver Diseases in India. Roy N, etal., PLoS One. 2016 Mar 3;11(3):e0149843. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149843. eCollection 2016.
121. Copy number variations of GSTT1 and GSTM1, colorectal cancer risk and possible effect modification of cigarette smoking and menopausal hormone therapy. Rudolph A, etal., Int J Cancer. 2012 Sep 1;131(5):E841-8. doi: 10.1002/ijc.27428. Epub 2012 May 29.
122. Association between cataract and genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTO2 with respect of work place. Saadat I, etal., Mol Vis. 2012;18:1996-2000. Epub 2012 Jul 18.
123. An evidence for correlation between the glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) polymorphism and outcome of COVID-19. Saadat M, Clin Chim Acta. 2020 May 23;508:213-216. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2020.05.041.
124. Prevalence of glutathione S-transferase gene deletions and their effect on sickle cell patients. Sanjay P, etal., Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter. 2012;34(2):100-2. doi: 10.5581/1516-8484.20120030.
125. Genetic Polymorphisms of Multidrug Resistance Gene-1 (MDR1/ABCB1) and Glutathione S-Transferase Gene and the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease among Moroccan Patients. Senhaji N, etal., Mediators Inflamm. 2015;2015:248060. doi: 10.1155/2015/248060. Epub 2015 Oct 28.
126. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms as risk factors for cancer in a highly homogeneous population from southern Italy. Sgambato A, etal., Anticancer Res. 2002 Nov-Dec;22(6B):3647-52.
127. Prenatal and infant acetaminophen exposure, antioxidant gene polymorphisms, and childhood asthma. Shaheen SO, etal., J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Dec;126(6):1141-8.e7. Epub 2010 Nov 4.
128. GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphism and susceptibility to esophageal cancer in high- and low-risk regions of India. Sharma A, etal., Tumour Biol. 2013 Oct;34(5):3249-57. doi: 10.1007/s13277-013-0897-6. Epub 2013 Jun 8.
129. A case control study of gene environmental interaction in fetal growth restriction with special reference to organochlorine pesticides. Sharma E, etal., Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012 Apr;161(2):163-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2012.01.008. Epub 2012 Feb 4.
130. Glutathione S-transferase gene deletions and their effect on iron status in HbE/beta thalassemia patients. Sharma V, etal., Ann Hematol. 2010 Apr;89(4):411-4. doi: 10.1007/s00277-009-0847-y. Epub 2009 Oct 17.
131. Polymorphism in CYP1A1, GSTMI, GSTT1 genes and organochlorine pesticides in the etiology of hypospadias. Shekharyadav C, etal., Hum Exp Toxicol. 2011 Oct;30(10):1464-74. doi: 10.1177/0960327110392402. Epub 2011 Feb 7.
132. Increased bioactivation of dihaloalkanes in rat liver due to induction of class theta glutathione S-transferase T1-1. Sherratt PJ, etal., Biochem J. 1998 Nov 1;335 ( Pt 3):619-30.
133. Residue 234 is a master switch of the alternative-substrate activity profile of human and rodent theta class glutathione transferase T1-1. Shokeer A and Mannervik B, Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010 Apr;1800(4):466-73. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2010.01.003. Epub 2010 Jan 25.
134. Glutathione S-transferase M3 (A/A) genotype as a risk factor for oral cancer and leukoplakia among Indian tobacco smokers. Sikdar N, etal., Int J Cancer. 2004 Mar;109(1):95-101. doi: 10.1002/ijc.11610.
135. Association of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTM3 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to cervical cancer in a North Indian population. Singh H, etal., Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Mar;198(3):303.e1-6. Epub 2008 Feb 21.
136. Total activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes conferring risk for the development of age related cataracts. Sireesha R, etal., Exp Eye Res. 2012 May;98:67-74. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2012.03.002. Epub 2012 Mar 16.
137. Glutathione S-transferase P1 and T1 gene polymorphisms predict longitudinal course and age at onset of Alzheimer disease. Spalletta G, etal., Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007 Oct;15(10):879-87.
138. Polymorphisms within glutathione S-transferase genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1) and risk of relapse in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case-control study. Stanulla M, etal., Blood. 2000 Feb 15;95(4):1222-8.
139. DNA damage and related modifier genes in Italian cystic fibrosis patients. Sterpone S, etal., Biol Res. 2009;42(4):477-86. doi: /S0716-97602009000400009. Epub 2010 Jan 29.
140. Glutathione S-transferase: genetics and role in toxicology. Strange RC, etal., Toxicol Lett 2000 Mar 15;112-113:357-63.
141. Determination of glutathione S-transferase mu and theta polymorphisms in neurological disease. Stroombergen MC and Waring RH, Hum Exp Toxicol. 1999 Mar;18(3):141-5.
142. Impact of glutathione S-transferase gene deletion on early relapse in childhood B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Takanashi M, etal., Haematologica. 2003 Nov;88(11):1238-44.
143. Variability and validity of polymorphism association studies in Parkinson's disease. Tan EK, etal., Neurology. 2000 Aug 22;55(4):533-8.
144. Tentative Sequence Identification Numbers Tentative Sequence Data IDs. TIGR Gene Index, Rat Data
145. Glutathione S-transferase genotypes in systemic sclerosis and their association with clinical manifestations in early disease. Tew MB, etal., Genes Immun. 2001 Jun;2(4):236-8.
146. Association between gastric mucosal glutathione-S-transferase activity, glutathione-S-transferase gene polymorphisms and Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric cancer. Tripathi S, etal., Indian J Gastroenterol. 2011 Dec;30(6):257-63. doi: 10.1007/s12664-011-0144-2. Epub 2011 Dec 3.
147. Maternal cigarette smoking, metabolic gene polymorphisms, and preterm delivery: new insights on GxE interactions and pathogenic pathways. Tsai HJ, etal., Hum Genet. 2008 May;123(4):359-69. doi: 10.1007/s00439-008-0485-9. Epub 2008 Mar 5.
148. Pharmacogenetic influence of GST polymorphisms on anthracycline-based chemotherapy responses and toxicity in breast cancer patients: a multi-analytical approach. Tulsyan S, etal., Mol Diagn Ther. 2013 Dec;17(6):371-9. doi: 10.1007/s40291-013-0045-4.
149. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs enhance glutathione S-transferase theta levels in rat colon. Van Lieshout EM, etal., Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998 Aug 24;1381(3):305-11.
150. Effects of dietary anticarcinogens on rat gastrointestinal glutathione S-transferase theta 1-1 levels. van Lieshout EM, etal., Carcinogenesis. 1998 Nov;19(11):2055-7.
151. Smoking, genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes, and nonsyndromic oral clefting: a gene-environment interaction. van Rooij IA, etal., Epidemiology. 2001 Sep;12(5):502-7.
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153. GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms as major risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in a Chinese Han population. Wang X, etal., Gene. 2014 Jan 1;533(1):48-51. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.10.004. Epub 2013 Oct 10.
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156. Homozygous gene deletions of the glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 are associated with thimerosal sensitization. Westphal GA, etal., Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2000 Aug;73(6):384-8.
157. Molecular predictors for anaemia after kidney transplantation. Wilflingseder J, etal., Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009 Mar;24(3):1015-23. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfn683. Epub 2008 Dec 18.
158. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTT1 and GSTM1) genes polymorphisms and the treatment response and prognosis in Chinese patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia. Xiao Z, etal., Leuk Res. 2008 Aug;32(8):1288-91. Epub 2007 Nov 26.
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161. Glutathione S-transferase T1 deletion is a risk factor for developing end-stage renal disease in diabetic patients. Yang Y, etal., Int J Mol Med. 2004 Nov;14(5):855-9.
162. Is GST gene polymorphism a risk factor in developing exfoliation syndrome? Yilmaz A, etal., Curr Eye Res. 2005 Jul;30(7):575-81.
163. Genetic determinants in the metabolism of bladder carcinogens in relation to risk of bladder cancer. Yuan JM, etal., Carcinogenesis. 2008 Jul;29(7):1386-93. Epub 2008 Jun 9.
164. Impaired cytoprotective mechanisms in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome/glaucoma. Zenkel M, etal., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Dec;48(12):5558-66.
165. Diet-induced obese alters the expression and function of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in rats. Zhang L, etal., Biochem Pharmacol. 2019 Jun;164:368-376. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2019.05.002. Epub 2019 May 4.
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168. The glutathione S-transferase T1 deletion is associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. Živkovic M, etal., J Neurol Sci. 2013 Nov 15;334(1-2):6-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2013.07.001. Epub 2013 Aug 9.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:1848757   PMID:8670055   PMID:8761485   PMID:8799324   PMID:9307035   PMID:9434735   PMID:9854036   PMID:12038961   PMID:12477932   PMID:15489334   PMID:16496253   PMID:17827337  
PMID:23376485   PMID:23533145   PMID:33484035  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr82012,856,068 - 12,873,020 (+)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.22012,856,613 - 12,873,586 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl2012,856,669 - 12,873,585 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx2013,563,264 - 13,580,163 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.02012,924,193 - 12,941,104 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.02013,396,180 - 13,413,203 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.02013,799,102 - 13,816,527 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl2013,799,102 - 13,816,526 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.02015,989,083 - 16,006,508 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.42013,604,355 - 13,621,456 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.12013,604,582 - 13,621,683 (-)NCBI
Celera2014,348,088 - 14,365,283 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map20p12NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh372224,376,133 - 24,384,311 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 362222,706,141 - 22,714,231 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 342222,700,694 - 22,708,785NCBI
Celera228,176,027 - 8,184,162 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map22q11.23NCBI
HuRef227,324,342 - 7,332,477 (-)NCBIHuRef
T2T-CHM13v2.02224,441,300 - 24,449,468 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm391075,619,647 - 75,634,418 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl1075,619,647 - 75,634,418 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm381075,783,813 - 75,798,584 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl1075,783,813 - 75,798,584 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv371075,246,558 - 75,261,329 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv361075,227,531 - 75,242,300 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera1076,828,580 - 76,843,364 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map10C1NCBI
cM Map1038.58NCBI


Variants in Gstt1
84 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:149
Count of miRNA genes:114
Interacting mature miRNAs:120
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
1354642Despr15Despair related QTL 150.0027locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of experiment time spent in a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000958)20124159021Rat
1600382Edcs3Endometrial carcinoma susceptibility QTL33.50.003uterus morphology trait (VT:0001120)percentage of study population developing endometrioid carcinoma during a period of time (CMO:0001759)20125159026Rat
2317851Alcrsp22Alcohol response QTL 223.20.05response to alcohol trait (VT:0010489)duration of loss of righting reflex (CMO:0002289)20127339237Rat
1641893Alcrsp7Alcohol response QTL 7response to alcohol trait (VT:0010489)duration of loss of righting reflex (CMO:0002289)20127339237Rat
8694189Bw153Body weight QTL 1533.130.001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)20129191651Rat
9590275Scort15Serum corticosterone level QTL 153.480.001blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)20129191651Rat
7411650Foco23Food consumption QTL 2320.70.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)20129191651Rat
9590109Sffal8Serum free fatty acids level QTL 85.320.01blood free fatty acid amount (VT:0001553)plasma free fatty acids level (CMO:0000546)20129191651Rat
9589155Insul32Insulin level QTL 326.380.001blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)plasma insulin level (CMO:0000342)20129191651Rat
6893685Bw111Body weight QTL 1112.70.004body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)20132578807Rat
7411668Foco32Food consumption QTL 3280.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)20136600972Rat
9590252Scort12Serum corticosterone level QTL 1220.460.001blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)20136600972Rat
2305926Iddm37Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 376blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)plasma glucose level (CMO:0000042)20152784246527842Rat
1641915Colcr9Colorectal carcinoma resistance QTL 92.970.0024intestine integrity trait (VT:0010554)benign colorectal tumor number (CMO:0001795)20153065546530655Rat
1598816Memor12Memory QTL 122.4exploratory behavior trait (VT:0010471)average horizontal distance between subject and target during voluntary locomotion in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0002674)20260683647606836Rat
2317057Aia27Adjuvant induced arthritis QTL 272.83joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)right rear ankle joint diameter (CMO:0002150)20289259726381954Rat
61432Cia1Collagen induced arthritis QTL 1joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)20362165614101050Rat
4889857Pur27Proteinuria QTL 2712.20.001urine total protein amount (VT:0000032)urine total protein excretion rate (CMO:0000756)20460660717617956Rat
1558640Prcs2Prostate cancer susceptibility QTL 23.3prostate integrity trait (VT:0010571)percentage of study population developing ventral prostate tumorous lesions during a period of time (CMO:0000943)20460660717617956Rat
70154Insul2Insulin level QTL 23.75blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)plasma insulin level (CMO:0000342)20669170617489458Rat
1581577Pur15Proteinuria QTL 154.380.0002urine total protein amount (VT:0000032)urine protein excretion rate (CMO:0000759)20804241017617956Rat
4889870Pur30Proteinuria QTL 30190.005urine total protein amount (VT:0000032)urine total protein excretion rate (CMO:0000756)20804241029322208Rat
631265Iresp1Immunoglobin response QTL18.3blood anti-double stranded DNA antibody amount (VT:0004762)serum anti-DNA antibody level (CMO:0001533)20903971913461775Rat
7411652Foco24Food consumption QTL 240.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)201175751554435887Rat
9590092Insglur9Insulin/glucose ratio QTL 918.380.001blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)calculated plasma insulin level (CMO:0002170)201175751554435887Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.22012,873,378 - 12,873,564 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.02013,816,320 - 13,816,505NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.02016,006,301 - 16,006,486UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.42013,604,377 - 13,604,562UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera2014,365,076 - 14,365,261UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map20154.86UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map20p12UniSTS


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 1 28 20 10 20 27 34 10
Low 2 43 29 21 9 21 8 11 70 8 7 1 8
Below cutoff 4


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000001669   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000001669
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl2012,856,669 - 12,873,580 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl2013,799,102 - 13,816,526 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000097156   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000090349
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl2012,858,242 - 12,873,585 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_053293   ⟹   NP_445745
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr82012,856,117 - 12,873,020 (+)NCBI
mRatBN7.22012,856,680 - 12,873,586 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.02013,799,102 - 13,816,527 (+)NCBI
Rnor_5.02015,989,083 - 16,006,508 (+)NCBI
RGSC_v3.42013,604,355 - 13,621,456 (-)RGD
Celera2014,348,088 - 14,365,283 (+)RGD
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_008772859   ⟹   XP_008771081
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr82012,856,399 - 12,873,014 (+)NCBI
mRatBN7.22012,856,930 - 12,873,580 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.02013,799,394 - 13,816,521 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_008772860   ⟹   XP_008771082
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr82012,856,399 - 12,873,014 (+)NCBI
mRatBN7.22012,856,963 - 12,873,580 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.02013,799,399 - 13,816,521 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_008772861   ⟹   XP_008771083
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr82012,870,182 - 12,873,014 (+)NCBI
mRatBN7.22012,870,795 - 12,873,580 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.02013,813,552 - 13,816,521 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039098441   ⟹   XP_038954369
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr82012,856,095 - 12,873,014 (+)NCBI
mRatBN7.22012,856,678 - 12,873,580 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039098442   ⟹   XP_038954370
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr82012,856,068 - 12,873,014 (+)NCBI
mRatBN7.22012,856,613 - 12,871,278 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_445745   ⟸   NM_053293
- UniProtKB: Q01579 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   B6DYQ8 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8I6ADD6 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_008771082   ⟸   XM_008772860
- Peptide Label: isoform X3
- UniProtKB: A6JKH2 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8I6ADD6 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_008771081   ⟸   XM_008772859
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: A0A8I6ADD6 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_008771083   ⟸   XM_008772861
- Peptide Label: isoform X5
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000001669   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000001669
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038954370   ⟸   XM_039098442
- Peptide Label: isoform X4
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038954369   ⟸   XM_039098441
- Peptide Label: isoform X2
- UniProtKB: A0A8I6ADD6 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000090349   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000097156
Protein Domains
GST C-terminal   GST N-terminal

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-Q01579-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold Q01579 1-240 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13701534
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R12058
Type:multiple initiation site
Description:glutathione S-transferase theta 1
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.02013,799,083 - 13,799,143EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:2765 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-4159 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000049771 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOG00055021147 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00060017311 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00065026008 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000001669 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000001669.5 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00000097156.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00055036143 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00060029612 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00065044874 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Gene3D-CATH 1.20.1050.10 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Glutaredoxin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro Glutathione-S-Trfase_C-like UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Glutathione-S-Trfase_C_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Glutathione_S-Trfase UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Glutathione_S-Trfase_N UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GST_C UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GST_C_Theta UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GST_N_Theta UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Thioredoxin-like_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:25260 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTHR43917 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam GST_C UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GST_N UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Gstt1 PhenoGen
  GST_NTER UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000049771 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00055021147 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00060017311 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00065026008 RatGTEx
Superfamily-SCOP SSF47616 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF52833 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
TIGR TC206835

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2004-09-10 Gstt1  glutathione S-transferase theta 1    glutathione S-transferase, theta 1  Name updated 1299863 APPROVED
2002-06-10 Gstt1  Glutathione S-transferase 1 (theta)      Symbol and Name status set to approved 70586 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_protein 244 amino acid residues 68795
gene_transcript transcript promoter region lacks both TATA and CAAT boxes 68795