Casr (calcium-sensing receptor) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Casr (calcium-sensing receptor) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Casr
Name: calcium-sensing receptor
RGD ID: 2277
Description: Enables integrin binding activity; protein kinase binding activity; and transmembrane transporter binding activity. Involved in several processes, including G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway; blood vessel diameter maintenance; and positive regulation of cell communication. Located in several cellular components, including apical plasma membrane; basolateral plasma membrane; and neuronal cell body. Used to study cardiomyopathy. Biomarker of atherosclerosis; myocardial infarction; and pulmonary hypertension. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in several diseases, including autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (multiple); hypercalcemia (multiple); hyperparathyroidism (multiple); idiopathic generalized epilepsy 8; and nephrolithiasis (multiple). Orthologous to human CASR (calcium sensing receptor); PARTICIPATES IN calcium signaling pathway via the calcium-sensing receptor; G protein mediated signaling pathway via Galphai family; G protein mediated signaling pathway via Galphaq family; INTERACTS WITH 1,2-dimethylhydrazine; 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine; 6-propyl-2-thiouracil.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: Calcium-sensing receptor (hypocalciuric hypercalcemia 1 severe neonatal hyperparathyroidism); Calcium-sensing receptor (hypocalciuric hypercalcemia 1, severe neonatal hyperparathyroidism); extracellular calcium-sensing receptor; parathyroid Cell calcium-sensing receptor; PCaR1; RaKCaR
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Allele / Splice: Casrem1Mcwi  
Genetic Models: SS-Casrem1Mcwi
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr81177,738,398 - 77,813,639 (+)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.21164,235,251 - 64,304,811 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1164,235,251 - 64,304,811 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1173,047,649 - 73,119,237 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01165,709,872 - 65,781,465 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01164,740,787 - 64,812,771 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01167,188,204 - 67,262,261 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1167,188,630 - 67,258,771 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01170,278,784 - 70,352,137 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41166,084,169 - 66,153,292 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11166,141,757 - 66,210,881 (-)NCBI
Celera1163,705,377 - 63,774,888 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map11q22NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process

Cellular Component

Molecular Function


References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Extracellular calcium modulates in vitro bone marrow-derived Flk-1+ CD34+ progenitor cell chemotaxis and differentiation through a calcium-sensing receptor. Aguirre A, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Feb 26;393(1):156-61. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.01.109. Epub 2010 Feb 1.
2. Calcification is associated with loss of functional calcium-sensing receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells. Alam MU, etal., Cardiovasc Res. 2009 Feb 1;81(2):260-8. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvn279. Epub 2008 Oct 13.
3. Decrease in calcium-sensing receptor in the progress of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Bai SZ, etal., Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012 Mar;95(3):378-85. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2011.11.007. Epub 2011 Dec 3.
4. Extracellular Calcium-sensing Receptor is Expressed in Rat Hepatocytes: Coupling to Intracellular Calcium Mobilization and Stimulation of Bile Flow. Canaff L, etal., J Biol Chem 2001 Feb 9;276(6):4070-9. Epub 2000 Nov 08.
5. FGF23 fails to inhibit uremic parathyroid glands. Canalejo R, etal., J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 Jul;21(7):1125-35. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2009040427. Epub 2010 Apr 29.
6. Calcium-sensing receptor decreases cell surface expression of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1. Cha SK, etal., J Biol Chem. 2011 Jan 21;286(3):1828-35. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.160390. Epub 2010 Nov 17.
7. Mitogenic action of calcium-sensing receptor on rat calvarial osteoblasts. Chattopadhyay N, etal., Endocrinology 2004 Jul;145(7):3451-62. Epub 2004 Apr 7.
8. Calcium-sensing receptor inhibits secretagogue-induced electrolyte secretion by intestine via the enteric nervous system. Cheng SX Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012 Jul;303(1):G60-70. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00425.2011. Epub 2012 Apr 19.
9. Expression of calcium-sensing receptor in rat colonic epithelium: evidence for modulation of fluid secretion. Cheng SX, etal., Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2002 Jul;283(1):G240-50.
10. Cyclosporin A induces apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells through calcium-sensing receptor-mediated activation of the ERK MAPK and p38 MAPK pathways. Chi J, etal., Mol Cell Biochem. 2012 Aug;367(1-2):227-36. doi: 10.1007/s11010-012-1336-5. Epub 2012 Jun 8.
11. Mutations in the human Ca(2+)-sensing-receptor gene that cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. Chou YH, etal., Am J Hum Genet. 1995 May;56(5):1075-9.
12. A genetic polymorphism (rs17251221) in the calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR) is associated with stone multiplicity in calcium nephrolithiasis. Chou YH, etal., PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e25227. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025227. Epub 2011 Sep 22.
13. Post-conditioning protects cardiomyocytes from apoptosis via PKC(epsilon)-interacting with calcium-sensing receptors to inhibit endo(sarco)plasmic reticulum-mitochondria crosstalk. Dong S, etal., Mol Cell Biochem. 2010 Aug;341(1-2):195-206. doi: 10.1007/s11010-010-0450-5. Epub 2010 Apr 11.
14. A novel mutation in the calcium-sensing receptor gene in an Irish pedigree showing familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia: a case report. Elamin WF and de Buyl O, J Med Case Rep. 2010 Oct 29;4:349. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-4-349.
15. The clinical significance of parathyroid tissue calcium sensing receptor gene polymorphisms and expression levels in end-stage renal disease patients. Eren PA, etal., Clin Nephrol. 2009 Aug;72(2):114-21.
16. Vitamin D receptor and calcium-sensing receptor gene polymorphisms in hypercalciuric stone-forming patients. Ferreira LG, etal., Nephron Clin Pract. 2010;114(2):c135-44. doi: 10.1159/000254386. Epub 2009 Nov 3.
17. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
18. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
19. Increased expression of calcium-sensing receptors induced by ox-LDL amplifies apoptosis of cardiomyocytes during simulated ischaemia-reperfusion. Guo J, etal., Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2010 Mar;37(3):e128-35. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2010.05345.x.
20. Increased expression of calcium-sensing receptors in atherosclerosis confers hypersensitivity to acute myocardial infarction in rats. Guo J, etal., Mol Cell Biochem. 2012 Jul;366(1-2):345-54. doi: 10.1007/s11010-012-1312-0. Epub 2012 Apr 17.
21. Early degenerative effects of diabetes mellitus on pancreas, liver, and kidney in rats: an immunohistochemical study. Haligur M, etal., Exp Diabetes Res. 2012;2012:120645. doi: 10.1155/2012/120645. Epub 2012 Jul 11.
22. A homozygous inactivating calcium-sensing receptor mutation, Pro339Thr, is associated with isolated primary hyperparathyroidism: correlation between location of mutations and severity of hypercalcaemia. Hannan FM, etal., Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010 Dec;73(6):715-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2010.03870.x.
23. The calcium-sensing receptor affects fat accumulation via effects on antilipolytic pathways in adipose tissue of rats fed low-calcium diets. He YH, etal., J Nutr. 2011 Nov;141(11):1938-46. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.141762. Epub 2011 Sep 21.
24. A mouse model of human familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism. Ho C, etal., Nat Genet. 1995 Dec;11(4):389-94.
25. Activating calcium-sensing receptor mutation in the mouse is associated with cataracts and ectopic calcification. Hough TA, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Sep 14;101(37):13566-71. Epub 2004 Sep 3.
26. Interaction of the Ca2+-sensing receptor with the inwardly rectifying potassium channels Kir4.1 and Kir4.2 results in inhibition of channel function. Huang C, etal., Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Mar;292(3):F1073-81. Epub 2006 Nov 22.
27. Two novel missense mutations in calcium-sensing receptor gene associated with neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism. Kobayashi M, etal., J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Aug;82(8):2716-9.
28. A calcimimetic (R-568), but not calcitriol, prevents vascular remodeling in uremia. Koleganova N, etal., Kidney Int. 2009 Jan;75(1):60-71. doi: 10.1038/ki.2008.490. Epub 2008 Oct 1.
29. Interstitial fibrosis and microvascular disease of the heart in uremia: amelioration by a calcimimetic. Koleganova N, etal., Lab Invest. 2009 May;89(5):520-30. doi: 10.1038/labinvest.2009.7. Epub 2009 Feb 2.
30. The calcium-sensing receptor mediates hypoxia-induced proliferation of rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells through MEK1/ERK1,2 and PI3K pathways. Li GW, etal., Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2011 Mar;108(3):185-93. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2010.00639.x. Epub 2010 Nov 12.
31. Involvement of calcium-sensing receptor in oxLDL-induced MMP-2 production in vascular smooth muscle cells via PI3K/Akt pathway. Li HX, etal., Mol Cell Biochem. 2012 Mar;362(1-2):115-22. doi: 10.1007/s11010-011-1133-6. Epub 2011 Nov 15.
32. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
33. Extracellular calcium-sensing receptor is functionally expressed in human artery. Molostvov G, etal., Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Sep;293(3):F946-55. Epub 2007 May 30.
34. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
35. Common variants in the calcium-sensing receptor gene are associated with total serum calcium levels. O'Seaghdha CM, etal., Hum Mol Genet. 2010 Nov 1;19(21):4296-303. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddq342. Epub 2010 Aug 12.
36. Inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by KCNJ15, a newly identified susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetes. Okamoto K, etal., Diabetes. 2012 Jul;61(7):1734-41. doi: 10.2337/db11-1201. Epub 2012 May 7.
37. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
38. Glucose-mediated spatial interactions of voltage dependent calcium channels and calcium sensing receptor in insulin producing beta-cells. Parkash J Life Sci. 2011 Jan 31;88(5-6):257-64. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2010.12.002. Epub 2010 Dec 10.
39. A familial syndrome of hypocalcemia with hypercalciuria due to mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor. Pearce SH, etal., N Engl J Med. 1996 Oct 10;335(15):1115-22.
40. Calcium-sensing receptor activation of rho involves filamin and rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Pi M, etal., Endocrinology. 2002 Oct;143(10):3830-8.
41. Beta-arrestin- and G protein receptor kinase-mediated calcium-sensing receptor desensitization. Pi M, etal., Mol Endocrinol. 2005 Apr;19(4):1078-87. Epub 2005 Jan 6.
42. PID Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import Pathway Interaction Database annotations from NCI into RGD
43. Mutations in the human Ca(2+)-sensing receptor gene cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism. Pollak MR, etal., Cell. 1993 Dec 31;75(7):1297-303.
44. Autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia caused by a Ca(2+)-sensing receptor gene mutation. Pollak MR, etal., Nat Genet. 1994 Nov;8(3):303-7.
45. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
46. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
47. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
48. Cloning and functional expression of a rat kidney extracellular calcium/polyvalent cation-sensing receptor. Riccardi D, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995 Jan 3;92(1):131-5.
49. Reversal of secondary hyperparathyroidism by phosphate restriction restores parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor expression and function. Ritter CS, etal., J Bone Miner Res 2002 Dec;17(12):2206-13.
50. Calcium sensing receptor: molecular cloning in rat and localization to nerve terminals. Ruat M, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995 Apr 11;92(8):3161-5.
51. Primary hyperparathyroidism and the presence of kidney stones are associated with different haplotypes of the calcium-sensing receptor. Scillitani A, etal., J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jan;92(1):277-83. doi: 10.1210/jc.2006-0857. Epub 2006 Oct 3.
52. A novel CASR mutation in a Tunisian FHH/NSHPT family associated with a mental retardation. Sfar S, etal., Mol Biol Rep. 2012 Mar;39(3):2395-400. doi: 10.1007/s11033-011-0990-0. Epub 2011 Jun 12.
53. Association between calcium-sensing receptor gene polymorphisms and recurrent calcium kidney stone disease: a comprehensive gene analysis. Shakhssalim N, etal., Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2010 Dec;44(6):406-12. doi: 10.3109/00365599.2010.497770. Epub 2010 Jul 5.
54. Phenotypic variation in a large family with autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia. Sorheim JI, etal., Horm Res Paediatr. 2010;74(6):399-405. doi: 10.1159/000303188. Epub 2010 May 26.
55. Calcium-sensing receptor stimulates PTHrP release by pathways dependent on PKC, p38 MAPK, JNK, and ERK1/2 in H-500 cells. Tfelt-Hansen J, etal., Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2003 Aug;285(2):E329-37. Epub 2003 Apr 15.
56. Calcium-sensing receptor modulates cell adhesion and migration via integrins. Tharmalingam S, etal., J Biol Chem. 2011 Nov 25;286(47):40922-33. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.265454. Epub 2011 Oct 3.
57. Biased agonism of the calcium-sensing receptor. Thomsen AR, etal., Cell Calcium. 2012 Feb;51(2):107-16. doi: 10.1016/j.ceca.2011.11.009. Epub 2011 Dec 20.
58. Rescue of the skeletal phenotype in CasR-deficient mice by transfer onto the Gcm2 null background. Tu Q, etal., J Clin Invest 2003 Apr;111(7):1029-37.
59. Polymorphisms at the regulatory regions of the CASR gene influence stone risk in primary hyperparathyroidism. Vezzoli G, etal., Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Mar;164(3):421-7. doi: 10.1530/EJE-10-0915. Epub 2010 Dec 23.
60. Influence of calcium-sensing receptor gene on urinary calcium excretion in stone-forming patients. Vezzoli G, etal., J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Oct;13(10):2517-23.
61. Calcium kidney stones are associated with a haplotype of the calcium-sensing receptor gene regulatory region. Vezzoli G, etal., Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010 Jul;25(7):2245-52. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfp760. Epub 2010 Jan 12.
62. Molecular cloning and characterization of a rat sensory nerve Ca2+-sensing receptor. Wang Y, etal., Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2003 Jul;285(1):C64-75. Epub 2003 Mar 12.
63. Association between activating mutations of calcium-sensing receptor and Bartter's syndrome. Watanabe S, etal., Lancet 2002 Aug 31;360(9334):692-4.
64. Effect of silencing VDR gene in kidney on renal epithelial calcium transporter proteins and urinary calcium excretion in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats. Xi QL, etal., Urology. 2011 Dec;78(6):1442.e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2011.08.051.
65. Enhanced Ca(2+)-sensing receptor function in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Yamamura A, etal., Circ Res. 2012 Aug 3;111(4):469-81. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.112.266361. Epub 2012 Jun 22.
66. Inhibitory effect of hepatocyte growth factor on cardiomyocytes apoptosis is partly related to reduced calcium sensing receptor expression during a model of simulated ischemia/reperfusion. Yan L, etal., Mol Biol Rep. 2011 Apr;38(4):2695-701. doi: 10.1007/s11033-010-0412-8. Epub 2010 Nov 19.
67. [Activation of calcium-sensing receptors is associated with apoptosis in cardiomyocytes under simulated ischemia/reperfusion]. Yan L, etal., Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2011 Mar;40(2):207-12.
68. Association of decreased calcium-sensing receptor expression with proliferation of parathyroid cells in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Yano S, etal., Kidney Int. 2000 Nov;58(5):1980-6.
69. Extracellular calcium-sensing receptor is critical in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Zhang J, etal., Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012 Aug 1;17(3):471-84. doi: 10.1089/ars.2011.4168. Epub 2012 Jan 25.
70. Involvement of the calcium-sensing receptor in cyclosporin A-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in rats. Zhao Y, etal., Pharmazie. 2011 Dec;66(12):968-74.
71. Calcium-sensing receptor activating phosphorylation of PKCdelta translocation on mitochondria to induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis during ischemia/reperfusion. Zheng H, etal., Mol Cell Biochem. 2011 Dec;358(1-2):335-43. doi: 10.1007/s11010-011-0984-1. Epub 2011 Jul 16.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:8636323   PMID:8702647   PMID:8878438   PMID:12372772   PMID:12970167   PMID:14645111   PMID:15576443   PMID:15684428   PMID:15950968   PMID:16019433   PMID:16740594   PMID:16767692  
PMID:16859639   PMID:17267550   PMID:17555508   PMID:17823248   PMID:18032544   PMID:18175029   PMID:18348986   PMID:18414396   PMID:18455448   PMID:18556746   PMID:18636168   PMID:18684886  
PMID:18794335   PMID:19056349   PMID:19091789   PMID:19593209   PMID:19728995   PMID:19789209   PMID:19896983   PMID:20307499   PMID:21215232   PMID:21314926   PMID:21316341   PMID:21566075  
PMID:21692826   PMID:22013999   PMID:22038624   PMID:22050992   PMID:22314915   PMID:22708524   PMID:22789683   PMID:23169696   PMID:23300272   PMID:23564188   PMID:23615500   PMID:23711498  
PMID:23740560   PMID:23966241   PMID:24273150   PMID:24812056   PMID:24842051   PMID:25063217   PMID:25104082   PMID:25192641   PMID:25254954   PMID:25256599   PMID:25292184   PMID:25467798  
PMID:25572699   PMID:25645361   PMID:25747709   PMID:25766501   PMID:25892159   PMID:25967877   PMID:26386835   PMID:26617793   PMID:27288786   PMID:27391973   PMID:27434672   PMID:27502588  
PMID:27589858   PMID:27662515   PMID:27965733   PMID:27989797   PMID:28281186   PMID:28330842   PMID:28348014   PMID:28450119   PMID:28518143   PMID:29128361   PMID:29397395   PMID:29452090  
PMID:30496623   PMID:30626206   PMID:30865840   PMID:30935998   PMID:31173208   PMID:31257458   PMID:31738973   PMID:32705187   PMID:33416112   PMID:33647324   PMID:35477244   PMID:38167726  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr81177,738,398 - 77,813,639 (+)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.21164,235,251 - 64,304,811 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1164,235,251 - 64,304,811 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1173,047,649 - 73,119,237 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01165,709,872 - 65,781,465 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01164,740,787 - 64,812,771 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01167,188,204 - 67,262,261 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1167,188,630 - 67,258,771 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01170,278,784 - 70,352,137 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41166,084,169 - 66,153,292 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11166,141,757 - 66,210,881 (-)NCBI
Celera1163,705,377 - 63,774,888 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map11q22NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh383122,183,668 - 122,291,629 (+)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl3122,183,668 - 122,291,629 (+)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh373121,902,515 - 122,010,476 (+)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 363123,385,220 - 123,488,032 (+)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 343123,385,219 - 123,488,032NCBI
Celera3120,312,793 - 120,414,980 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map3q13.33-q21.1NCBI
HuRef3119,276,062 - 119,378,878 (+)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_13121,866,087 - 121,968,904 (+)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.03124,903,258 - 125,011,238 (+)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm391636,310,947 - 36,382,605 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl1636,314,058 - 36,382,503 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm381636,490,585 - 36,562,141 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl1636,493,696 - 36,562,141 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv371636,493,782 - 36,562,220 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv361636,412,935 - 36,481,373 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera1636,909,014 - 36,977,753 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map16B3NCBI
cM Map1625.57NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_00495542721,486,427 - 21,575,210 (+)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_00495542721,486,608 - 21,574,017 (+)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1-v22120,132,419 - 120,238,779 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1-v2
NHGRI_mPanPan13120,137,198 - 120,243,558 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v03119,278,071 - 119,383,901 (+)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.13126,252,765 - 126,285,268 (+)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl3126,252,765 - 126,285,268 (+)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.13325,340,822 - 25,432,814 (+)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl3325,405,846 - 25,432,559 (+)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha3325,430,838 - 25,457,295 (+)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.03325,575,807 - 25,668,548 (+)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl3325,592,410 - 25,668,339 (+)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.13325,439,049 - 25,465,515 (+)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.03325,481,863 - 25,508,587 (+)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.03326,039,992 - 26,066,527 (+)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_024405602128,921,650 - 128,996,645 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049365368,574,064 - 8,599,454 (+)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_0049365368,574,064 - 8,599,446 (+)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl13138,280,364 - 138,364,252 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.113138,279,785 - 138,364,934 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.213147,907,312 - 147,991,214 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.12258,579,640 - 58,612,142 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl2258,578,396 - 58,604,756 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_023666041107,618,566 - 107,763,120 (+)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_004624912485,258 - 614,656 (+)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_004624912485,252 - 613,572 (+)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Casr
690 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:75
Count of miRNA genes:65
Interacting mature miRNAs:71
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
1300147Bp187Blood pressure QTL 1873.67arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)blood pressure time series experimental set point of the baroreceptor response (CMO:0002593)11169446234Rat
1558659Tescar1Testicular tumor resistance QTL 13.9testis integrity trait (VT:0010572)percentage of study population developing testis tumors during a period of time (CMO:0001261)11104193166113562Rat
724554Iddm17Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 170.001blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)111897620886241447Rat
10058952Gmadr6Adrenal mass QTL 62.290.0072adrenal gland mass (VT:0010420)both adrenal glands wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0002411)112295940367959403Rat
8694376Bw156Body weight QTL 1562.250.001body lean mass (VT:0010483)lean tissue morphological measurement (CMO:0002184)112328045668280456Rat
9590313Scort20Serum corticosterone level QTL 206.510.001blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)112328045668280456Rat
9589032Epfw10Epididymal fat weight QTL 109.290.001epididymal fat pad mass (VT:0010421)epididymal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000658)112328045668280456Rat
8694424Bw162Body weight QTL 1623.80.001body lean mass (VT:0010483)lean tissue morphological measurement (CMO:0002184)112328045668280456Rat
724563Uae10Urinary albumin excretion QTL 106urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin level (CMO:0000130)112767241082846715Rat
1300110Stl7Serum triglyceride level QTL 74.64blood triglyceride amount (VT:0002644)plasma triglyceride level (CMO:0000548)112952841882566702Rat
2298551Neuinf10Neuroinflammation QTL 103.7nervous system integrity trait (VT:0010566)spinal cord beta-2 microglobulin mRNA level (CMO:0002125)113123913478851519Rat
70180BpQTLcluster10Blood pressure QTL cluster 103.19arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)113491804179918041Rat
1300135Rf19Renal function QTL 193.38blood creatinine amount (VT:0005328)creatinine clearance (CMO:0000765)114094618882566702Rat
2312566Glom20Glomerulus QTL 203.60.001kidney glomerulus morphology trait (VT:0005325)index of glomerular damage (CMO:0001135)114428575982566702Rat
1581565Pur10Proteinuria QTL 100.0001urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)114480331882846466Rat
1581572Uae35Urinary albumin excretion QTL 350.0001urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)114480331882846466Rat
4889859Pur28Proteinuria QTL 2819.50.001urine total protein amount (VT:0000032)urine total protein excretion rate (CMO:0000756)114545932375190161Rat
724561Plsm4Polydactyly-luxate syndrome (PLS) morphotypes QTL 40.0003forelimb integrity trait (VT:0010562)front foot phalanges count (CMO:0001947)115445753486241447Rat
4889521Gluco62Glucose level QTL 622.820.001blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)115513672982993457Rat
7411658Foco27Food consumption QTL 2716.20.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)115635142486241447Rat
631506Bp104Blood pressure QTL 1042.8arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)115980279482566545Rat
70208Niddm22Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 223.61blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)plasma glucose level (CMO:0000042)115980279482566553Rat
10058954Gmadr7Adrenal mass QTL 72.490.0049adrenal gland mass (VT:0010420)both adrenal glands wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0002411)116034659086241447Rat

Genetic Models
This gene Casr is modified in the following models/strains:


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 23
Low 2 4 25 9 18 9 3 4 40 6 9 10 3
Below cutoff 1 6 15 15 1 15 5 6 24 2 14 1 5


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000003092   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000003092
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1164,235,251 - 64,304,811 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1167,188,630 - 67,258,721 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000078341   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000070633
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1164,235,251 - 64,304,811 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1167,210,498 - 67,258,721 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000086097   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000069629
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1167,221,359 - 67,258,771 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_001309638   ⟹   NP_001296567
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr81177,763,039 - 77,810,167 (+)NCBI
mRatBN7.21164,257,681 - 64,304,811 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.01167,210,500 - 67,258,789 (+)NCBI
Celera1163,727,881 - 63,774,888 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_016996   ⟹   NP_058692
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr81177,740,614 - 77,810,167 (+)NCBI
mRatBN7.21164,235,251 - 64,304,811 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.01167,188,630 - 67,258,789 (+)NCBI
Rnor_5.01170,278,784 - 70,352,137 (+)NCBI
RGSC_v3.41166,084,169 - 66,153,292 (-)RGD
Celera1163,705,377 - 63,774,888 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_063270272   ⟹   XP_063126342
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr81177,738,398 - 77,813,639 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_063270273   ⟹   XP_063126343
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr81177,770,492 - 77,813,639 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_058692   ⟸   NM_016996
- Peptide Label: precursor
- UniProtKB: P48442 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6IRC6 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   Q80ZA8 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_001296567   ⟸   NM_001309638
- Peptide Label: precursor
- UniProtKB: P48442 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6IRC6 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   Q80ZA8 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000070633   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000078341
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000003092   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000003092
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000069629   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000086097
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_063126342   ⟸   XM_063270272
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_063126343   ⟸   XM_063270273
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P48442-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P48442 1-1079 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:2277 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-21236 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000002265 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOG00055017089 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00060026973 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00065018590 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000003092 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000003092.6 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00000078341.2 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00055029017 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00060046779 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00065031234 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Gene3D-CATH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro ANF_lig-bd_rcpt UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GPCR_3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GPCR_3_9-Cys_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GPCR_3_9-Cys_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GPCR_3_C UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GPCR_3_Ca_sens_rcpt-rel UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GPCR_3_CS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Peripla_BP_I UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:24247 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTHR24061 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam 7tm_3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ANF_receptor UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  NCD3G UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Casr PhenoGen
  GPCRMGR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F3_2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F3_3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F3_4 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000002265 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00055017089 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00060026973 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00065018590 RatGTEx
Superfamily-SCOP SSF53822 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
UniProt A0A8L2R2X2_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2002-06-10 Casr  calcium-sensing receptor      Name updated 70584 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_cellular_localization present at both the apical and basolateral surfaces of colonic surface and crypt cells 628315
gene_disease inactivating mutations have been described in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT), activating mutations have been described in autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism a 62420
gene_expression expressed in gastrointestinal tract, including colon 628315
gene_function G protein-coupled receptor, acts as a receptor for Ca2+, Mg 2+, trivalent, and polycations 62420
gene_function activatss PKC as well as the ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK pathways to regulate PTHrP release 1298591
gene_process may be a physiological receptor for Mg++ and polycations, such as spermine, at certain sites in the body 62420
gene_process mobilizes intracellular Ca2++ from IP3-sensitive stores and stimulates bile flow 62420
gene_process modulator of intestinal fluid secretion; mediates various cellualr processes including increases in intracellular Ca2+ and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3], reductions in cellular cAMP, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, regulatio 628315
gene_process responds to extracellular Ca2+, Mg2+, Gd3+, and neomycin producing a characteristic activation of inositol phospholipid-dependent, intracellular Ca(2+)-induced Cl- currents 1298562
gene_product member of Family C of the superfamily of GPCRs 628315
gene_regulation responsive not only to divalent cations Ca++ and Mg ++ but also trivalent cations such as the transition metal, gadolinium (Gd+++) 62420
gene_regulation activation modulated by changes in ionic strength 62420
gene_regulation responsiveness to ligands potentiated by certain phenylalkylamine compounds and their deschloro derivatives 62420