Pla2g4a (phospholipase A2 group 4A) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Pla2g4a (phospholipase A2 group 4A) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Pla2g4a
Name: phospholipase A2 group 4A (Ensembl:phospholipase A2 group IVA)
RGD ID: 67366
Description: Enables calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 activity and histone acetyltransferase binding activity. Involved in several processes, including cellular response to homocysteine; decidualization; and female gonad development. Located in perinuclear region of cytoplasm and zymogen granule. Used to study hyperglycemia. Biomarker of asthma; brain ischemia; papilloma; polycystic kidney disease; and transitional cell carcinoma. Orthologous to human PLA2G4A (phospholipase A2 group IVA); PARTICIPATES IN cyclooxygenase mediated pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism; endothelin signaling pathway; Fc epsilon receptor mediated signaling pathway; INTERACTS WITH (S)-nicotine; 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline; 1-naphthyl isothiocyanate.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: cPLA2; cytosolic phospholipase A2; cytosolic phospholipase A2-like; LOC100911675; phospholipase A2 cytosolic; phospholipase A2 group IVA; Phospholipase A2, cytosolic; phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent); Pla2c; Pla2g4
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Orthologs
More Info more info ...
Candidate Gene For: Bp329
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr81364,427,921 - 64,572,352 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.21361,877,818 - 62,022,261 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1361,877,813 - 62,022,266 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1364,503,114 - 64,647,490 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01365,794,043 - 65,938,034 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01363,055,598 - 63,199,601 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01367,062,252 - 67,206,688 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1366,988,937 - 67,206,693 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01372,027,801 - 72,172,613 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41364,135,729 - 64,280,815 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11364,149,803 - 64,294,883 (-)NCBI
Celera1361,840,531 - 61,984,375 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map13q21NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(S)-nicotine  (EXP)
1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline  (EXP)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine  (ISO)
1-naphthyl isothiocyanate  (EXP)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP,ISO)
2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,4,4',6-tetrachlorobiphenyl  (EXP)
2,4-dibromophenyl 2,4,5-tribromophenyl ether  (ISO)
2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol  (ISO)
2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose  (EXP)
2-ethoxyethanol  (EXP)
2-methoxyethanol  (EXP)
2-palmitoylglycerol  (ISO)
3',5'-cyclic AMP  (EXP)
3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
3-[3-(tert-butylsulfanyl)-1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-1H-indol-2-yl]-2,2-dimethylpropanoic acid  (ISO)
4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane  (EXP)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (ISO)
4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)butan-1-one  (EXP)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
5-(2-methylpiperazine-1-sulfonyl)isoquinoline  (ISO)
5-fluorouracil  (ISO)
5-methoxy-2-\{[(4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridin-2-yl)methyl]sulfinyl\}-1H-benzimidazole  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
6alpha-methylprednisolone  (ISO)
acetamide  (EXP)
acetylsalicylic acid  (ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucosamine  (EXP)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (ISO)
aluminium sulfate (anhydrous)  (ISO)
amiodarone  (EXP)
amitrole  (EXP)
amphetamine  (EXP)
arachidonic acid  (EXP,ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
arsenous acid  (ISO)
beclomethasone  (ISO)
belinostat  (ISO)
benzene  (EXP,ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
benzo[b]fluoranthene  (ISO)
beta-D-glucosamine  (EXP)
beta-D-glucosamine 6-sulfate  (ISO)
beta-naphthoflavone  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol F  (ISO)
budesonide  (ISO)
cadmium atom  (EXP,ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (EXP)
cadmium sulfate  (ISO)
capsaicin  (ISO)
carbamazepine  (ISO)
carbofuran  (EXP)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
celecoxib  (ISO)
chlordecone  (ISO)
chlorothalonil  (ISO)
choline  (ISO)
chromium(6+)  (ISO)
cisplatin  (ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (ISO)
copper atom  (ISO)
copper(0)  (ISO)
cycloheximide  (ISO)
cyclophosphamide  (ISO)
cyclosporin A  (ISO)
dexamethasone  (ISO)
dextran sulfate  (ISO)
diarsenic trioxide  (ISO)
dibutyl phthalate  (EXP)
diethyldithiocarbamic acid  (EXP)
dioxygen  (ISO)
diphenhydramine  (ISO)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (EXP,ISO)
entinostat  (ISO)
ethanol  (EXP)
fluoranthene  (ISO)
fluoxetine  (ISO)
flurbiprofen  (ISO)
fluticasone  (ISO)
folic acid  (ISO)
formaldehyde  (EXP)
FR900359  (ISO)
genistein  (ISO)
gentamycin  (EXP)
histamine  (ISO)
hydrogen peroxide  (EXP,ISO)
icosanoid  (ISO)
iron atom  (EXP)
iron(0)  (EXP)
isoprenaline  (EXP)
L-methionine  (ISO)
lead nitrate  (ISO)
lead(II) chloride  (ISO)
leukotriene B4  (ISO)
Licochalcone B  (ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (EXP,ISO)
lithium atom  (ISO)
lithium carbonate  (ISO)
lithium hydride  (ISO)
lovastatin  (EXP)
melittin  (ISO)
mercury dibromide  (ISO)
methimazole  (EXP)
methotrexate  (ISO)
methyl methanesulfonate  (ISO)
methylseleninic acid  (ISO)
N'-Nitrosonornicotine  (EXP)
N-[2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]isoquinoline-5-sulfonamide  (ISO)
N-acetyl-L-cysteine  (EXP)
N-Acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-cysteine  (ISO)
N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine  (ISO)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (EXP,ISO)
N-nitrosodimethylamine  (EXP)
nicotine  (EXP)
nifedipine  (EXP,ISO)
nitric oxide  (EXP)
okadaic acid  (ISO)
olaparib  (EXP)
omeprazole  (ISO)
orientin  (ISO)
oxaliplatin  (EXP)
oxycodone  (EXP)
ozone  (ISO)
p-chloromercuribenzoic acid  (ISO)
panobinostat  (ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP,ISO)
phenylmercury acetate  (ISO)
phorbol 13-acetate 12-myristate  (ISO)
prednisolone  (ISO)
procymidone  (ISO)
progesterone  (ISO)
prostaglandin E2  (ISO)
resveratrol  (ISO)
rofecoxib  (ISO)
SB 203580  (EXP,ISO)
SB 431542  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (ISO)
sodium chloride  (EXP,ISO)
sodium dodecyl sulfate  (ISO)
Soman  (EXP)
sulfadimethoxine  (EXP)
sulindac  (ISO)
tamoxifen  (ISO)
temozolomide  (ISO)
terephthalic acid  (EXP)
tert-butyl hydroperoxide  (ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (ISO)
thioacetamide  (EXP)
topotecan  (EXP)
triamcinolone acetonide  (ISO)
trichostatin A  (ISO)
triphenyl phosphate  (EXP)
triptonide  (ISO)
troglitazone  (ISO)
tyrphostin AG 1478  (ISO)
valproic acid  (ISO)
vancomycin  (ISO)
vorinostat  (ISO)
zinc atom  (EXP)
zinc sulfate  (EXP)
zinc(0)  (EXP)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
arachidonic acid metabolic process  (IEA,IMP,ISO,ISS)
arachidonic acid secretion  (IEA,ISO)
cellular response to antibiotic  (IEA,ISO)
cellular response to homocysteine  (IEP)
decidualization  (IMP)
establishment of localization in cell  (IEA,ISO)
glycerol metabolic process  (IEA)
glycerophospholipid catabolic process  (IBA)
icosanoid biosynthetic process  (ISO)
leukotriene biosynthetic process  (IEA,ISO)
luteolysis  (IEP)
monoacylglycerol biosynthetic process  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
ovulation from ovarian follicle  (IMP)
phosphatidylcholine acyl-chain remodeling  (IEA,ISO)
phosphatidylcholine catabolic process  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
phosphatidylglycerol catabolic process  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
phospholipid catabolic process  (IEA)
platelet activating factor biosynthetic process  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of apoptotic process  (IMP)
positive regulation of bone mineralization  (IEP)
positive regulation of cell population proliferation  (IMP)
positive regulation of fever generation  (IEP)
positive regulation of macrophage activation  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of platelet activation  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of prostaglandin biosynthetic process  (IMP)
positive regulation of prostaglandin secretion  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of T-helper 1 type immune response  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of vesicle fusion  (IMP)
prostaglandin biosynthetic process  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
regulation of cell population proliferation  (IEA,ISO)
response to calcium ion  (IMP)
response to glucocorticoid  (IEP)
response to hormone  (IEP)
response to hydrogen peroxide  (IEP)
response to lipopolysaccharide  (IEP)
response to methylmercury  (IEP)
response to organonitrogen compound  (IEP)
response to vitamin D  (IEP)
surfactant homeostasis  (IMP)

Cellular Component


References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Up-regulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha expression by N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate in PC12 cells; involvement of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. Akiyama N, etal., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006 Sep 1;215(2):218-27. Epub 2006 Apr 17.
2. Alterations in renal cytosolic phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenases in polycystic kidney disease. Aukema HM, etal., FASEB J. 2003 Feb;17(2):298-300. Epub 2002 Dec 17.
3. Complement C5b-9 membrane attack complex increases expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins in glomerular epithelial cells. Cybulsky AV, etal., J Biol Chem 2002 Nov 1;277(44):41342-51.
4. Phospholipase A2 plays an important role in myelin breakdown and phagocytosis during Wallerian degeneration. De S, etal., Mol Cell Neurosci. 2003 Nov;24(3):753-65.
5. Inhibition of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 expression by glucocorticoids in rat intestinal epithelial cells. Dolan-O'keefe M and Nick HS, Gastroenterology. 1999 Apr;116(4):855-64.
6. The metabolic cascade leading to eicosanoid precursors--desaturases, elongases, and phospholipases A2--is altered in Zucker fatty rats. Fevre C, etal., Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Jun;1811(6):409-17. Epub 2010 Dec 21.
7. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
8. PTH and phospholipase A2 in the aging process of intestinal cells. Gentili C, etal., J Cell Biochem. 2004 Oct 1;93(2):312-26.
9. 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) signaling in rat intestinal cells: activation of cytosolic PLA2. Gentili C, etal., J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004 May;89-90(1-5):297-301.
10. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
11. Enhanced vasoconstrictor prostanoid production by sinusoidal endothelial cells increases portal perfusion pressure in cirrhotic rat livers. Gracia-Sancho J, etal., J Hepatol. 2007 Aug;47(2):220-7. Epub 2007 Apr 5.
12. Augmented prostaglandin E2 generation resulting from increased activities of cytosolic and secretory phospholipase A2 and induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in interleukin-1 beta-stimulated rat calvarial cells during the mineralizing phase. Higashi S, etal., Inflamm Res. 2000 Mar;49(3):102-11.
13. Differential effects of oxidative stress on hepatic endothelial and Kupffer cell eicosanoid release in response to endothelin-1. Karaa A, etal., Microcirculation. 2006 Sep;13(6):457-66.
14. Parkinsonism-inducing neurotoxin MPP+: uptake and toxicity in nonneuronal COS cells expressing dopamine transporter cDNA. Kitayama S, etal., Ann Neurol. 1992 Jul;32(1):109-11.
15. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 mediates neuronal apoptosis induced by soluble oligomers of the amyloid-beta peptide. Kriem B, etal., FASEB J. 2005 Jan;19(1):85-7. Epub 2004 Oct 14.
16. Sustained activity of luteal cytosolic phospholipase A2 during luteolysis in pseudopregnant rats: its possible implication in tissue involution. Kurusu S, etal., Endocrine. 2001 Apr;14(3):337-42.
17. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 in rat decidual cells: evidence for its role in decidualization. Kurusu S, etal., FEBS Lett. 1999 Feb 12;444(2-3):235-8.
18. Involvement of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in the ovulatory process in gonadotropin-primed immature rats. Kurusu S, etal., Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1998 Jun;58(6):405-11.
19. Discovery of Ecopladib, an indole inhibitor of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha. Lee KL, etal., J Med Chem. 2007 Mar 22;50(6):1380-400. Epub 2007 Feb 17.
20. Regulation of lung surfactant secretion by phospholipase A2. Liu L J Cell Biochem. 1999 Jan 1;72(1):103-10.
21. M1 muscarinic receptors inhibit L-type Ca2+ current and M-current by divergent signal transduction cascades. Liu L, etal., J Neurosci. 2006 Nov 8;26(45):11588-98.
22. Stimulation of arachidonic acid release by vasopressin in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells mediated by Ca2+-stimulated phospholipase A2. Liu Y and Taylor CW, FEBS Lett. 2006 Jul 24;580(17):4114-20. Epub 2006 Jun 30.
23. Intracellular phospholipase A(2) group IVA and group VIA play important roles in Wallerian degeneration and axon regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. Lopez-Vales R, etal., Brain. 2008 Oct;131(Pt 10):2620-31. Epub 2008 Aug 21.
24. Cloning and expression of a group IV cytosolic Ca2+-dependent phospholipase A2 from rat pancreatic islets. Comparison of the expressed activity with that of an islet group VI cytosolic Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2. Ma Z, etal., Biochim Biophys Acta 1998 Apr 22;1391(3):384-400.
25. Molecular mechanisms regulating the vascular prostacyclin pathways and their adaptation during pregnancy and in the newborn. Majed BH and Khalil RA, Pharmacol Rev. 2012 Jul;64(3):540-82. doi: 10.1124/pr.111.004770. Epub 2012 Jun 7.
26. A novel pathway of cell growth regulation mediated by a PLA2alpha-derived phosphoinositide metabolite. Mariggio S, etal., FASEB J. 2006 Dec;20(14):2567-9. Epub 2006 Oct 23.
27. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
28. Characterization of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in rat mastocytoma RBL-2H3. Nakatani Y, etal., Biol Pharm Bull. 1994 Jan;17(1):47-50.
29. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
30. Intracellular actions of group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 and group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 contribute to arachidonic acid release and prostaglandin production in rat gastric mucosal cells and transfected human embryonic kidney cells. Ni Z, etal., J Biol Chem. 2006 Jun 16;281(24):16245-55. Epub 2006 Apr 7.
31. Molecules in focus: cytosolic phospholipase A2-alpha. Niknami M, etal., Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009 May;41(5):994-7. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2008.07.017. Epub 2008 Aug 8.
32. Negative feedback between secretory and cytosolic phospholipase A2 and their opposing roles in ovalbumin-induced bronchoconstriction in rats. Offer S, etal., Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005 Mar;288(3):L523-9. Epub 2004 Nov 19.
33. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
34. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
35. PID Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import Pathway Interaction Database annotations from NCI into RGD
36. SMPDB Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import SMPDB annotations from SMPDB into RGD
37. Role of GluN2A NMDA receptor in homocysteine-induced prostaglandin E2 release from neurons. Rajagopal S, etal., J Neurochem. 2019 Jul;150(1):44-55. doi: 10.1111/jnc.14775. Epub 2019 Jun 20.
38. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
39. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
40. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
41. 85 kDa cytosolic phospholipase A2 is a target for chronic lithium in rat brain. Rintala J, etal., Neuroreport. 1999 Dec 16;10(18):3887-90.
42. Cytosolic PLA2 in zymogen granule fusion and amylase release: inhibition of GTP-induced fusion by arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone points to cPLA2 in G-protein-mediated secretory vesicle fusion. Sattar AA and Haque R, J Biochem (Tokyo). 2007 Jan;141(1):77-84. Epub 2006 Dec 5.
43. Methylmercury stimulates arachidonic acid release and cytosolic phospholipase A2 expression in primary neuronal cultures. Shanker G, etal., Neurotoxicology. 2004 Mar;25(3):399-406.
44. PLIP, a novel splice variant of Tip60, interacts with group IV cytosolic phospholipase A(2), induces apoptosis, and potentiates prostaglandin production. Sheridan AM, etal., Mol Cell Biol. 2001 Jul;21(14):4470-81.
45. Elevated prostaglandin E2 level via cPLA2--COX-2--mPGES-1 pathway involved in bladder carcinogenesis induced by terephthalic acid-calculi in Wistar rats. Shi Y, etal., Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006 May;74(5):309-15. Epub 2006 Apr 18.
46. Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase regulates angiotensin II-induced cytosolic phospholipase A2 activity and growth in vascular smooth muscle cells. Silfani TN and Freeman EJ, Arch Biochem Biophys 2002 Jun 1;402(1):84-93.
47. Leptin modulates the detrimental effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-induced cytosolic phospholipase A2 activation on salivary mucin synthesis via ERK-signal transduction. Slomiany BL and Slomiany A, Inflammopharmacology. 2006 Dec;14(5-6):250-5.
48. Cellular and molecular bases of the initiation of fever. Steiner AA, etal., PLoS Biol. 2006 Sep;4(9):e284.
49. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. Strausberg RL, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Dec 24;99(26):16899-903. Epub 2002 Dec 11.
50. GTP-binding protein mediated phospholipase A2 activation in rat liver during the progression of sepsis. Tong LJ, etal., Mol Cell Biochem. 1998 Dec;189(1-2):55-61.
51. Human cardiac muscle magnesium and potassium concentrations: can skeletal muscle, mononuclear blood cells, erythrocyte and plasma concentrations provide a surrogate measure? Tovey JA, etal., Ann Clin Biochem. 1992 Jul;29 ( Pt 4):461-2.
52. Hippocampal kindling epileptogenesis upregulates neuronal cyclooxygenase-2 expression in neocortex. Tu B and Bazan NG, Exp Neurol 2003 Feb;179(2):167-75.
53. Leukotriene B(4) stimulates Rac-ERK cascade to generate reactive oxygen species that mediates chemotaxis. Woo CH, etal., J Biol Chem 2002 Mar 8;277(10):8572-8. Epub 2001 Dec 27.
54. Identification of the mechanism for the inhibition of Na+,K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase by hyperglycemia involving activation of protein kinase C and cytosolic phospholipase A2. Xia P, etal., J Clin Invest. 1995 Aug;96(2):733-40.
55. Systemic and intrathecal effects of a novel series of phospholipase A2 inhibitors on hyperalgesia and spinal prostaglandin E2 release. Yaksh TL, etal., J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Jan;316(1):466-75. Epub 2005 Oct 3.
56. Overexpression of genes in the CA1 hippocampus region of adult rat following episodes of global ischemia. Yakubov E, etal., Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2004 Aug 23;127(1-2):10-26.
57. Involvement of p38 MAP kinase in burn-induced degradation of membrane phospholipids and upregulation of cPLA2 in cardiac myocytes. Zhang JP, etal., Shock. 2007 Jul;28(1):86-93.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:7794891   PMID:7808237   PMID:7898324   PMID:8702602   PMID:9403692   PMID:9403693   PMID:9425121   PMID:9430701   PMID:9665851   PMID:10946309   PMID:10969066   PMID:11375391  
PMID:12529382   PMID:12582837   PMID:12672805   PMID:14709560   PMID:15003994   PMID:15322111   PMID:15548519   PMID:15637121   PMID:15991247   PMID:16172261   PMID:16617059   PMID:16997278  
PMID:17267947   PMID:17293613   PMID:17462919   PMID:17472963   PMID:17613534   PMID:17643276   PMID:18451993   PMID:18545259   PMID:18632668   PMID:18713832   PMID:18725190   PMID:19130224  
PMID:19409102   PMID:19455582   PMID:19703580   PMID:19753100   PMID:19940072   PMID:20388488   PMID:20601072   PMID:20978898   PMID:21094175   PMID:21247147   PMID:21762109   PMID:23219970  
PMID:23563696   PMID:23909864   PMID:24044897   PMID:24076420   PMID:24782598   PMID:25533654   PMID:25869501   PMID:26632509   PMID:26709877   PMID:26850849   PMID:27642067   PMID:27686454  
PMID:27702653   PMID:30112630   PMID:30251689   PMID:32274627   PMID:35285418   PMID:37614136  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr81364,427,921 - 64,572,352 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.21361,877,818 - 62,022,261 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1361,877,813 - 62,022,266 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1364,503,114 - 64,647,490 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01365,794,043 - 65,938,034 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01363,055,598 - 63,199,601 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01367,062,252 - 67,206,688 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1366,988,937 - 67,206,693 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01372,027,801 - 72,172,613 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41364,135,729 - 64,280,815 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11364,149,803 - 64,294,883 (-)NCBI
Celera1361,840,531 - 61,984,375 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map13q21NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh381186,828,949 - 186,988,981 (+)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl1186,828,949 - 186,988,981 (+)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh371186,798,081 - 186,958,113 (+)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 361185,064,655 - 185,224,736 (+)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 341183,529,761 - 183,689,770NCBI
Celera1159,908,366 - 160,068,522 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map1q31.1NCBI
HuRef1158,032,476 - 158,192,352 (+)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_11188,219,298 - 188,379,410 (+)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.01186,183,301 - 186,343,553 (+)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm391149,705,369 - 149,837,041 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl1149,705,369 - 149,837,041 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm381149,829,618 - 149,961,290 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl1149,829,618 - 149,961,290 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv371151,676,752 - 151,808,414 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv361151,591,840 - 151,723,502 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera1152,270,492 - 152,407,425 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map1G1NCBI
cM Map163.51NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_00495540625,257,355 - 25,394,206 (+)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_00495540625,257,361 - 25,392,079 (+)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1-v2162,725,111 - 62,884,722 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1-v2
NHGRI_mPanPan1162,405,808 - 62,566,032 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v01162,362,600 - 162,521,974 (+)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.11166,512,870 - 166,672,114 (+)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl1166,512,870 - 166,672,101 (+)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.1719,804,412 - 19,955,215 (+)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl719,832,664 - 19,966,936 (+)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha719,327,033 - 19,477,842 (+)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.0719,541,768 - 19,692,656 (+)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl719,570,229 - 19,692,274 (+)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.1719,447,440 - 19,598,170 (+)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.0719,556,751 - 19,707,439 (+)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.0719,688,892 - 19,840,168 (+)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440934485,712,619 - 85,843,081 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049364813,559,358 - 3,689,833 (-)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_0049364813,559,377 - 3,689,797 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl9127,859,051 - 128,162,638 (+)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.19127,853,581 - 128,164,825 (+)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.29140,386,385 - 140,623,416 (+)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.12542,443,480 - 42,590,895 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl2542,443,385 - 42,590,431 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_02366605543,569,644 - 43,761,073 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_0046248146,597,005 - 6,744,286 (-)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_0046248146,597,248 - 6,744,294 (-)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Pla2g4a
768 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:18
Count of miRNA genes:17
Interacting mature miRNAs:17
Prediction methods:Miranda, Rnahybrid
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
1354666Bp244Blood pressure QTL 2444.9arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)131101056920Rat
1354666Bp244Blood pressure QTL 2444.9arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)131101056920Rat
1354666Bp244Blood pressure QTL 2444.9arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)131101056920Rat
1581554Pur11Proteinuria QTL 11urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)13599483377046787Rat
1581573Uae36Urinary albumin excretion QTL 36urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)13599483377046787Rat
1581570Eae17Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 174.1nervous system integrity trait (VT:0010566)experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis incidence/prevalence measurement (CMO:0001046)138897350101631289Rat
7207885Glom27Glomerulus QTL 273.9kidney glomerulus integrity trait (VT:0010546)kidney crescentic glomeruli count to kidney normal glomeruli count ratio (CMO:0002139)1320605871101339738Rat
61391Bp5Blood pressure QTL 55.6arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)132230187567301875Rat
70170Eae14Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 140.0024nervous system integrity trait (VT:0010566)experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis incidence/prevalence measurement (CMO:0001046)132320344868203448Rat
6893338Cm76Cardiac mass QTL 7600.99heart mass (VT:0007028)heart weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000074)132369296968692969Rat
1558644Cm45Cardiac mass QTL 453.60.002heart mass (VT:0007028)heart wet weight (CMO:0000069)132369296968692969Rat
1354621Rf47Renal function QTL 473.7kidney renin amount (VT:0010559)kidney renin level (CMO:0002166)1330395351101056920Rat
70181BpQTLcluster11Blood pressure QTL cluster 116.922arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)133124133193395974Rat
70181BpQTLcluster11Blood pressure QTL cluster 116.922arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)133124133193395974Rat
70181BpQTLcluster11Blood pressure QTL cluster 116.922arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)133124133193395974Rat
70181BpQTLcluster11Blood pressure QTL cluster 116.922arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)absolute change in mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000533)133124133193395974Rat
2303563Bw89Body weight QTL 896body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)133228447177284471Rat
61340Bp25Blood pressure QTL 254.20.004arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)133453521879535218Rat
12879477Bp401Blood pressure QTL 401arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)133726209282262092Rat
61349Bp31Blood pressure QTL 315.75arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)blood pressure measurement (CMO:0000003)133737450982374509Rat
70220Bp55Blood pressure QTL 555.75arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)blood pressure measurement (CMO:0000003)133737450982374509Rat
4889861Pur29Proteinuria QTL 2913.80.005urine total protein amount (VT:0000032)urine total protein excretion rate (CMO:0000756)133741558480753406Rat
1331750Bp220Blood pressure QTL 2202.98arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)133741558482415584Rat
1549897Stresp12Stress response QTL 123.35stress-related behavior trait (VT:0010451)number of approaches toward negative stimulus before onset of defensive burying response (CMO:0001960)133843340883433408Rat
619615Bp80Blood pressure QTL 800.0354arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)133975454484754544Rat
6893344Cm79Cardiac mass QTL 791.50.04heart mass (VT:0007028)heart weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000074)134372077062022792Rat
12879444Bp397Blood pressure QTL 397arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)134504940490049404Rat
12879471Bp398Blood pressure QTL 398arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)134551471990514719Rat
12879441Bp396Blood pressure QTL 396arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)134569998390699983Rat
1298066Bp159Blood pressure QTL 1590.004arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)134608804691088046Rat
71119Thym2Thymus enlargement QTL 23.8thymus mass (VT:0004954)thymus weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000612)134619797684753113Rat
1641901Alcrsp6Alcohol response QTL 6response to alcohol trait (VT:0010489)duration of loss of righting reflex (CMO:0002289)135236217197362171Rat
1354655Bp241Blood pressure QTL 2413.9arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1356056920101056920Rat
2303028Bp329Blood pressure QTL 329arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)135849787273485113Rat
724564Uae11Urinary albumin excretion QTL 115.7urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin level (CMO:0000130)135949252277046890Rat
738026Lnnr5Liver neoplastic nodule remodeling QTL 53.29liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver remodeling tumorous lesion number (CMO:0001461)135987440885581182Rat
12879475Bp400Blood pressure QTL 400arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)1361825626106807694Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21362,022,374 - 62,022,792 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01367,206,802 - 67,207,219NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01372,172,727 - 72,173,144UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41364,280,928 - 64,281,346RGDRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.41364,280,929 - 64,281,346UniSTSRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11364,295,008 - 64,295,426RGD
Celera1361,984,489 - 61,984,941UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map13292.7UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map13292.7RGD
RH 2.0 Map13410.6RGD
FHH x ACI Map1328.32RGD
Cytogenetic Map13q21UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21362,017,665 - 62,017,934 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01367,202,093 - 67,202,361NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01372,168,018 - 72,168,286UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41364,276,219 - 64,276,488RGDRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.41364,276,220 - 64,276,488UniSTSRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11364,290,299 - 64,290,568RGD
Celera1361,979,780 - 61,980,048UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map13q21UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21361,897,056 - 61,897,206 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01367,081,490 - 67,081,639NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01372,047,039 - 72,047,188UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41364,154,967 - 64,155,116UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera1361,859,795 - 61,859,944UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map13q21UniSTS


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 8 6 8 6 22 20
Low 3 43 49 35 11 35 8 10 74 13 19 11 8
Below cutoff 1 2


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000003630   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000003630
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1361,877,813 - 62,011,487 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1367,062,257 - 67,206,688 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000090693   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000075329
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1361,877,816 - 62,022,266 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1366,988,937 - 67,206,693 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000099118   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000093497
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1361,877,813 - 61,981,789 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000113110   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000080078
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1361,877,813 - 61,981,014 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_133551   ⟹   NP_598235
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr81364,427,921 - 64,572,352 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.21361,877,818 - 62,022,261 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.01367,062,252 - 67,206,688 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.01372,027,801 - 72,172,613 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.41364,135,729 - 64,280,815 (-)RGD
Celera1361,840,531 - 61,984,375 (-)RGD
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_598235   ⟸   NM_133551
- UniProtKB: P50393 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A0A0G2KAA9 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   Q6IRF5 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000075329   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000090693
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000003630   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000003630
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000093497   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000099118
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000080078   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000113110
Protein Domains
C2   PLA2c

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P50393-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P50393 1-752 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13698877
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R9402
Type:initiation region
Description:phospholipase A2 group IVA
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.01367,206,654 - 67,206,714EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:67366 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-17952 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000002657 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000003630.7 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000090693.2 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000099118.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000113110.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Gene3D-CATH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Cytosolic phospholipase A2 catalytic domain UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro Acyl_Trfase/lysoPLipase UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  C2_cPLA2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  C2_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  C2_domain_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  LysoPLipase_cat_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:24653 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam PF00168 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PLA2_B UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Pla2g4a PhenoGen
PROSITE PLA2C UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PS50004 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000002657 RatGTEx
SMART PLAc UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SM00239 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Superfamily-SCOP SSF49562 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF52151 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  P50393 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2024-04-25 Pla2g4a  phospholipase A2 group 4A  Pla2g4a  phospholipase A2 group IVA  Name changed 629549 APPROVED
2021-03-09 Pla2g4a  phospholipase A2 group IVA  LOC100911675  cytosolic phospholipase A2-like  Data merged from RGD:6491784 737654 PROVISIONAL
2015-11-30 Pla2g4a  phospholipase A2 group IVA  Pla2g4a  phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent)  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2012-07-05 LOC100911675  cytosolic phospholipase A2-like      Symbol and Name status set to provisional 70820 PROVISIONAL
2003-04-09 Pla2g4a  phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent)      Symbol and Name updated 629477 APPROVED
2003-03-10 Pla2g4a  phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent)  Pla2g4  Phospholipase A2, cytosolic  Data merged from RGD:3341 628472 PROVISIONAL
2002-06-10 Pla2g4  Phospholipase A2, cytosolic      Symbol and Name status set to approved 70586 APPROVED
2002-06-10 Pla2g4a        Symbol and Name status set to approved 70586 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_disease induced in hippocampal kindling model of epileptogenesis 729548