Kras (KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Kras (KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Kras
Name: KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase
RGD ID: 2981
Description: Enables GDP binding activity; GMP binding activity; and LRR domain binding activity. Involved in several processes, including cardiac muscle cell proliferation; positive regulation of cellular senescence; and response to corticosteroid. Predicted to be located in cytoplasm and cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane. Predicted to be active in plasma membrane. Used to study bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinoma; endometrial adenocarcinoma; hepatocellular adenoma; hepatocellular carcinoma; and renal fibrosis. Biomarker of muscular atrophy. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in several diseases, including Noonan syndrome (multiple); cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (multiple); gastrointestinal system cancer (multiple); hematologic cancer (multiple); and lung cancer (multiple). Orthologous to human KRAS (KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase); PARTICIPATES IN the extracellular signal-regulated Raf/Mek/Erk signaling pathway; altered extracellular signal-regulated Raf/Mek/Erk signaling pathway; endometrial cancer pathway; INTERACTS WITH 17alpha-ethynylestradiol; 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine; 2,4-dinitrotoluene.
Type: protein-coding
Previously known as: c-K-ras; c-K-ras2 protein; c-Ki-ras; c-Kirsten-ras proto-oncogene; GTPase KRas; K-ras; K-Ras 2; ki-Ras; Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene; Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog; Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue 2 (active); Kras2; p21; v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Orthologs
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr84179,916,255 - 179,949,613 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.24178,185,418 - 178,218,484 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx4184,490,327 - 184,516,219 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.04180,274,827 - 180,300,720 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.04178,895,248 - 178,921,140 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.04179,482,562 - 179,515,483 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl4179,486,105 - 179,515,558 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.04243,667,912 - 243,696,325 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.44182,869,242 - 182,895,106 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.14183,114,365 - 183,140,230 (-)NCBI
Celera4166,708,846 - 166,734,692 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map4q44NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
Acute Experimental Pancreatitis  (IEP)
acute lymphoblastic leukemia  (ISO)
acute myeloid leukemia  (ISO)
adenocarcinoma  (ISO)
adenoid cystic carcinoma  (ISO)
adenoma  (ISO)
anaplastic astrocytoma  (ISO)
anemia  (ISO)
angiosarcoma  (ISO)
Animal Disease Models  (ISO)
arteriovenous malformations of the brain  (ISO,ISS)
autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type 4  (ISO)
B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  (ISO)
breast adenocarcinoma  (ISO)
breast cancer  (ISO)
Breast Cancer, Familial  (ISO)
Breast Neoplasms  (ISO)
bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinoma  (IMP)
Capillary Malformation-Arteriovenous Malformation 1  (ISO)
Carcinogenesis  (ISO)
carcinoma  (ISO)
cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome  (ISO)
cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 1  (ISO)
cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 2  (ISO)
cardiomyopathy  (ISO)
Cecal Neoplasms  (ISO)
cholangiocarcinoma  (ISO)
chronic lymphocytic leukemia  (ISO)
chronic myelogenous leukemia, BCR-ABL1 positive  (ISO)
chronic myeloid leukemia  (ISO)
Colonic Neoplasms  (ISO)
colorectal cancer  (ISO)
Colorectal Neoplasms  (ISO)
Costello syndrome  (ISO)
dilated cardiomyopathy  (ISO)
disease of cellular proliferation  (ISO)
Disease Progression  (ISO)
Encephalocraniocutaneous Lipomatosis  (ISO)
endometrial adenocarcinoma  (IAGP)
endometrial carcinoma  (ISO)
endometrial hyperplasia  (ISO)
Endometrial Hyperplasia without Atypia  (ISO)
Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia  (ISO)
Endometrial Neoplasms  (ISO)
Endometrioid Carcinomas  (ISO)
endometriosis  (ISO,ISS)
epidermal nevus  (ISO)
esophageal carcinoma  (ISO)
Experimental Liver Neoplasms  (IEP,ISO)
Experimental Neoplasms  (ISO)
Experimental Sarcoma  (IAGP)
fibrillary astrocytoma  (ISO)
follicular thyroid carcinoma  (ISO)
gallbladder cancer  (ISO)
Gallbladder Neoplasms  (ISO)
gastric adenocarcinoma  (ISO)
gastrointestinal stromal tumor  (ISO)
genetic disease  (ISO)
glioblastoma  (ISO)
hepatocellular adenoma  (IAGP)
hepatocellular carcinoma  (IAGP,ISO)
hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome  (ISO)
hereditary diffuse gastric cancer  (ISO)
high grade glioma  (ISO)
Hodgkin's lymphoma  (ISO)
Hydrops Fetalis  (ISO)
hypertension  (ISO)
intellectual disability  (ISO)
intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma  (ISO,ISS)
juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia  (ISO,ISS)
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis  (ISO)
Kidney Neoplasms  (IDA)
Klatskin's tumor  (ISO)
Leukocytosis  (ISO)
linear nevus sebaceous syndrome  (ISO)
Liver Neoplasms  (ISO)
lung adenocarcinoma  (ISO)
lung cancer  (ISO,ISS)
lung carcinoma  (ISO)
Lung Neoplasms  (ISO)
lung non-small cell carcinoma  (ISO)
Lung Reperfusion Injury  (ISO)
lung sarcomatoid carcinoma  (ISO)
lung squamous cell carcinoma  (ISO)
lymphoma  (ISO)
Lynch syndrome  (ISO)
malignant astrocytoma  (ISO)
medullary thyroid carcinoma  (ISO)
melanoma  (ISO)
Mouth Neoplasms  (ISO)
Multiple Abnormalities  (ISO)
multiple myeloma  (ISO)
muscular atrophy  (IEP)
myelodysplastic syndrome  (ISO)
myeloid neoplasm  (ISO)
myeloid sarcoma  (ISO)
Neoplasm Metastasis  (ISO)
Neoplastic Cell Transformation  (ISO)
neuroblastoma  (ISO)
Noonan syndrome  (ISO)
Noonan syndrome 1  (ISO)
Noonan syndrome 3  (ISO,ISS)
oculoectodermal syndrome  (ISO)
Ovarian Neoplasms  (ISO)
ovary serous adenocarcinoma  (ISO)
pancreatic adenocarcinoma  (ISO)
pancreatic cancer  (ISO)
pancreatic carcinoma  (ISO,ISS)
pancreatic ductal carcinoma  (ISO)
pancreatic mucinous cystadenoma  (ISO)
Paraproteinemias  (ISO)
Parasitic Liver Diseases  (ISO)
Penile Neoplasms  (ISO)
pilocytic astrocytoma  (ISO)
plasma cell neoplasm  (ISO)
prostate cancer  (ISS)
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 1  (ISO)
prostate carcinoma in situ  (ISO)
Prostatic Neoplasms  (ISO)
RASopathy  (ISO)
Recurrence  (ISO)
renal cell carcinoma  (ISO)
renal fibrosis  (IMP)
Sebaceous Nevus Syndrome and Hemimegalencephaly  (ISO)
seminoma  (ISO)
skin melanoma  (ISO)
Splenomegaly  (ISO)
squamous cell carcinoma  (ISO)
stomach cancer  (ISO)
stomach carcinoma  (ISO)
Stomach Neoplasms  (ISO)
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia  (ISO)
teratoma  (ISO)
Thyroid Carcinoma, Nonmedullary 1  (ISO)
Thyroid Neoplasms  (ISO)
transitional cell carcinoma  (ISO)
Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms  (ISO)
urinary bladder cancer  (ISO)
Urinary Bladder Neoplasm  (ISO)
uterine cancer  (ISO)
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms  (ISO)
Uterine Neoplasms  (ISO)
Vascular Malformations  (ISO)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(S)-naringenin  (ISO)
(trichloromethyl)benzene  (ISO)
1,1-dichloroethene  (ISO)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
1-nitropyrene  (ISO)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (ISO)
2,2-Bis(bromomethyl)propane-1,3-diol  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,4-dinitrotoluene  (EXP)
2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol  (ISO)
2-trans,6-trans-farnesyl diphosphate  (EXP)
3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinolin-2-amine  (EXP)
3-methylcholanthrene  (ISO)
4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)butan-1-one  (EXP,ISO)
4-nitrophenol  (ISO)
4-vinylcyclohexene dioxide  (ISO)
5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine  (ISO)
5-fluorouracil  (ISO)
5-Methylchrysene  (ISO)
acrolein  (ISO)
actinomycin D  (ISO)
afimoxifene  (ISO)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
amphetamine  (EXP)
antirheumatic drug  (ISO)
Antrocin  (ISO)
aristolochic acid A  (EXP,ISO)
Aroclor 1254  (ISO)
ARS-1620  (ISO)
arsane  (ISO)
arsenic atom  (ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
asbestos  (ISO)
Benz[j]aceanthrylene  (ISO)
benzene  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide I  (ISO)
benzo[b]fluoranthene  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
bleomycin A2  (ISO)
buta-1,3-diene  (ISO)
cadmium atom  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (EXP,ISO)
cannabidiol  (EXP,ISO)
carbamazepine  (ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
ceruletide  (ISO)
CGP 52608  (ISO)
chloroethene  (ISO)
chloroprene  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (EXP)
chymostatin  (ISO)
cisplatin  (ISO)
clofibrate  (ISO)
cobalt atom  (EXP,ISO)
cobimetinib  (ISO)
copper atom  (EXP,ISO)
copper(0)  (EXP,ISO)
coumestrol  (ISO)
crizotinib  (ISO)
cumene  (ISO)
Cuprizon  (EXP)
curcumin  (ISO)
cycloheximide  (ISO)
Cyclopenta[cd]pyrene  (ISO)
dabrafenib  (ISO)
dextran sulfate  (ISO)
dibenzo[a,l]pyrene  (ISO)
Dibutyl phosphate  (ISO)
dichlorine  (EXP)
diclofenac  (ISO)
dioxygen  (ISO)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (ISO)
erlotinib hydrochloride  (ISO)
ethanol  (ISO)
farnesyl diphosphate  (EXP)
flutamide  (EXP)
folic acid  (ISO)
gefitinib  (ISO)
genistein  (ISO)
gentamycin  (EXP)
geraniol  (EXP)
guanosine  (ISO)
haloperidol  (EXP)
hydrogen peroxide  (ISO)
hydroquinone  (ISO)
hydroxyurea  (ISO)
ionomycin  (ISO)
irbesartan  (ISO)
isoprenaline  (ISO)
isoprene  (ISO)
isotretinoin  (ISO)
ivermectin  (ISO)
kainic acid  (EXP)
lapatinib  (ISO)
lead diacetate  (ISO)
lead(0)  (ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
losartan  (ISO)
lovastatin  (ISO)
luzindole  (ISO)
manumycin A  (ISO)
MeIQx  (EXP)
mercury dibromide  (ISO)
metformin  (ISO)
methohexital  (ISO)
methotrexate  (ISO)
metyrapone  (EXP)
monosodium L-glutamate  (EXP)
N,N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine  (EXP)
N-acetyl-L-cysteine  (ISO)
N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal  (ISO)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea  (ISO)
N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine  (EXP)
N-methyl-N-nitrosourea  (EXP,ISO)
N-nitrosodiethylamine  (EXP,ISO)
N-nitrosodimethylamine  (ISO)
nicotinic acid  (ISO)
ochratoxin A  (ISO)
oncrasin-1  (ISO)
oxirane  (ISO)
oxybenzone  (ISO)
ozone  (EXP,ISO)
p-chloromercuribenzoic acid  (ISO)
paclitaxel  (ISO)
paracetamol  (ISO)
PD 0325901  (ISO)
pemetrexed  (ISO)
pentobarbital  (ISO)
phlorizin  (ISO)
phorbol 13-acetate 12-myristate  (ISO)
picrotoxin  (EXP)
piperonyl butoxide  (ISO)
pirinixic acid  (ISO)
quercetin  (ISO)
Rebamipide  (EXP)
resveratrol  (ISO)
riddelliine  (ISO)
SB 431542  (ISO)
secobarbital  (ISO)
selumetinib  (ISO)
sevoflurane  (ISO)
simvastatin  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (EXP,ISO)
Soman  (EXP)
sotorasib  (ISO)
styrene  (ISO)
sulfur dioxide  (EXP)
sulindac  (ISO)
tacrolimus hydrate  (ISO)
Tanshinone I  (ISO)
Temsirolimus  (ISO)
testosterone enanthate  (ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (EXP,ISO)
Tetranitromethane  (ISO)
thiamylal  (ISO)
thimerosal  (ISO)
thioacetamide  (EXP)
tiazofurine  (ISO)
tipifarnib  (EXP)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
toluene  (EXP)
trimetrexate  (ISO)
Triptolide  (EXP)
triptonide  (ISO)
urethane  (EXP,ISO)
ursodeoxycholic acid  (EXP)
valproic acid  (ISO)
vemurafenib  (ISO)
vinyl carbamate  (ISO)
zearalenone  (ISO)
zidovudine  (ISO)
zinc protoporphyrin  (ISO)
zoledronic acid  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
actin cytoskeleton organization  (ISO)
cardiac muscle cell proliferation  (IEP)
cell population proliferation  (ISO)
cytokine-mediated signaling pathway  (IMP)
epithelial tube branching involved in lung morphogenesis  (ISO)
female pregnancy  (IEP)
forebrain astrocyte development  (ISO)
gene expression  (ISO)
glial cell proliferation  (ISO)
homeostasis of number of cells within a tissue  (ISO)
liver development  (IEP)
myoblast proliferation  (IEP)
negative regulation of epithelial cell differentiation  (ISO)
negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process  (ISO)
neuron apoptotic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of cellular senescence  (IMP)
positive regulation of gene expression  (ISO)
positive regulation of glial cell proliferation  (ISO)
positive regulation of MAP kinase activity  (IMP)
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity  (IMP)
positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity  (IMP)
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation  (ISO)
positive regulation of Rac protein signal transduction  (ISO)
Rac protein signal transduction  (ISO)
Ras protein signal transduction  (IBA,ISO)
regulation of long-term neuronal synaptic plasticity  (ISO)
regulation of synaptic transmission, GABAergic  (ISO)
response to glucocorticoid  (IEP)
response to gravity  (IEP)
response to isolation stress  (IEP)
response to mineralocorticoid  (IEP)
signal transduction  (IEA)
skeletal muscle cell differentiation  (ISO)
striated muscle cell differentiation  (ISO)
type I pneumocyte differentiation  (ISO)
visual learning  (ISO)

Cellular Component

Molecular Function


References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. GFAP-Cre-mediated activation of oncogenic K-ras results in expansion of the subventricular zone and infiltrating glioma. Abel TW, etal., Mol Cancer Res. 2009 May;7(5):645-53. doi: 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-08-0477. Epub 2009 May 12.
2. Cigarette smoking is strongly associated with mutation of the K-ras gene in patients with primary adenocarcinoma of the lung. Ahrendt SA, etal., Cancer. 2001 Sep 15;92(6):1525-30.
3. Association in the expression of Kirsten-ras oncogene and the major histocompatibility complex class I antigens in fibrosarcoma tumor cell variants exhibiting different metastatic capabilities. Alon Y, etal., Cancer Res. 1987 May 15;47(10):2553-7.
4. The molecular biology of endometrial cancers and the implications for pathogenesis, classification, and targeted therapies. Bansal N, etal., Cancer Control. 2009 Jan;16(1):8-13.
5. Mutational and nonmutational activation of p21ras in rat colonic azoxymethane-induced tumors: effects on mitogen-activated protein kinase, cyclooxygenase-2, and cyclin D1. Bissonnette M, etal., Cancer Res. 2000 Aug 15;60(16):4602-9.
6. Biochemical characterization of a novel KRAS insertion mutation from a human leukemia. Bollag G, etal., J Biol Chem. 1996 Dec 20;271(51):32491-4.
7. Activation of RAS family genes in urothelial carcinoma. Boulalas I, etal., J Urol. 2009 May;181(5):2312-9. Epub 2009 Mar 19.
8. Mammalian K-ras2 is a corticosteroid-induced gene in vivo. Brennan FE and Fuller PJ, Endocrinology. 2006 Jun;147(6):2809-16. Epub 2006 Mar 16.
9. Long noncoding RNA H19 mediates melatonin inhibition of premature senescence of c-kit(+) cardiac progenitor cells by promoting miR-675. Cai B, etal., J Pineal Res. 2016 Aug;61(1):82-95. doi: 10.1111/jpi.12331. Epub 2016 Apr 29.
10. K-ras codon 12 and 61 point mutations in bromodeoxyuridine- and N-nitrosomethylurea-induced rat renal mesenchymal tumors. Calvert RJ, etal., Cancer Lett. 1996 Dec 3;109(1-2):1-7.
11. The degradation of cell cycle regulators by SKP2/CKS1 ubiquitin ligase is genetically controlled in rodent liver cancer and contributes to determine the susceptibility to the disease. Calvisi DF, etal., Int J Cancer. 2009 Jun 16.
12. ZFP36 protects lungs from intestinal I/R-induced injury and fibrosis through the CREBBP/p53/p21/Bax pathway. Cao Y, etal., Cell Death Dis. 2021 Jul 8;12(7):685. doi: 10.1038/s41419-021-03950-y.
13. Mutant KRAS, chromosomal instability and prognosis in colorectal cancer. Castagnola P and Giaretti W, Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 Nov 25;1756(2):115-25. Epub 2005 Jul 13.
14. Expression of c-Ki-ras in developing rat liver. Chan SO, etal., Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1992 May;102(1):111-7.
15. Mutational analysis of KRAS, BRAF, and TP53 genes of ovarian serous carcinomas in Korean women. Cho YH, etal., Yonsei Med J. 2009 Apr 30;50(2):266-72.
16. Proto-oncogene expression in proliferating and differentiating cardiac and skeletal muscle. Claycomb WC and Lanson NA, Biochem J. 1987 Nov 1;247(3):701-6. doi: 10.1042/bj2470701.
17. Myocardial KRAS(G12D) expression does not cause cardiomyopathy in mice. Dalin MG, etal., Cardiovasc Res. 2014 Feb 1;101(2):229-35. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvt260. Epub 2013 Nov 20.
18. Wild type Kirsten rat sarcoma is a novel microRNA-622-regulated therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma and contributes to sorafenib resistance. Dietrich P, etal., Gut. 2018 Jul;67(7):1328-1341. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2017-315402. Epub 2017 Dec 23.
19. Mutations of the KRAS oncogene in endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Dobrzycka B, etal., Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2009;47(1):65-8.
20. Circulating free DNA, p53 antibody and mutations of KRAS gene in endometrial cancer. Dobrzycka B, etal., Int J Cancer. 2009 Dec 3.
21. MiR-193a-3p is an Important Tumour Suppressor in Lung Cancer and Directly Targets KRAS. Fan Q, etal., Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;44(4):1311-1324. doi: 10.1159/000485491. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
22. Comprehensive analysis of genomic alterations of Chinese hilar cholangiocarcinoma patients. Feng F, etal., Int J Clin Oncol. 2021 Apr;26(4):717-727. doi: 10.1007/s10147-020-01846-z. Epub 2021 Jan 2.
23. Involvement of Gpr125 in the myeloid sarcoma formation induced by cooperating MLL/AF10(OM-LZ) and oncogenic KRAS in a mouse bone marrow transplantation model. Fu JF, etal., Int J Cancer. 2013 Oct 15;133(8):1792-802. doi: 10.1002/ijc.28195. Epub 2013 May 7.
24. Mucinous cystic neoplasms of the liver and pancreas: relationship between KRAS driver mutations and disease progression. Fujikura K, etal., Histopathology. 2017 Oct;71(4):591-600. doi: 10.1111/his.13271. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
25. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
26. Pathogenetic pathways in ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma: a molecular study of 29 cases. Geyer JT, etal., Am J Surg Pathol. 2009 Aug;33(8):1157-63.
27. TP53 and KRAS2 mutations in plasma DNA of healthy subjects and subsequent cancer occurrence: a prospective study. Gormally E, etal., Cancer Res. 2006 Jul 1;66(13):6871-6.
28. Detection of a rare point mutation in Ki-ras of a human bladder cancer xenograft by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Grimmond SM, etal., Urol Res. 1992;20(2):121-6.
29. The inv(3)(q21q26)/t(3;3)(q21;q26) is frequently accompanied by alterations of the RUNX1, KRAS and NRAS and NF1 genes and mediates adverse prognosis both in MDS and in AML: a study in 39 cases of MDS or AML. Haferlach C, etal., Leukemia. 2011 May;25(5):874-7. doi: 10.1038/leu.2011.5. Epub 2011 Feb 1.
30. K-RasV14I recapitulates Noonan syndrome in mice. Hernandez-Porras I, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Nov 18;111(46):16395-400. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1418126111. Epub 2014 Oct 30.
31. Activation of the K-ras gene by insertion mutations in chemically induced rat renal mesenchymal tumors. Higinbotham KG, etal., Oncogene 1994 Sep;9(9):2455-9.
32. Essential role for Ras signaling in glioblastoma maintenance. Holmen SL and Williams BO, Cancer Res. 2005 Sep 15;65(18):8250-5. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1173.
33. Kras, Egfr, and Tp53 Mutations in B6C3F1/N Mouse and F344/NTac Rat Alveolar/Bronchiolar Carcinomas Resulting from Chronic Inhalation Exposure to Cobalt Metal. Hong HH, etal., Toxicol Pathol. 2015 Aug;43(6):872-82. doi: 10.1177/0192623315581192. Epub 2015 Jun 9.
34. Opposite regulation of hepatic lipase and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase by glucocorticoids in rats. Jansen H, etal., Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992 Oct 30;1128(2-3):181-5.
35. Core signaling pathways in human pancreatic cancers revealed by global genomic analyses. Jones S, etal., Science. 2008 Sep 26;321(5897):1801-6. Epub 2008 Sep 4.
36. Higher expression of K-ras is associated with parathyroid hormone-related protein-induced hypercalcaemia in renal cell carcinoma. Kamai T, etal., BJU Int. 2001 Dec;88(9):960-6.
37. Notch1 gene mutations target KRAS G12D-expressing CD8+ cells and contribute to their leukemogenic transformation. Kong G, etal., J Biol Chem. 2013 Jun 21;288(25):18219-27. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.475376. Epub 2013 May 14.
38. The human c-Kirsten ras gene is activated by a novel mutation in codon 13 in the breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB231. Kozma SC, etal., Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Aug 11;15(15):5963-71.
39. KRAS Status as an Independent Prognostic Factor for Survival after Yttrium-90 Radioembolization Therapy for Unresectable Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases. Lahti SJ, etal., J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2015 Aug;26(8):1102-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jvir.2015.05.032.
40. Clinicopathologic significance of the K-ras gene codon 12 point mutation in stomach cancer. An analysis of 140 cases. Lee KH, etal., Cancer. 1995 Jun 15;75(12):2794-801.
41. Differential expression of protooncogenes related to transformation and cancer progression in rat myoblasts. Leibovitch SA, etal., Cancer Res. 1986 Aug;46(8):4097-103.
42. Detection of KRAS mutations and their associations with clinicopathological features and survival in Chinese colorectal cancer patients. Li Z, etal., J Int Med Res. 2012;40(4):1589-98. doi: 10.1177/147323001204000439.
43. TSC1 loss synergizes with KRAS activation in lung cancer development in the mouse and confers rapamycin sensitivity. Liang MC, etal., Oncogene. 2010 Mar 18;29(11):1588-97. doi: 10.1038/onc.2009.452. Epub 2009 Dec 7.
44. Down-regulation of K-ras and H-ras in human brain gliomas. Lymbouridou R, etal., Eur J Cancer. 2009 May;45(7):1294-303. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2008.12.028. Epub 2009 Jan 27.
45. A MEK inhibitor abrogates myeloproliferative disease in Kras mutant mice. Lyubynska N, etal., Sci Transl Med. 2011 Mar 30;3(76):76ra27. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3001069.
46. Frameshift mutational target gene analysis identifies similarities and differences in constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency and Lynch syndrome. Maletzki C, etal., Mol Carcinog. 2017 Jul;56(7):1753-1764. doi: 10.1002/mc.22632. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
47. KRAS and CREBBP mutations: a relapse-linked malicious liaison in childhood high hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Malinowska-Ozdowy K, etal., Leukemia. 2015 Aug;29(8):1656-67. doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.107. Epub 2015 Apr 28.
48. Transcriptional activation of H- and N-ras oncogenes in human cervical cancer. Mammas IN, etal., Gynecol Oncol. 2004 Mar;92(3):941-8.
49. Activating KRAS mutation is prognostic only among patients who receive preoperative chemotherapy before resection of colorectal liver metastases. Margonis GA, etal., J Surg Oncol. 2016 Sep;114(3):361-7. doi: 10.1002/jso.24319. Epub 2016 Jun 6.
50. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
51. Cross-talk between aldosterone and angiotensin II in vascular smooth muscle cell senescence. Min LJ, etal., Cardiovasc Res. 2007 Dec 1;76(3):506-16. Epub 2007 Jul 24.
52. Loss of p53 cooperates with K-ras activation to induce glioma formation in a region-independent manner. Muñoz DM, etal., Glia. 2013 Nov;61(11):1862-72. doi: 10.1002/glia.22563. Epub 2013 Aug 30.
53. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
54. Germline KRAS and BRAF mutations in cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome. Niihori T, etal., Nat Genet. 2006 Mar;38(3):294-6. Epub 2006 Feb 12.
55. K-ras point mutation in the nerve plexuses around the superior mesenteric artery in resectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head: distribution pattern and related factors. Ohigashi H, etal., Arch Surg. 2000 Dec;135(12):1450-5.
56. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
57. N-RAS and K-RAS gene mutations in Brazilian patients with multiple myeloma. Ortega MM, etal., Leuk Lymphoma. 2006 Feb;47(2):285-9.
58. The prevalence and prognostic significance of KRAS mutation in bladder cancer, chronic myeloid leukemia and colorectal cancer. Ouerhani S, etal., Mol Biol Rep. 2013 Jun;40(6):4109-14. doi: 10.1007/s11033-013-2512-8. Epub 2013 May 3.
59. Ovarian expression of cellular Ki-ras p21 varies with physiological status. Palejwala S and Goldsmith LT, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 May 1;89(9):4202-6.
60. Mutations of FLT3, NRAS, KRAS, and PTPN11 are frequent and possibly mutually exclusive in high hyperdiploid childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Paulsson K, etal., Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2008 Jan;47(1):26-33.
61. K-ras and Wnt signaling synergize to accelerate prostate tumorigenesis in the mouse. Pearson HB, etal., Cancer Res. 2009 Jan 1;69(1):94-101.
62. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
63. SMPDB Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import SMPDB annotations from SMPDB into RGD
64. Replacement of K-Ras with H-Ras supports normal embryonic development despite inducing cardiovascular pathology in adult mice. Potenza N, etal., EMBO Rep. 2005 May;6(5):432-7.
65. Primary mediastinal and testicular seminomas: a comparison of K-ras-2 gene sequence and p53 immunoperoxidase analysis of 26 cases. Przygodzki RM, etal., Hum Pathol. 1996 Sep;27(9):975-9.
66. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
67. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
68. The frequency of KRAS and BRAF mutations in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas and their correlation with clinical outcome. Robertson S, etal., Hum Pathol. 2013 Dec;44(12):2768-73. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2013.07.026. Epub 2013 Oct 15.
69. MEK1/2 dual-specificity protein kinases: Structure and regulation. Roskoski R Jr Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Jan 6;417(1):5-10. Epub 2011 Dec 8.
70. Somatic mutations of signaling genes in non-small-cell lung cancer. Sanders HR and Albitar M, Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010 Nov;203(1):7-15.
71. Increases in Ki-ras and ornithine decarboxylase gene expression in rat pancreas after caerulein-induced pancreatitis. Sarfati P, etal., Digestion. 1996 Nov-Dec;57(6):453-63.
72. Resveratrol prevents tumorigenesis in mouse model of Kras activated sporadic colorectal cancer by suppressing oncogenic Kras expression. Saud SM, etal., Carcinogenesis. 2014 Dec;35(12):2778-86. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu209. Epub 2014 Oct 3.
73. Germline KRAS mutations cause Noonan syndrome. Schubbert S, etal., Nat Genet. 2006 Mar;38(3):331-6. Epub 2006 Feb 12.
74. The ALPPS Approach for Colorectal Liver Metastases: Impact of KRAS Mutation Status in Survival. Serenari M, etal., Dig Surg. 2018;35(4):303-310. doi: 10.1159/000471930. Epub 2017 Oct 14.
75. RAS pathway activation and an oncogenic RAS mutation in sporadic pilocytic astrocytoma. Sharma MK, etal., Neurology. 2005 Oct 25;65(8):1335-6.
76. Suprachiasmatic nucleus circadian oscillatory protein, a novel binding partner of K-Ras in the membrane rafts, negatively regulates MAPK pathway. Shimizu K, etal., J Biol Chem. 2003 Apr 25;278(17):14920-5. Epub 2003 Feb 19.
77. Activation of the c-Ki-ras oncogene in aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma and adenoma in the rat: detection by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Soman NR and Wogan GN, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Mar 1;90(5):2045-9.
78. Aldosterone stimulates proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts by activating Ki-RasA and MAPK1/2 signaling. Stockand JD and Meszaros JG, Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2003 Jan;284(1):H176-84.
79. Transfection of K-rasAsp12 cDNA markedly elevates IL-1beta- and lipopolysaccharide-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in rat intestinal epithelial cells. Takahashi M, etal., Oncogene. 2003 Oct 23;22(48):7667-76.
80. K-ras point mutations in spontaneously occurring endometrial adenocarcinomas in the Donryu rat. Tanoguchi K, etal., Tohoku J Exp Med. 1999 Oct;189(2):87-93.
81. Alteration of gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle of rats exposed to microgravity during a spaceflight. Taylor WE, etal., J Gravit Physiol. 2002 Dec;9(2):61-70.
82. Monitoring of endometrial K-ras mutation in tamoxifen-treated patients with breast cancer. Tsujioka H, etal., Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2009 Aug;19(6):1052-6.
83. ACAT inhibition reverses LCAT deficiency and improves plasma HDL in chronic renal failure. Vaziri ND and Liang K, Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004 Nov;287(5):F1038-43. Epub 2004 Jul 27.
84. Ras gene mutations in 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced rat sarcomas. Walentinsson A and Levan G, Cancer Lett. 2001 May 10;166(1):47-53.
85. Antisense knockdown of Kras inhibits fibrosis in a rat model of unilateral ureteric obstruction. Wang JH, etal., Am J Pathol. 2012 Jan;180(1):82-90. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.09.036. Epub 2011 Nov 7.
86. MiR-181d acts as a tumor suppressor in glioma by targeting K-ras and Bcl-2. Wang XF, etal., J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012 Apr;138(4):573-84. doi: 10.1007/s00432-011-1114-x. Epub 2011 Dec 30.
87. Regulator of G-protein signaling 14 (RGS14) is a selective H-Ras effector. Willard FS, etal., PLoS One. 2009;4(3):e4884. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004884. Epub 2009 Mar 25.
88. Pancreatic cancer: molecular pathogenesis and new therapeutic targets. Wong HH and Lemoine NR, Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Jul;6(7):412-22. Epub 2009 Jun 9.
89. Elevated Orai1 and STIM1 expressions upregulate MACC1 expression to promote tumor cell proliferation, metabolism, migration, and invasion in human gastric cancer. Xia J, etal., Cancer Lett. 2016 Oct 10;381(1):31-40. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2016.07.014. Epub 2016 Jul 16.
90. Expansion of the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum in patients with KRAS germline mutations. Zenker M, etal., J Med Genet. 2007 Feb;44(2):131-5. Epub 2006 Oct 20.
91. Social isolation in rats inhibits oxidative metabolism, decreases the content of mitochondrial K-Ras and activates mitochondrial hexokinase. Zhuravliova E, etal., Behav Brain Res. 2009 Dec 28;205(2):377-83. Epub 2009 Jul 16.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:3009041   PMID:3023884   PMID:3110778   PMID:8307946   PMID:8316835   PMID:10085069   PMID:10845775   PMID:11384971   PMID:11793011   PMID:12477932   PMID:12871951   PMID:14966563  
PMID:15053237   PMID:15057822   PMID:15337841   PMID:15474158   PMID:15542848   PMID:15665300   PMID:18163378   PMID:18693247   PMID:18813357   PMID:19037103   PMID:19652218   PMID:19946888  
PMID:20022659   PMID:20388501   PMID:20424134   PMID:20495008   PMID:20603646   PMID:21266788   PMID:21362304   PMID:21423176   PMID:21738012   PMID:22045811   PMID:22065586   PMID:22577135  
PMID:23209302   PMID:23592481   PMID:23611784   PMID:23698361   PMID:23747726   PMID:24058167   PMID:24553818   PMID:24617038   PMID:24623306   PMID:24632950   PMID:24675817   PMID:25133424  
PMID:25730004   PMID:25931508   PMID:26051715   PMID:27247942   PMID:27645976   PMID:28619714   PMID:29476059   PMID:31994822   PMID:33675084   PMID:36044972  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr84179,916,255 - 179,949,613 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.24178,185,418 - 178,218,484 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx4184,490,327 - 184,516,219 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.04180,274,827 - 180,300,720 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.04178,895,248 - 178,921,140 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.04179,482,562 - 179,515,483 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl4179,486,105 - 179,515,558 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.04243,667,912 - 243,696,325 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.44182,869,242 - 182,895,106 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.14183,114,365 - 183,140,230 (-)NCBI
Celera4166,708,846 - 166,734,692 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map4q44NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh381225,205,246 - 25,250,929 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl1225,205,246 - 25,250,936 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh371225,358,180 - 25,403,863 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 361225,249,447 - 25,295,121 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 341225,249,446 - 25,295,121NCBI
Celera1230,505,144 - 30,550,804 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map12p12.1NCBI
HuRef1225,128,895 - 25,174,493 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_11225,323,336 - 25,368,979 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.01225,076,496 - 25,122,152 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm396145,162,425 - 145,197,631 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl6145,162,425 - 145,195,965 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm386145,216,699 - 145,250,420 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl6145,216,699 - 145,250,239 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv376145,165,219 - 145,198,751 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv366145,173,866 - 145,207,390 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera6148,290,985 - 148,324,546 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map6G3NCBI
cM Map677.37NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_00495541320,298,824 - 20,328,758 (-)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_00495541320,298,852 - 20,328,756 (-)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1-v21071,565,722 - 71,611,563 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1-v2
NHGRI_mPanPan11271,562,118 - 71,607,959 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v01261,062,689 - 61,108,524 (+)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.11263,679,293 - 63,724,335 (+)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl1263,679,293 - 63,724,335 (+)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.12722,261,753 - 22,296,704 (+)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl2722,257,941 - 22,293,369 (+)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha2724,078,345 - 24,117,288 (-)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.02722,456,489 - 22,495,435 (+)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl2722,456,012 - 22,495,428 (+)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.12722,271,689 - 22,310,648 (+)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.02722,290,777 - 22,329,504 (+)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.02724,245,249 - 24,284,170 (-)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440494584,156,600 - 84,190,995 (+)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049365482,079,036 - 2,110,523 (+)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_0049365482,078,568 - 2,113,877 (+)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl548,508,811 - 48,549,358 (+)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.1548,508,774 - 48,546,260 (+)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.2552,229,592 - 52,270,153 (+)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.11124,963,396 - 25,010,747 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl1124,973,619 - 25,005,191 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_02366606910,116,447 - 10,163,816 (+)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_00462475213,809,775 - 13,844,166 (+)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_00462475213,809,741 - 13,847,020 (+)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Kras
170 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:167
Count of miRNA genes:128
Interacting mature miRNAs:144
Transcripts:ENSRNOT00000012588, ENSRNOT00000012887
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
2316958Gluco58Glucose level QTL 5810blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)411320076180699135Rat
2303623Vencon2Ventilatory control QTL 23.8respiration trait (VT:0001943)minute ventilation (CMO:0000132)4135204660180204660Rat
1578674Bmd12Bone mineral density QTL 123.8femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)compact volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001730)4135699135180699135Rat
2293659Bmd35Bone mineral density QTL 354.50.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femoral neck ultimate force (CMO:0001703)4137755016181392681Rat
1331738Bp209Blood pressure QTL 2092.979arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)4138503169179293946Rat
6478718Anxrr34Anxiety related response QTL 340.00896locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of experiment time spent in a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000958)4144639524182687754Rat
6478748Anxrr42Anxiety related response QTL 420.28008locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of experiment time spent in a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000958)4144639524182687754Rat
6478754Anxrr43Anxiety related response QTL 430.14035locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)distance moved per unit of time into, out of or within a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0001493)4144639524182687754Rat
6478693Anxrr32Anxiety related response QTL 320.00092locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)measurement of voluntary locomotion into, out of or within a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000957)4144639524182687754Rat
6478700Anxrr33Anxiety related response QTL 330.00896locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of experiment time spent in a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000958)4144639524182687754Rat
10401796Kidm48Kidney mass QTL 48kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight (CMO:0000085)4145568712182687754Rat
10053718Scort25Serum corticosterone level QTL 252.150.0097blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)4155561574182687754Rat
1300109Rf13Renal function QTL 133.91renal blood flow trait (VT:2000006)absolute change in renal blood flow rate (CMO:0001168)4157710145182687754Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.24178,189,101 - 178,189,222 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.04179,486,242 - 179,486,362NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.04243,667,546 - 243,667,666UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.44182,868,876 - 182,868,996UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera4166,708,480 - 166,708,600UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map41066.7UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map4q44UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.24178,189,200 - 178,189,387 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.04179,486,341 - 179,486,527NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.04243,667,645 - 243,667,831UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.44182,868,975 - 182,869,161UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera4166,708,579 - 166,708,765UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map41064.2UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map4q44UniSTS


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 3 32 40 27 19 27 2 74 35 40 11
Low 11 17 14 14 8 9 1 8
Below cutoff


Nucleotide Sequences
RefSeq Transcripts NM_031515 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  XM_008763354 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  XM_008763355 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  XM_017592442 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  XM_017592443 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  XM_039107022 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  XM_039107023 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  XM_063285523 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
GenBank Nucleotide AH002242 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  BC126086 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  CH473964 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FQ228206 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FQ230946 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FQ232665 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  JAXUCZ010000004 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  M54870 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  OP599914 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  OP599915 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  OP599916 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  OP599917 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  U09793 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  X74502 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles

RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000012588   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000012588
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl4179,491,129 - 179,512,471 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000012887   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000012887
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl4179,486,105 - 179,515,558 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_031515   ⟹   NP_113703
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr84179,920,305 - 179,946,170 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.24178,189,468 - 178,215,334 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.04179,486,608 - 179,512,471 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.04243,667,912 - 243,696,325 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.44182,869,242 - 182,895,106 (-)RGD
Celera4166,708,846 - 166,734,692 (-)RGD
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_017592443   ⟹   XP_017447932
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr84179,920,327 - 179,948,731 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.24178,189,541 - 178,217,881 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.04179,486,739 - 179,515,064 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039107022   ⟹   XP_038962950
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr84179,920,327 - 179,949,613 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.24178,189,541 - 178,218,455 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039107023   ⟹   XP_038962951
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr84179,916,255 - 179,949,592 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.24178,185,418 - 178,218,484 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_063285523   ⟹   XP_063141593
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr84179,916,255 - 179,948,663 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_113703   ⟸   NM_031515
- UniProtKB: A0JN17 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8L2QIP9 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_017447932   ⟸   XM_017592443
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: P46203 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P97914 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P08644 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A0A8L2QIP9 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000012588   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000012588
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000012887   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000012887
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038962951   ⟸   XM_039107023
- Peptide Label: isoform X2
- UniProtKB: A0JN17 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8L2QIP9 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038962950   ⟸   XM_039107022
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: P46203 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P08644 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P97914 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A0A8L2QIP9 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_063141593   ⟸   XM_063285523
- Peptide Label: isoform X2
- UniProtKB: A0A8L2QIP9 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0JN17 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P08644-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P08644 1-189 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13693497
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R4022
Type:multiple initiation site
Description:KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.04179,515,609 - 179,515,669EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:2981 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-42457 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000009338 Ensembl
  ENSRNOG00000023079 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOG00055009514 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00060008032 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00065005903 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000039572.4 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00055016072 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00060013247 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00065008859 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Gene3D-CATH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro P-loop_NTPase UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Small_GTP-bd_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Small_GTPase UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Small_GTPase_Ras-type UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:24525 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTHR24070 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam Ras UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Kras PhenoGen
  RAS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000009338 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00000023079 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00055009514 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00060008032 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00065005903 RatGTEx
SMART RAB UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  RAN UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  RAS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  RHO UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Superfamily-SCOP SSF52540 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  RASK_RAT UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
UniProt Secondary P46203 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  P97914 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2016-08-25 Kras  KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase  Kras  Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2016-04-20 Kras  Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene  Kras  Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog  Name changed 629549 APPROVED
2016-04-20 Kras  Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog  Kras  Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene  Name changed 629549 APPROVED
2013-07-18 Kras  Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene  Kras  v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2006-03-30 Kras  v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog  Kras2  Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue 2 (active)  Symbol and Name updated 1299863 APPROVED
2002-06-10 Kras2  Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue 2 (active)      Symbol and Name status set to approved 70586 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_drugs expression suppressed by sprionolactone, inhibitor of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) 628557
gene_function GTPase 628557
gene_pathway active in a signalling cascade involving MAPK1/2 628557
gene_process widely known activator of MAPK1/2 signalling cascade 628557
gene_regulation expression significantly increased by aldosterone 628557