Lep (leptin) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Lep (leptin) Mus musculus
Symbol: Lep
Name: leptin
RGD ID: 69124
Description: Enables DNA binding activity and growth factor activity. Involved in several processes, including cell surface receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of cytokine production; and positive regulation of signal transduction. Acts upstream of or within several processes, including insulin secretion; monocarboxylic acid metabolic process; and regulation of insulin secretion. Located in cytoplasm and extracellular space. Is expressed in several structures, including adipose tissue; alimentary system; central nervous system; early conceptus; and genitourinary system. Used to study abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome (multiple); fatty liver disease (multiple); obesity; and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in several diseases, including alcohol dependence; congenital leptin deficiency; liver disease (multiple); lung disease (multiple); and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Orthologous to human LEP (leptin); PARTICIPATES IN altered energy homeostasis pathway; altered leptin system pathway; hypoxia inducible factor pathway; INTERACTS WITH (+)-catechin; (+)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate; (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Also known as: ob; obese; obesity factor
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: GRCm38 - Mouse Genome Assembly GRCm38
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm39629,060,220 - 29,073,875 (+)NCBIGRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl629,060,219 - 29,073,876 (+)Ensembl
GRCm38629,060,221 - 29,073,876 (+)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl629,060,220 - 29,073,877 (+)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv37629,010,221 - 29,023,876 (+)NCBIGRCm37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv36629,010,231 - 29,023,886 (+)NCBImm8
Celera629,063,769 - 29,077,429 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map6A3.3NCBI
cM Map612.3NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome  (IEA)
abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome 1  (IEA)
acute pancreatitis  (ISO)
adult respiratory distress syndrome  (ISO)
alcohol dependence  (IDA,IEP)
alcoholic liver cirrhosis  (IDA)
Alzheimer's disease  (ISO)
asthma  (ISO)
autistic disorder  (ISO)
autoimmune hepatitis  (ISO)
bacterial pneumonia  (IMP)
Body Weight Changes  (ISO)
Brain Injuries  (ISO)
breast cancer  (ISO)
Breast Neoplasms  (ISO)
Choroidal Neovascularization  (ISO)
Chronic Hepatitis C  (IEP)
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  (ISO)
Colonic Neoplasms  (ISO)
congenital leptin deficiency  (ISO)
congestive heart failure  (IMP)
Crohn's disease  (ISO)
cystic fibrosis  (ISO)
diabetes mellitus  (ISO)
Diabetic Nephropathies  (IAGP)
Dyslipidemias  (IEP)
End Stage Liver Disease  (IEP)
end stage renal disease  (ISO)
Experimental Arthritis  (ISO)
Experimental Diabetes Mellitus  (IMP,ISO)
Experimental Liver Cirrhosis  (IMP,ISO)
familial hyperlipidemia  (ISO)
fatty liver disease  (IEA,IEP,ISO)
Female Infertility  (ISO)
Femoral Fractures  (ISO)
Fetal Growth Retardation  (ISO)
gastric ulcer  (ISO)
gestational diabetes  (ISO)
glucose intolerance  (ISO)
hepatocellular carcinoma  (IAGP,IEP)
hepatocellular clear cell carcinoma  (ISO)
Hepatomegaly  (ISO)
heroin dependence  (ISO)
Huntington's disease  (ISO)
Hypercapnia  (ISO)
Hypercholesterolemia  (ISO)
hyperglycemia  (ISO)
hyperinsulinism  (ISO)
Hyperphagia  (ISO)
Hyperplasia  (ISO)
hypertension  (ISO)
Hypertriglyceridemia  (ISO)
hypogonadism  (ISO)
Hypoventilation  (ISO)
Inflammation  (ISO)
Insulin Resistance  (ISO)
Kidney Reperfusion Injury  (ISO)
Knee Osteoarthritis  (ISO)
lipid metabolism disorder  (ISO)
lung disease  (IDA)
lung non-small cell carcinoma  (ISO)
Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental  (ISO)
Metabolic Syndrome  (ISO)
morbid obesity  (ISO)
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury  (ISO)
Nerve Degeneration  (ISO)
non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  (IEA,IEP,ISO)
obesity  (IDA,IEA,IMP,ISO)
obstructive sleep apnea  (ISO)
Oral Ulcer  (ISO)
osteoarthritis  (ISO)
osteoporosis  (ISO)
Parkinson's disease  (ISO)
pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma  (ISO)
Pneumococcal Pneumonia  (IMP)
polycystic ovary syndrome  (ISO)
Polydipsia  (ISO)
Polyuria  (ISO)
pre-eclampsia  (ISO)
primary biliary cholangitis  (ISO)
Prostatic Neoplasms  (ISO)
proteinuria  (ISO)
renal cell carcinoma  (ISO)
Reperfusion Injury  (ISO)
rhinitis  (ISO)
Sepsis  (ISO)
short bowel syndrome  (ISO)
Spinal Cord Injuries  (ISO)
Tachycardia  (ISO)
type 2 diabetes mellitus  (IEA,ISO)
visual epilepsy  (ISO)
Weight Gain  (ISO)
Weight Loss  (ISO)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(+)-catechin  (EXP,ISO)
(+)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate  (EXP)
(-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate  (EXP)
(R)-lipoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
(R)-mevalonic acid  (EXP)
(S)-nicotine  (ISO)
1,8-cineole  (EXP)
1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine  (EXP)
1-naphthyl isothiocyanate  (ISO)
15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2  (ISO)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one  (ISO)
2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl  (EXP)
2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether  (EXP,ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,4-dinitrophenol  (EXP)
2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol  (EXP)
2-acetamidofluorene  (ISO)
2-amino-2-deoxy-D-galactopyranose  (EXP)
2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose 6-phosphate  (EXP)
2-aminopurine  (EXP)
2-arachidonoylglycerol  (EXP)
2-deoxy-D-glucose  (ISO)
2-hydroxypropanoic acid  (ISO)
2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxybutyric acid  (ISO)
2-trans,6-trans,10-trans-geranylgeranyl diphosphate  (EXP)
24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D  (ISO)
3',5'-cyclic AMP  (EXP,ISO)
3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl  (EXP)
3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A  (EXP)
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine  (ISO)
3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine  (EXP)
3-aminobenzamide  (ISO)
3-chloropropane-1,2-diol  (ISO)
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine  (EXP,ISO)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (EXP,ISO)
4-hydroxy-17beta-estradiol  (ISO)
4-hydroxybenzoic acid  (ISO)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (EXP)
4-nonylphenol  (ISO)
5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine  (ISO)
8-Br-cAMP  (ISO)
9-cis-retinoic acid  (ISO)
acarbose  (ISO)
acetaldehyde  (EXP)
acetylsalicylic acid  (ISO)
actinomycin D  (ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
AH23848  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate  (EXP)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
all-trans-retinol  (ISO)
allopurinol  (ISO)
AM-251  (EXP)
amlodipine  (ISO)
ammonium chloride  (ISO)
anandamide  (EXP,ISO)
androst-4-ene-3,17-dione  (ISO)
anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one  (ISO)
apigenin  (EXP)
apocynin  (EXP)
arachidonic acid  (EXP)
arsane  (ISO)
arsenic atom  (ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
aspartame  (EXP,ISO)
atorvastatin calcium  (ISO)
Aurothioglucose  (EXP)
azoxystrobin  (EXP)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
Benzyl parahydroxybenzoate  (EXP,ISO)
beta-D-glucosamine 6-sulfate  (EXP)
beta-naphthoflavone  (ISO)
bezafibrate  (EXP,ISO)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether  (EXP)
Bisphenol B  (EXP)
bisphenol F  (EXP)
bleomycin A2  (EXP)
boric acid  (EXP)
BQ 123  (EXP)
bromodichloromethane  (EXP)
bucladesine  (EXP)
Butylparaben  (EXP,ISO)
butyric acid  (EXP)
cadmium dichloride  (EXP,ISO)
caffeine  (EXP,ISO)
calcitriol  (EXP)
calcium atom  (EXP,ISO)
calcium(0)  (EXP,ISO)
candesartan  (ISO)
capsaicin  (EXP,ISO)
capsazepine  (EXP)
carbon nanotube  (EXP)
carvacrol  (ISO)
cerulenin  (EXP)
CGS-21680  (ISO)
chlorohydrocarbon  (EXP)
chloroquine  (EXP)
chlorpromazine  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (ISO)
choline  (EXP)
chromium atom  (EXP,ISO)
cisplatin  (ISO)
clofibrate  (EXP,ISO)
clozapine  (ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (EXP,ISO)
colforsin daropate hydrochloride  (EXP,ISO)
conjugated linoleic acid  (EXP)
corticosterone  (EXP)
crocidolite asbestos  (EXP)
cycloheximide  (EXP)
cyclosporin A  (ISO)
cyhalothrin  (ISO)
cyromazine  (ISO)
D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
dantrolene  (ISO)
dehydroepiandrosterone  (ISO)
deoxycholic acid  (EXP)
desferrioxamine B  (ISO)
dexamethasone  (EXP,ISO)
dextran sulfate  (EXP)
diazoxide  (ISO)
dibenziodolium  (ISO)
dibutylstannane  (EXP)
diethylstilbestrol  (EXP)
diiodine  (ISO)
dioxygen  (EXP,ISO)
dipyridamole  (ISO)
disodium selenite  (EXP)
dobutamine  (EXP,ISO)
edelfosine  (EXP)
efavirenz  (ISO)
elemental selenium  (ISO)
enalapril  (EXP)
ethambutol  (ISO)
ethanol  (EXP,ISO)
ethionamide  (ISO)
Ethyl icosapentate  (EXP)
ethylparaben  (ISO)
fenofibrate  (ISO)
fenoterol  (ISO)
fenvalerate  (ISO)
ferroheme b  (EXP)
flufenamic acid  (EXP)
flutamide  (ISO)
fonofos  (ISO)
fructose  (ISO)
furan  (ISO)
gallocatechin  (EXP)
gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane  (ISO)
Ganoderic acid A  (EXP)
gemcitabine  (ISO)
gemfibrozil  (ISO)
genistein  (EXP,ISO)
gingerol  (EXP)
glucagon  (EXP)
glucose  (EXP,ISO)
glycine  (EXP)
heme b  (EXP)
hesperidin  (ISO)
hydrogen peroxide  (ISO)
imidacloprid  (EXP)
indinavir  (EXP,ISO)
indometacin  (ISO)
inulin  (ISO)
iodide salt  (ISO)
iron(2+) sulfate (anhydrous)  (ISO)
isoflavones  (ISO)
isoprenaline  (EXP,ISO)
isotretinoin  (ISO)
kainic acid  (EXP)
L-ascorbic acid  (ISO)
L-methionine  (EXP)
lamivudine  (EXP)
lanthanum atom  (EXP)
lead(0)  (ISO)
lead(2+)  (ISO)
Licarin A  (EXP)
lipoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (EXP,ISO)
loganin  (EXP)
lopinavir  (ISO)
LY294002  (EXP,ISO)
manganese atom  (ISO)
manganese(0)  (ISO)
melatonin  (ISO)
menadione  (ISO)
mercury dichloride  (EXP,ISO)
metformin  (EXP)
methacholine chloride  (EXP)
methadone  (ISO)
methapyrilene  (ISO)
methotrexate  (EXP)
methylmercury chloride  (EXP)
methylparaben  (ISO)
MK-2206  (EXP)
monocrotaline  (EXP,ISO)
monosodium L-glutamate  (EXP,ISO)
morin  (ISO)
N-[2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]isoquinoline-5-sulfonamide  (EXP,ISO)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (ISO)
N-methyl-N-nitrosourea  (EXP)
N-nitrosodiethylamine  (ISO)
N-nitrosodimethylamine  (ISO)
naproxen  (ISO)
naringin  (EXP,ISO)
nelfinavir  (EXP,ISO)
nevirapine  (ISO)
nickel atom  (ISO)
nickel dichloride  (ISO)
nickel sulfate  (ISO)
nicotine  (ISO)
nicotinic acid  (EXP,ISO)
nitric oxide  (ISO)
Nonylphenol  (EXP)
NS-398  (ISO)
olanzapine  (EXP,ISO)
oleanolic acid  (EXP)
oleic acid  (EXP,ISO)
orlistat  (EXP,ISO)
ozone  (EXP,ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP,ISO)
paraquat  (ISO)
parathion  (ISO)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (ISO)
perindopril  (ISO)
permethrin  (EXP)
phencyclidine  (EXP)
phenethyl caffeate  (EXP)
phenobarbital  (ISO)
phosphatidylcholine  (EXP)
phosphoramidon  (ISO)
pioglitazone  (ISO)
piperine  (ISO)
pirimicarb  (ISO)
pirinixic acid  (EXP)
pitavastatin  (EXP)
pitavastatin(1-)  (EXP)
pluronic P-123  (ISO)
Poloxamer  (ISO)
potassium dichromate  (ISO)
pravastatin  (EXP)
prochloraz  (ISO)
progesterone  (EXP,ISO)
propranolol  (ISO)
propylparaben  (EXP,ISO)
prostaglandin E2  (ISO)
Ptaquiloside  (EXP)
Pyridostigmine bromide  (EXP)
pyruvic acid  (ISO)
quercetin  (EXP,ISO)
rac-lactic acid  (ISO)
ramipril  (ISO)
reactive oxygen species  (ISO)
rebaudioside A  (EXP)
reserpine  (EXP)
resveratrol  (EXP,ISO)
rifampicin  (ISO)
rimonabant  (EXP)
ritonavir  (ISO)
rotenone  (ISO)
roxarsone  (ISO)
ruthenium red  (EXP)
rutin  (ISO)
S-adenosyl-L-methioninate  (ISO)
S-adenosyl-L-methionine  (ISO)
saquinavir  (EXP)
SB 203580  (ISO)
selenium atom  (ISO)
serpentine asbestos  (EXP)
silicon dioxide  (ISO)
simvastatin  (EXP,ISO)
SKF-96365 hydrochloride  (EXP)
sodium arsenate  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (EXP,ISO)
sodium perchlorate  (ISO)
stavudine  (ISO)
steviol  (EXP)
stevioside  (EXP)
streptozocin  (EXP,ISO)
sumatriptan  (ISO)
superoxide  (EXP,ISO)
terbufos  (ISO)
terbutaline  (EXP)
testosterone  (EXP)
tetrachloromethane  (EXP,ISO)
thioacetamide  (EXP,ISO)
thiram  (ISO)
titanium dioxide  (EXP)
tributylstannane  (EXP,ISO)
trichloroethene  (EXP)
trichostatin A  (ISO)
triflumizole  (EXP,ISO)
triphenyl phosphate  (EXP)
triptonide  (EXP)
troglitazone  (EXP,ISO)
U-73122  (EXP)
ursolic acid  (EXP)
vanadium atom  (ISO)
vanadium(0)  (ISO)
vinclozolin  (ISO)
vitamin E  (ISO)
wortmannin  (EXP)
xanthone  (ISO)
zidovudine  (EXP,ISO)
zinc atom  (EXP,ISO)
zinc dichloride  (ISO)
zinc molecular entity  (ISO)
zinc sulfate  (ISO)
zinc(0)  (EXP,ISO)
ziram  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
activation of protein kinase C activity  (IBA,ISO)
adipose tissue development  (IGI)
adult feeding behavior  (IDA)
angiogenesis  (ISO)
aorta development  (IMP)
bile acid metabolic process  (IDA)
bone growth  (IMP)
bone mineralization involved in bone maturation  (ISO)
cardiac muscle hypertrophy  (ISO)
cellular response to insulin stimulus  (IDA)
cellular response to L-ascorbic acid  (ISO)
cellular response to leptin stimulus  (ISO)
cellular response to retinoic acid  (ISO)
central nervous system neuron development  (IMP)
cholesterol metabolic process  (IGI)
circadian rhythm  (ISO)
determination of adult lifespan  (IGI)
eating behavior  (IGI)
elastin metabolic process  (IMP)
energy reserve metabolic process  (IBA,ISO)
fatty acid beta-oxidation  (IGI)
fatty acid catabolic process  (ISO)
female pregnancy  (ISO)
glucose homeostasis  (IGI)
glucose metabolic process  (IMP)
glycerol biosynthetic process  (ISO)
hormone metabolic process  (IMP)
insulin secretion  (IGI)
intestinal absorption  (ISO)
intracellular signal transduction  (ISO)
leptin-mediated signaling pathway  (IDA,ISO)
leukocyte tethering or rolling  (ISO)
lipid metabolic process  (IBA,IMP,ISO)
negative regulation of apoptotic process  (ISO)
negative regulation of appetite  (IDA)
negative regulation of appetite by leptin-mediated signaling pathway  (IBA,ISO)
negative regulation of autophagy  (IMP,ISO)
negative regulation of cartilage development  (ISO)
negative regulation of glucagon secretion  (IDA)
negative regulation of glucose import  (ISO)
negative regulation of glutamine transport  (ISO)
negative regulation of lipid storage  (ISO)
negative regulation of metabolic process  (ISO)
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  (IDA)
negative regulation of vasoconstriction  (ISO)
ovulation from ovarian follicle  (ISO)
phagocytosis  (IDA,ISO)
placenta development  (ISO)
positive regulation of cell population proliferation  (ISO)
positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis  (IMP)
positive regulation of cytokine production  (ISO)
positive regulation of developmental growth  (ISO)
positive regulation of fat cell apoptotic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion  (ISO)
positive regulation of hepatic stellate cell activation  (ISO)
positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway  (ISO)
positive regulation of interleukin-12 production  (IDA)
positive regulation of interleukin-6 production  (IDA,ISO)
positive regulation of interleukin-8 production  (ISO)
positive regulation of ion transport  (ISO)
positive regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion  (ISO)
positive regulation of MAPK cascade  (IDA,ISO)
positive regulation of myeloid cell differentiation  (IDA)
positive regulation of p38MAPK cascade  (IBA,ISO)
positive regulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor signaling pathway  (ISO)
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling  (IBA,IDA,ISO)
positive regulation of protein import into nucleus  (IDA)
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling  (IDA)
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation  (ISO)
positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of receptor signaling pathway via JAK-STAT  (IBA,IDA,ISO)
positive regulation of T cell proliferation  (ISO)
positive regulation of TOR signaling  (IBA,ISO)
positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production  (IDA)
positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein  (ISO)
prostaglandin secretion  (ISO)
regulation of angiogenesis  (ISO)
regulation of blood pressure  (ISO)
regulation of bone remodeling  (IMP)
regulation of brown fat cell differentiation  (IDA)
regulation of catalytic activity  (IMP)
regulation of cell cycle  (IDA,ISO)
regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response  (ISO)
regulation of endothelial cell proliferation  (ISO)
regulation of fat cell differentiation  (IGI)
regulation of gluconeogenesis  (IMP)
regulation of insulin secretion  (IMP)
regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption  (IDA)
regulation of lipid biosynthetic process  (IGI)
regulation of lipoprotein lipid oxidation  (ISO)
regulation of metabolic process  (IMP)
regulation of natural killer cell activation  (ISO)
regulation of natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity  (ISO)
regulation of natural killer cell proliferation  (ISO)
regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity  (IDA,ISO)
regulation of protein localization to nucleus  (IMP)
regulation of protein phosphorylation  (IDA)
regulation of steroid biosynthetic process  (IMP)
response to activity  (ISO)
response to dietary excess  (IGI,IMP,ISO)
response to estradiol  (ISO)
response to ethanol  (ISO)
response to hypoxia  (ISO)
response to insulin  (IBA,IMP)
response to nutrient  (ISO)
response to nutrient levels  (ISO)
response to vitamin E  (ISO)
sexual reproduction  (IMP,ISO)
signal transduction  (IEA)
T cell differentiation  (IMP)
tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein  (IBA,IDA)

Cellular Component
cytoplasm  (IDA)
cytosol  (ISO)
extracellular region  (IEA,TAS)
extracellular space  (IBA,IDA,IEP,ISO)

Molecular Function

Phenotype Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Mammalian Phenotype
abnormal acute inflammation  (IAGP)
abnormal adipose tissue amount  (IAGP)
abnormal adipose tissue development  (IAGP)
abnormal adipose tissue morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal arteriole morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal behavior  (IAGP)
abnormal body size  (IAGP)
abnormal body temperature  (IAGP)
abnormal body weight  (IAGP)
abnormal bone marrow morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal branching of the mammary ductal tree  (IAGP)
abnormal cardiovascular system physiology  (IAGP)
abnormal cell cycle  (IAGP)
abnormal chemokine secretion  (IAGP)
abnormal circulating cholesterol level  (IAGP)
abnormal circulating corticosterone level  (IAGP)
abnormal circulating glucose level  (IAGP)
abnormal circulating hormone level  (IAGP)
abnormal circulating insulin level  (IAGP)
abnormal circulating pancreatic peptide level  (IAGP)
abnormal circulating testosterone level  (IAGP)
abnormal coat appearance  (IEA)
abnormal colon goblet cell morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal cortical plate morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal corticosterone level  (IAGP)
abnormal digestive system physiology  (IAGP)
abnormal eating behavior  (IAGP)
abnormal embryonic neuroepithelium morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal energy expenditure  (IAGP)
abnormal enzyme/coenzyme level  (IAGP)
abnormal epidermal layer morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal epididymal fat pad morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal estrous cycle  (IAGP)
abnormal excitatory postsynaptic currents  (IAGP)
abnormal eye posterior chamber depth  (IEA)
abnormal fat cell morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal fat pad morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal fatty acids level  (IAGP)
abnormal fertility/fecundity  (IAGP)
abnormal food intake  (IAGP)
abnormal frequency of paradoxical sleep  (IAGP)
abnormal gland physiology  (IAGP)
abnormal gluconeogenesis  (IAGP)
abnormal glucose homeostasis  (IAGP)
abnormal glucose tolerance  (IAGP)
abnormal glycogen homeostasis  (IAGP)
abnormal gonadal fat pad morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal hepatocyte physiology  (IAGP)
abnormal hormone level  (IAGP)
abnormal inhibitory postsynaptic currents  (IAGP)
abnormal insulin secretion  (IAGP)
abnormal interstitial cell of Cajal morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal intestinal epithelium morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal intestinal mucosa morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal intestine morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal Leydig cell morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal lipid homeostasis  (IAGP)
abnormal lipid level  (IAGP)
abnormal liver morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal liver size  (IAGP)
abnormal liver weight  (IAGP)
abnormal locomotor behavior  (IAGP)
abnormal long bone epiphyseal plate morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal long bone epiphyseal plate proliferative zone  (IAGP)
abnormal long bone hypertrophic chondrocyte zone  (IAGP)
abnormal maternal nurturing  (IAGP)
abnormal metabolism  (IAGP)
abnormal microglial cell physiology  (IAGP)
abnormal muscle contractility  (IAGP)
abnormal muscle morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal myocardial fiber morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal myocardial fiber physiology  (IAGP)
abnormal neuron morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal nucleotide metabolism  (IAGP)
abnormal osteoclast differentiation  (IAGP)
abnormal ovarian follicle morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal ovarian folliculogenesis  (IAGP)
abnormal oxygen consumption  (IAGP)
abnormal pain threshold  (IAGP)
abnormal pancreatic beta cell morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal pancreatic beta cell physiology  (IAGP)
abnormal pancreatic islet morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal podocyte morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal postnatal growth  (IAGP)
abnormal protein level  (IAGP)
abnormal respiratory electron transport chain  (IAGP)
abnormal response to cardiac infarction  (IAGP)
abnormal retinal inner nuclear layer morphology  (IEA)
abnormal retinal vasculature morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal skeletal muscle fiber type ratio  (IAGP)
abnormal skeletal muscle morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal skeleton development  (IAGP)
abnormal sleep pattern  (IAGP)
abnormal sperm number  (IAGP)
abnormal sympathetic nervous system physiology  (IAGP)
abnormal tumor necrosis factor level  (IAGP)
abnormal urine catecholamine level  (IAGP)
abnormal urine color  (IAGP)
abnormal urine homeostasis  (IAGP)
abnormal vagina orifice morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal vascular wound healing  (IAGP)
abnormal white adipose tissue amount  (IAGP)
abnormal white adipose tissue morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal white fat cell morphology  (IAGP)
absent corpus luteum  (IAGP)
albuminuria  (IAGP)
allodynia  (IAGP)
atherosclerotic lesions  (IAGP)
decreased activity of thyroid gland  (IAGP)
decreased body fat mass  (IAGP)
decreased body length  (IAGP)
decreased body size  (IAGP)
decreased body temperature  (IAGP)
decreased body weight  (IAGP)
decreased bone mass  (IAGP)
decreased carbon dioxide production  (IAGP)
decreased cardiac muscle contractility  (IAGP)
decreased CD4-positive, alpha beta T cell number  (IAGP)
decreased circulating adiponectin level  (IAGP)
decreased circulating cholesterol level  (IAGP)
decreased circulating corticosterone level  (IAGP)
decreased circulating follicle stimulating hormone level  (IAGP)
decreased circulating free fatty acids level  (IAGP)
decreased circulating glucose level  (IAGP)
decreased circulating growth hormone level  (IAGP)
decreased circulating HDL cholesterol level  (IAGP)
decreased circulating insulin level  (IAGP)
decreased circulating LDL cholesterol level  (IAGP)
decreased circulating leptin level  (IAGP)
decreased circulating luteinizing hormone level  (IAGP)
decreased circulating prolactin level  (IAGP)
decreased circulating testosterone level  (IAGP)
decreased circulating triglyceride level  (IAGP)
decreased circulating tumor necrosis factor level  (IAGP)
decreased core body temperature  (IAGP)
decreased embryonic neuroepithelial cell proliferation  (IAGP)
decreased embryonic neuroepithelium thickness  (IAGP)
decreased energy expenditure  (IAGP)
decreased epididymal fat pad weight  (IAGP)
decreased fat cell size  (IAGP)
decreased fatty acid beta-oxidation  (IAGP)
decreased food intake  (IAGP)
decreased gonadal fat pad weight  (IAGP)
decreased grip strength  (IEA)
decreased heart rate  (IEA)
decreased heart weight  (IEA)
decreased inguinal fat pad weight  (IAGP)
decreased insulin secretion  (IAGP)
decreased lean body mass  (IAGP)
decreased length of long bones  (IAGP)
decreased liver cholesterol level  (IAGP)
decreased liver triglyceride level  (IAGP)
decreased liver weight  (IAGP)
decreased mesenteric fat pad weight  (IAGP)
decreased nerve conduction velocity  (IAGP)
decreased neuron number  (IAGP)
decreased NK cell number  (IAGP)
decreased oxygen consumption  (IAGP)
decreased pancreatic beta cell mass  (IAGP)
decreased pancreatic beta cell number  (IAGP)
decreased pituitary hormone level  (IAGP)
decreased respiratory quotient  (IAGP)
decreased retroperitoneal fat pad weight  (IAGP)
decreased seminal vesicle weight  (IAGP)
decreased skeletal muscle fiber size  (IAGP)
decreased skeletal muscle mass  (IAGP)
decreased somatotroph cell number  (IAGP)
decreased splenocyte number  (IAGP)
decreased subcutaneous adipose tissue amount  (IAGP)
decreased susceptibility to diet-induced hepatic steatosis  (IAGP)
decreased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity  (IAGP)
decreased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis  (IAGP)
decreased susceptibility to weight gain  (IAGP)
decreased T cell proliferation  (IAGP)
decreased testis weight  (IAGP)
decreased total retina thickness  (IEA)
decreased triglyceride level  (IAGP)
decreased vertical activity  (IEA)
decreased white adipose tissue amount  (IAGP)
decreased white fat cell number  (IAGP)
disorganized pancreatic islets  (IAGP)
enhanced fertility  (IAGP)
enlarged kidney  (IAGP)
enlarged myocardial fiber  (IAGP)
enlarged pancreatic islets  (IAGP)
expanded mesangial matrix  (IAGP)
female infertility  (IAGP)
fragmentation of sleep/wake states  (IAGP)
glomerulosclerosis  (IAGP)
heart left ventricle hypertrophy  (IAGP)
hepatic steatosis  (IAGP)
hyperalgesia  (IAGP)
hyperglycemia  (IAGP)
hyperlipidemia  (IAGP)
hypersecretion of corticosterone  (IAGP)
hypertension  (IAGP)
hypoactivity  (IAGP)
hypoglycemia  (IAGP)
hypotension  (IAGP)
impaired adaptive thermogenesis  (IAGP)
impaired glucose tolerance  (IAGP)
improved glucose tolerance  (IAGP)
increased adipocyte glucose uptake  (IAGP)
increased adrenocorticotropin level  (IAGP)
increased blood urea nitrogen level  (IAGP)
increased body fat mass  (IEA)
increased body length  (IAGP)
increased body weight  (IAGP)
increased bone mass  (IAGP)
increased brown adipose tissue amount  (IAGP)
increased brown fat cell lipid droplet size  (IAGP)
increased cardiac output  (IEA)
increased cardiac stroke volume  (IEA)
increased cholesterol level  (IAGP)
increased circulating cholesterol level  (IAGP)
increased circulating corticosterone level  (IAGP)
increased circulating free fatty acids level  (IAGP)
increased circulating glucose level  (IAGP)
increased circulating HDL cholesterol level  (IAGP)
increased circulating insulin level  (IAGP)
increased circulating LDL cholesterol level  (IAGP)
increased circulating leptin level  (IAGP)
increased circulating triglyceride level  (IAGP)
increased circulating VLDL cholesterol level  (IAGP)
increased defecation amount  (IAGP)
increased fasting circulating glucose level  (IAGP)
increased fat cell size  (IAGP)
increased fatty acids level  (IAGP)
increased fluid intake  (IAGP)
increased food intake  (IAGP)
increased gonadal fat pad weight  (IAGP)
increased growth rate  (IAGP)
increased heart weight  (IAGP)
increased hepatocyte apoptosis  (IAGP)
increased inguinal fat pad weight  (IAGP)
increased insulin secretion  (IAGP)
increased insulin sensitivity  (IAGP)
increased interleukin-6 secretion  (IAGP)
increased interscapular fat pad weight  (IAGP)
increased kidney weight  (IAGP)
increased lean body mass  (IAGP)
increased liver cholesterol level  (IAGP)
increased liver glycogen level  (IAGP)
increased liver triglyceride level  (IAGP)
increased liver weight  (IAGP)
increased macrophage cell number  (IAGP)
increased metastatic potential  (IAGP)
increased muscle cell glucose uptake  (IAGP)
increased oxygen consumption  (IAGP)
increased pancreas weight  (IAGP)
increased pancreatic alpha cell number  (IAGP)
increased pancreatic beta cell mass  (IAGP)
increased pancreatic beta cell number  (IAGP)
increased pancreatic islet number  (IAGP)
increased percent body fat/body weight  (IAGP)
increased pituitary hormone level  (IAGP)
increased renal glomerulus basement membrane thickness  (IAGP)
increased seminal vesicle weight  (IAGP)
increased sensitivity to induced morbidity/mortality  (IAGP)
increased startle reflex  (IEA)
increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity  (IAGP)
increased susceptibility to endotoxin shock  (IAGP)
increased susceptibility to weight gain  (IAGP)
increased thermal nociceptive threshold  (IAGP)
increased total body fat amount  (IAGP)
increased total fat pad weight  (IAGP)
increased trabecular bone thickness  (IAGP)
increased triglyceride level  (IAGP)
increased urine adrenaline level  (IAGP)
increased urine glucose level  (IAGP)
increased white adipose tissue amount  (IAGP)
increased white fat cell number  (IAGP)
increased white fat cell size  (IAGP)
infertility  (IAGP)
insulin resistance  (IAGP)
liver fibrosis  (IAGP)
liver inflammation  (IAGP)
lung inflammation  (IAGP)
macrovesicular hepatic steatosis  (IAGP)
male infertility  (IAGP)
mesangiolysis  (IAGP)
obese  (IAGP)
osteopetrosis  (IAGP)
oxidative stress  (IAGP)
pale liver  (IAGP)
pancreatic islet hyperplasia  (IAGP)
polydipsia  (IAGP)
polyphagia  (IAGP)
polyuria  (IAGP)
postnatal lethality, incomplete penetrance  (IAGP)
premature death  (IAGP)
prolonged diestrus  (IAGP)
prolonged estrous cycle  (IAGP)
prolonged estrus  (IAGP)
prolonged QRS complex duration  (IEA)
prolonged RR interval  (IEA)
reduced female fertility  (IAGP)
reduced male fertility  (IAGP)
renal glomerulus hypertrophy  (IAGP)
renal interstitial fibrosis  (IAGP)
short femur  (IAGP)
short humerus  (IAGP)
short tibia  (IEA)
small liver  (IAGP)
small pancreatic islets  (IAGP)
weight loss  (IAGP)
white spotting  (IAGP)

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