LEP (leptin) - Rat Genome Database

Send us a Message

Submit Data |  Help |  Video Tutorials |  News |  Publications |  Download |  REST API |  Citing RGD |  Contact   
Gene: LEP (leptin) Homo sapiens
Symbol: LEP
Name: leptin
RGD ID: 69123
HGNC Page HGNC:6553
Description: Enables leptin receptor binding activity. Involved in several processes, including positive regulation of signal transduction; regulation of cytokine production; and regulation of lymphocyte proliferation. Predicted to be located in cytosol. Predicted to be active in extracellular space. Implicated in several diseases, including alcohol dependence; congenital leptin deficiency; liver disease (multiple); lung disease (multiple); and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biomarker of several diseases, including alcohol dependence; bone disease (multiple); fatty liver disease (multiple); liver disease (multiple); and lung disease (multiple).
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: REVIEWED
Previously known as: FLJ94114; LEPD; leptin (murine obesity homolog); leptin (obesity homolog, mouse); OB; obese protein; obese, mouse, homolog of; obesity factor; OBS
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Allele / Splice: See ClinVar data
Candidate Gene For: BW191_H BW101_H BW258_H BW257_H BW256_H SLEP5_H SLEP9_H
Latest Assembly: GRCh38 - Human Genome Assembly GRCh38
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh387128,241,278 - 128,257,629 (+)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl7128,241,278 - 128,257,629 (+)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh377127,881,331 - 127,897,682 (+)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 367127,668,567 - 127,684,917 (+)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 347127,475,281 - 127,491,632NCBI
Celera7122,684,619 - 122,700,967 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map7q32.1NCBI
HuRef7122,242,298 - 122,258,647 (+)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_17127,814,632 - 127,830,980 (+)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.07129,552,743 - 129,569,093 (+)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
CRA_TCAGchr7v27127,264,455 - 127,280,803 (+)NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome  (ISS)
abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome 1  (ISS)
acute pancreatitis  (ISO)
acute promyelocytic leukemia  (EXP)
adult respiratory distress syndrome  (IDA)
alcohol dependence  (IDA,IEP)
alcoholic liver cirrhosis  (IDA)
Alzheimer's disease  (EXP,IEP,ISO)
asthma  (IEP)
autistic disorder  (EXP)
autoimmune hepatitis  (EXP)
bacterial pneumonia  (ISO)
Body Weight Changes  (ISO)
Brain Injuries  (ISO)
breast cancer  (IEP)
Breast Neoplasms  (EXP)
Choroidal Neovascularization  (ISO)
Chronic Hepatitis C  (IEP)
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  (IAGP,IEP)
Colonic Neoplasms  (EXP)
congenital leptin deficiency  (IAGP)
congestive heart failure  (ISO)
Crohn's disease  (EXP)
cystic fibrosis  (IEP)
diabetes mellitus  (IAGP)
Diabetic Nephropathies  (ISO)
Dyslipidemias  (IEP)
End Stage Liver Disease  (IEP)
end stage renal disease  (IEP)
Experimental Arthritis  (EXP)
Experimental Diabetes Mellitus  (EXP,ISO)
Experimental Liver Cirrhosis  (EXP,ISO)
Experimental Mammary Neoplasms  (ISO)
familial hyperlipidemia  (ISO)
fatty liver disease  (EXP,IEP)
Female Infertility  (EXP)
Femoral Fractures  (ISO)
Fetal Growth Retardation  (ISO)
gastric ulcer  (EXP)
gestational diabetes  (EXP,IEP)
glucose intolerance  (EXP,ISO)
hepatocellular carcinoma  (IAGP,IEP)
hepatocellular clear cell carcinoma  (IEP)
Hepatomegaly  (EXP)
heroin dependence  (EXP)
Huntington's disease  (ISO)
Hypercapnia  (IEP)
Hypercholesterolemia  (EXP,ISO)
hyperglycemia  (EXP)
hyperinsulinism  (EXP,ISO)
Hyperphagia  (EXP)
Hyperplasia  (EXP)
hypertension  (EXP,IAGP,ISO)
Hypertriglyceridemia  (ISO)
hypogonadism  (EXP,ISO)
Hypoventilation  (IEP)
Inflammation  (EXP)
Insulin Resistance  (EXP,IEP,ISO)
Kidney Reperfusion Injury  (ISO)
Knee Osteoarthritis  (IEP)
lipid metabolism disorder  (ISO)
lung disease  (ISO)
lung non-small cell carcinoma  (IEP)
Metabolic Syndrome  (EXP,IEP,ISO)
morbid obesity  (EXP)
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury  (ISO)
Nerve Degeneration  (EXP)
non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  (EXP,IEP)
obstructive sleep apnea  (IEP)
Oral Ulcer  (EXP)
osteoarthritis  (IEP)
osteoporosis  (IDA,IEP,ISO)
Parkinson's disease  (ISO)
pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma  (IAGP)
Pneumococcal Pneumonia  (ISO)
polycystic ovary syndrome  (EXP)
Polydipsia  (EXP)
Polyuria  (EXP)
pre-eclampsia  (ISO)
primary biliary cholangitis  (IEP)
Prostatic Neoplasms  (EXP)
proteinuria  (EXP)
renal cell carcinoma  (IEP)
Reperfusion Injury  (ISO)
rhinitis  (IDA)
Sepsis  (ISO)
short bowel syndrome  (ISO)
Spinal Cord Injuries  (ISO)
Tachycardia  (EXP)
type 2 diabetes mellitus  (EXP,IAGP,ISO)
visual epilepsy  (EXP)
Weight Gain  (EXP)
Weight Loss  (EXP)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(+)-catechin  (ISO)
(+)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate  (ISO)
(-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate  (ISO)
(R)-lipoic acid  (ISO)
(R)-mevalonic acid  (ISO)
(S)-nicotine  (ISO)
1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate  (ISO)
1,8-cineole  (ISO)
1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine  (ISO)
1-naphthyl isothiocyanate  (ISO)
15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2  (EXP)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one  (EXP)
2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (ISO)
2,4-dinitrophenol  (ISO)
2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol  (ISO)
2-acetamidofluorene  (ISO)
2-amino-2-deoxy-D-galactopyranose  (ISO)
2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose 6-phosphate  (ISO)
2-aminopurine  (ISO)
2-arachidonoylglycerol  (ISO)
2-deoxy-D-glucose  (ISO)
2-hydroxypropanoic acid  (EXP)
2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxybutyric acid  (ISO)
2-trans,6-trans,10-trans-geranylgeranyl diphosphate  (ISO)
24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D  (EXP)
3',5'-cyclic AMP  (EXP,ISO)
3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A  (ISO)
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine  (ISO)
3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine  (ISO)
3-aminobenzamide  (ISO)
3-chloropropane-1,2-diol  (ISO)
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine  (EXP,ISO)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (EXP,ISO)
4-hydroxy-17beta-estradiol  (EXP)
4-hydroxy-TEMPO  (ISO)
4-hydroxybenzoic acid  (EXP)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
4-nonylphenol  (ISO)
5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine  (EXP)
8-Br-cAMP  (EXP)
9-cis-retinoic acid  (ISO)
acarbose  (ISO)
acetaldehyde  (ISO)
acetylsalicylic acid  (ISO)
actinomycin D  (ISO)
Adenosine, cyclic 3',5'-[hydrogen [p(s)]-phosphorothioate]  (EXP)
aflatoxin B1  (EXP)
AH23848  (EXP)
aldehydo-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (EXP)
all-trans-retinol  (ISO)
allopurinol  (ISO)
AM-251  (ISO)
Amibegron  (ISO)
amlodipine  (EXP)
ammonium chloride  (ISO)
anandamide  (EXP,ISO)
androst-4-ene-3,17-dione  (ISO)
anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one  (EXP)
apigenin  (ISO)
apocynin  (ISO)
arachidonic acid  (ISO)
arsane  (EXP)
arsenic atom  (EXP)
arsenite(3-)  (EXP)
arsenous acid  (EXP)
aspartame  (ISO)
atorvastatin calcium  (ISO)
Aurothioglucose  (ISO)
azoxystrobin  (ISO)
Bardoxolone methyl  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (EXP)
Benzyl parahydroxybenzoate  (EXP,ISO)
beta-D-glucosamine 6-sulfate  (ISO)
beta-naphthoflavone  (EXP)
bezafibrate  (EXP,ISO)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether  (ISO)
Bisphenol B  (ISO)
bisphenol F  (ISO)
bleomycin A2  (ISO)
boric acid  (ISO)
BQ 123  (ISO)
bromodichloromethane  (ISO)
bucladesine  (ISO)
Butylparaben  (EXP,ISO)
butyric acid  (ISO)
cadmium atom  (EXP)
cadmium dichloride  (EXP,ISO)
caffeine  (EXP,ISO)
calcitriol  (ISO)
calcium atom  (ISO)
calcium(0)  (ISO)
candesartan  (EXP,ISO)
cannabidiol  (ISO)
capsaicin  (ISO)
capsazepine  (ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
carvacrol  (ISO)
cerulenin  (ISO)
CGP 52608  (EXP)
CGS-21680  (EXP)
chlorohydrocarbon  (ISO)
chloroquine  (ISO)
chlorpromazine  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (EXP,ISO)
choline  (ISO)
chromium atom  (ISO)
cisplatin  (ISO)
clofibrate  (ISO)
clozapine  (EXP,ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (EXP,ISO)
colforsin daropate hydrochloride  (EXP,ISO)
conjugated linoleic acid  (ISO)
corticosterone  (ISO)
crocidolite asbestos  (ISO)
cycloheximide  (ISO)
cyclosporin A  (ISO)
cyhalothrin  (ISO)
cyromazine  (ISO)
D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
dantrolene  (ISO)
dehydroepiandrosterone  (ISO)
deoxycholic acid  (ISO)
desferrioxamine B  (EXP,ISO)
dexamethasone  (EXP,ISO)
dextran sulfate  (ISO)
diarsenic trioxide  (EXP)
diazoxide  (ISO)
dibenziodolium  (EXP)
dibutylstannane  (ISO)
diethylstilbestrol  (ISO)
diiodine  (ISO)
dioxygen  (EXP,ISO)
dipyridamole  (ISO)
disodium selenite  (ISO)
dobutamine  (EXP,ISO)
edelfosine  (ISO)
efavirenz  (EXP)
elemental selenium  (EXP)
Elemicin  (ISO)
enalapril  (ISO)
ethambutol  (ISO)
ethanol  (ISO)
ethionamide  (ISO)
Ethyl icosapentate  (ISO)
ethylparaben  (EXP)
fenofibrate  (EXP,ISO)
fenoterol  (EXP)
fenvalerate  (ISO)
ferroheme b  (ISO)
flufenamic acid  (ISO)
flutamide  (ISO)
fonofos  (EXP)
fructose  (ISO)
furan  (ISO)
gallocatechin  (ISO)
gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane  (ISO)
Ganoderic acid A  (ISO)
gemfibrozil  (ISO)
genistein  (EXP,ISO)
gentamycin  (ISO)
gingerol  (ISO)
glucagon  (ISO)
glucose  (EXP,ISO)
glycine  (ISO)
heme b  (ISO)
hesperidin  (ISO)
hexadecanoic acid  (ISO)
hydrogen peroxide  (EXP)
imidacloprid  (ISO)
indinavir  (EXP,ISO)
indometacin  (EXP,ISO)
inulin  (ISO)
iodide salt  (ISO)
iron(2+) sulfate (anhydrous)  (EXP)
isoflavones  (ISO)
isoprenaline  (EXP,ISO)
isotretinoin  (ISO)
kainic acid  (ISO)
L-ascorbic acid  (ISO)
L-methionine  (ISO)
lamivudine  (ISO)
lanthanum atom  (ISO)
lead(0)  (EXP)
lead(2+)  (EXP)
Licarin A  (ISO)
lipoic acid  (ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (EXP,ISO)
loganin  (ISO)
lopinavir  (EXP)
LY294002  (EXP,ISO)
manganese atom  (EXP)
manganese(0)  (EXP)
melatonin  (EXP,ISO)
menadione  (EXP)
mercury dichloride  (ISO)
metformin  (ISO)
methacholine chloride  (ISO)
methadone  (EXP)
methapyrilene  (ISO)
methotrexate  (ISO)
methylmercury chloride  (ISO)
methylparaben  (EXP)
metronidazole  (ISO)
MK-2206  (ISO)
monocrotaline  (ISO)
monosodium L-glutamate  (ISO)
morin  (ISO)
N-[2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]isoquinoline-5-sulfonamide  (EXP,ISO)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (EXP)
N-methyl-N-nitrosourea  (ISO)
N-nitrosodiethylamine  (ISO)
N-nitrosodimethylamine  (ISO)
naproxen  (ISO)
naringin  (ISO)
nelfinavir  (EXP,ISO)
neomycin  (ISO)
nevirapine  (EXP)
nickel atom  (EXP)
nickel dichloride  (EXP,ISO)
nickel sulfate  (EXP)
nicotine  (ISO)
nicotinic acid  (EXP,ISO)
nitric oxide  (EXP)
Nonylphenol  (ISO)
NS-398  (EXP)
olanzapine  (EXP,ISO)
oleanolic acid  (ISO)
oleic acid  (ISO)
orlistat  (ISO)
ozone  (ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP,ISO)
paraquat  (ISO)
parathion  (EXP)
perfluorohexanesulfonic acid  (ISO)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (EXP,ISO)
perfluorooctanoic acid  (ISO)
perindopril  (ISO)
permethrin  (ISO)
phencyclidine  (ISO)
phenethyl caffeate  (ISO)
phenobarbital  (ISO)
phloretin  (ISO)
phlorizin  (ISO)
phosphatidylcholine  (ISO)
phosphoramidon  (ISO)
pioglitazone  (ISO)
piperine  (ISO)
pirimicarb  (ISO)
pirinixic acid  (ISO)
pitavastatin  (ISO)
pitavastatin(1-)  (ISO)
pluronic P-123  (ISO)
Poloxamer  (ISO)
potassium dichromate  (EXP)
pravastatin  (ISO)
prochloraz  (EXP)
progesterone  (EXP,ISO)
propranolol  (EXP,ISO)
propylparaben  (EXP,ISO)
prostaglandin E2  (ISO)
Ptaquiloside  (ISO)
Pyridostigmine bromide  (ISO)
pyruvic acid  (ISO)
quercetin  (EXP,ISO)
rac-lactic acid  (EXP)
ramipril  (EXP)
reactive oxygen species  (EXP)
rebaudioside A  (ISO)
reserpine  (ISO)
resveratrol  (EXP,ISO)
rifampicin  (ISO)
rimonabant  (ISO)
ritonavir  (EXP)
rotenone  (EXP)
roxarsone  (EXP)
ruthenium red  (ISO)
rutin  (ISO)
S-adenosyl-L-methioninate  (EXP)
S-adenosyl-L-methionine  (EXP)
saquinavir  (ISO)
SB 203580  (EXP)
selenium atom  (EXP)
serpentine asbestos  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (EXP,ISO)
simvastatin  (ISO)
SKF-96365 hydrochloride  (ISO)
sodium arsenate  (EXP)
sodium arsenite  (EXP,ISO)
sodium perchlorate  (ISO)
stavudine  (EXP)
steviol  (ISO)
stevioside  (ISO)
streptozocin  (ISO)
sumatriptan  (ISO)
superoxide  (EXP,ISO)
terbufos  (EXP)
terbutaline  (ISO)
testosterone  (ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (ISO)
thioacetamide  (ISO)
thiram  (ISO)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
tributylstannane  (EXP,ISO)
trichloroethene  (ISO)
trichostatin A  (EXP)
triflumizole  (EXP,ISO)
triphenyl phosphate  (ISO)
triptonide  (ISO)
troglitazone  (EXP,ISO)
U-73122  (ISO)
ursolic acid  (ISO)
vanadium atom  (ISO)
vanadium(0)  (ISO)
vancomycin  (ISO)
vinclozolin  (ISO)
vitamin E  (ISO)
wortmannin  (ISO)
xanthone  (ISO)
zidovudine  (EXP,ISO)
zinc atom  (EXP,ISO)
zinc dichloride  (EXP)
zinc molecular entity  (ISO)
zinc sulfate  (ISO)
zinc(0)  (EXP,ISO)
ziram  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
activation of protein kinase C activity  (IBA,IDA)
adipose tissue development  (IEA,ISO)
adult feeding behavior  (IEA,ISS)
angiogenesis  (IDA)
aorta development  (IEA,ISO)
bile acid metabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
bone growth  (IEA,ISS)
bone mineralization involved in bone maturation  (IEA,ISO)
cardiac muscle hypertrophy  (IEA,ISO)
cellular response to insulin stimulus  (IEA,ISO)
cellular response to L-ascorbic acid  (IEA,ISO)
cellular response to leptin stimulus  (IDA)
cellular response to retinoic acid  (IEA,ISO)
central nervous system neuron development  (IEA,ISO)
cholesterol metabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
circadian rhythm  (IEA,ISO)
determination of adult lifespan  (IEA,ISO)
eating behavior  (IEA,ISO)
elastin metabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
energy reserve metabolic process  (IBA,IEA,ISO,TAS)
fatty acid beta-oxidation  (IEA,ISO)
fatty acid catabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
female pregnancy  (IEA,ISO)
glucose homeostasis  (IEA,ISO)
glucose metabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
glycerol biosynthetic process  (IEA,ISO)
hormone metabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
insulin secretion  (IEA,ISO)
intestinal absorption  (IDA)
intracellular signal transduction  (IEA,ISO)
leptin-mediated signaling pathway  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
leukocyte tethering or rolling  (IEA,ISO)
lipid metabolic process  (IBA,IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of apoptotic process  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of appetite  (IEA,ISS)
negative regulation of appetite by leptin-mediated signaling pathway  (IBA,IEA,ISS)
negative regulation of autophagy  (IDA,IEA)
negative regulation of cartilage development  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of glucagon secretion  (IEA)
negative regulation of glucose import  (IDA)
negative regulation of glutamine transport  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway  (ISO)
negative regulation of lipid storage  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of metabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  (IEA)
negative regulation of vasoconstriction  (IEA,ISO)
ovulation from ovarian follicle  (IEA,ISO)
phagocytosis  (IEA)
placenta development  (IDA)
positive regulation of cell population proliferation  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis  (IEA,ISS)
positive regulation of cytokine production  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of developmental growth  (IDA)
positive regulation of fat cell apoptotic process  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of hepatic stellate cell activation  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of interleukin-12 production  (IEA)
positive regulation of interleukin-6 production  (IDA,IEA)
positive regulation of interleukin-8 production  (IDA)
positive regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of MAPK cascade  (IDA,IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of monoatomic ion transport  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of myeloid cell differentiation  (ISO)
positive regulation of p38MAPK cascade  (IBA,IDA)
positive regulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor signaling pathway  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling  (IBA,IDA,IEA,ISS)
positive regulation of protein import into nucleus  (IEA)
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling  (IEA,ISS)
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation  (IDA)
positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of receptor signaling pathway via JAK-STAT  (IBA,IDA,IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of T cell proliferation  (IDA)
positive regulation of TOR signaling  (IBA,IDA)
positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production  (IEA)
positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein  (IEA,ISO)
prostaglandin secretion  (IDA)
regulation of angiogenesis  (IDA)
regulation of blood pressure  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of bone remodeling  (IEA,ISS)
regulation of brown fat cell differentiation  (IEA,ISS)
regulation of catalytic activity  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of cell cycle  (IDA,IEA)
regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response  (IDA)
regulation of endothelial cell proliferation  (IDA)
regulation of fat cell differentiation  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of gluconeogenesis  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of insulin secretion  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of lipid biosynthetic process  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of lipoprotein lipid oxidation  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of metabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of natural killer cell activation  (IDA)
regulation of natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity  (IDA)
regulation of natural killer cell proliferation  (IDA)
regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity  (IDA,IEA)
regulation of protein localization to nucleus  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of protein phosphorylation  (IEA)
regulation of steroid biosynthetic process  (IEA,ISO)
response to activity  (IEA,ISO)
response to dietary excess  (IEA,ISO)
response to estradiol  (IEA,ISO)
response to ethanol  (IEA,ISO)
response to hypoxia  (IEA,ISO)
response to insulin  (IBA,IEA,ISO)
response to nutrient  (IEA,ISO)
response to nutrient levels  (IEA,ISO)
response to vitamin E  (IEA,ISO)
sexual reproduction  (IEA,IMP)
signal transduction  (IEA)
T cell differentiation  (IEA,ISS)
tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein  (IBA,IEA)

Cellular Component
cytoplasm  (IEA)
cytosol  (IEA,ISS)
extracellular region  (IEA,TAS)
extracellular space  (IBA,IEA,IEP,ISS,TAS)

Molecular Function

Phenotype Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Human Phenotype

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Generation of leptin-deficient Lepmkyo/Lepmkyo rats and identification of leptin-responsive genes in the liver. Aizawa-Abe M, etal., Physiol Genomics. 2013 Sep 3;45(17):786-93. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00040.2013. Epub 2013 Jun 25.
2. Genetic polymorphisms of IL-23R (rs7517847) and LEP (rs7799039) among Egyptian patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Amer T, etal., Arch Physiol Biochem. 2017 Dec;123(5):279-285. doi: 10.1080/13813455.2017.1320680. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
3. Characterization of changes in leptin and leptin receptors in a rat model of preeclampsia. Anderson CM, etal., Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Jul;193(1):267-72.
4. Airway inflammation in obstructive sleep apnea: is leptin the missing link? Antonopoulou S, etal., Respir Med. 2008 Oct;102(10):1399-405. Epub 2008 Jul 7.
5. The relationship between serum adiponectin and steatosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype-4. Ashour E, etal., Clin Lab. 2010;56(3-4):103-10.
6. Leptin administration affects growth and skeletal development in a rat intrauterine growth restriction model: Preliminary study. Bar-El Dadon S, etal., Nutrition. 2011 Feb 23.
7. The genetic association database. Becker KG, etal., Nat Genet. 2004 May;36(5):431-2.
8. The genetics of human obesity. Bell CG, etal., Nat Rev Genet. 2005 Mar;6(3):221-34.
9. The effect of high fat diet-induced obesity on cardiovascular toxicity in wistar albino rats. Bhandari U, etal., Hum Exp Toxicol. 2010 Nov 12.
10. Increased numbers of motor activity peaks during light cycle are associated with reductions in adrenergic alpha(2)-receptor levels in a transgenic Huntington's disease rat model. Bode FJ, etal., Behav Brain Res. 2009 Dec 14;205(1):175-82. Epub 2009 Jun 30.
11. The passive coping Roman Low Avoidance rat, a non-obese rat model for insulin resistance. Boersma GJ, etal., Physiol Behav. 2009 Jun 22;97(3-4):353-8. Epub 2009 Mar 16.
12. Gender differences in the adipose secretome system in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A pivotal role of leptin. Breyer MK, etal., Respir Med. 2011 Feb 28.
13. Leptin reduces ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats. Burguera B, etal., Endocrinology. 2001 Aug;142(8):3546-53.
14. Serum leptin and leptin resistance correlations with NAFLD in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cernea S, etal., Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2018 Nov;34(8):e3050. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.3050. Epub 2018 Sep 13.
15. Serum adiponectin and leptin levels in Taiwanese breast cancer patients. Chen DC, etal., Cancer Lett. 2006 Jun 8;237(1):109-14. Epub 2005 Jul 12.
16. Leptin deficiency and beta-cell dysfunction underlie type 2 diabetes in compound Akt knockout mice. Chen WS, etal., Mol Cell Biol. 2009 Jun;29(11):3151-62. Epub 2009 Mar 16.
17. Serum leptin levels depend on allergen exposure in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Ciprandi G, etal., Immunol Invest. 2009;38(8):681-9.
18. Plasma ghrelin and leptin in adult cystic fibrosis patients. Cohen RI, etal., J Cyst Fibros. 2008 Sep;7(5):398-402. Epub 2008 Mar 18.
19. Adipokine Levels Versus Hepatic Histopathology in Bariatric Surgery Patients. D'Incao RB, etal., Obes Surg. 2017 Aug;27(8):2151-2158. doi: 10.1007/s11695-017-2627-4.
20. A Functional Melanocortin System May Be Required For Chronic Cns-Mediated Antidiabetic And Cardiovascular Actions Of Leptin. da Silva AA, etal., Diabetes. 2009 Jun 2.
21. Divergent effects of intracerebroventricular and peripheral leptin administration on feeding and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. Dryden S, etal., Clin Sci (Lond). 1999 Mar;96(3):307-12.
22. Evidence for a key role of leptin in osteoarthritis. Dumond H, etal., Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Nov;48(11):3118-29.
23. Leptin, visfatin, insulin resistance, and body composition change in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eker S, etal., Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2010 Feb;70(1):40-4.
24. Competitive inhibition of leptin signaling results in amelioration of liver fibrosis through modulation of stellate cell function. Elinav E, etal., Hepatology. 2009 Jan;49(1):278-86.
25. Insulin resistance, leptin and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels in diabetic and non-diabetic Afro-Caribbean subjects. Ezenwaka CE, etal., Arch Physiol Biochem. 2009 Feb;115(1):22-7.
26. Oral salmon calcitonin protects against impaired fasting glycemia, glucose intolerance, and obesity induced by high-fat diet and ovariectomy in rats. Feigh M, etal., Menopause. 2013 Jul;20(7):785-94. doi: 10.1097/GME.0b013e31827c58ab.
27. [Effects of decreased leptin expression on liver fibrosis]. Feng HJ, etal., Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2010 May;18(5):342-5. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1007-3418.2010.05.008.
28. Serum leptin levels following acute experimental spinal cord injury. Gezici AR, etal., J Spinal Cord Med. 2009;32(4):416-21.
29. GOAs Human GO annotations GOA_HUMAN data from the GO Consortium
30. Leptin treatment ameliorates acute lung injury in rats with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Gultekin FA, etal., World J Gastroenterol. 2007 Jun 7;13(21):2932-8.
31. Linkage exclusion analysis of two candidate regions on chromosomes 7 and 11: leptin and UCP2/UCP3 are not QTLs for obesity in US Caucasians. Guo JJ, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Jul 1;332(2):602-8.
32. Effects of periconceptional maternal alcohol intake and a postnatal high-fat diet on obesity and liver disease in male and female rat offspring. Gårdebjer EM, etal., Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Oct 1;315(4):E694-E704. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00251.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
33. Genetic variations in the leptin and leptin receptor genes are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic traits in the Korean female population. Han HR, etal., Clin Genet. 2008 Aug;74(2):105-15. Epub 2008 Jun 28.
34. Serum immunoreactive leptin concentration and its relation to the body fat content in chronic renal failure. Heimburger O, etal., J Am Soc Nephrol. 1997 Sep;8(9):1423-30.
35. Attenuation of leptin and insulin signaling by SOCS proteins. Howard JK and Flier JS, Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;17(9):365-71. Epub 2006 Sep 28.
36. Leptin improves pulmonary bacterial clearance and survival in ob/ob mice during pneumococcal pneumonia. Hsu A, etal., Clin Exp Immunol. 2007 Nov;150(2):332-9. Epub 2007 Sep 5.
37. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy prevents weight gain without long-term detrimental effects on bone in growing and skeletally mature female rats. Iwaniec UT, etal., J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Feb 16. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.365.
38. Leptin Promotes Fibroproliferative ARDS by Inhibiting Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-{gamma} Jain M, etal., Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Feb 11.
39. Leptin signaling, adiposity, and energy balance. Jequier E Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002 Jun;967:379-88.
40. Central leptin gene therapy, a substitute for insulin therapy to ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperphagia, and promote survival in insulin-deficient diabetic mice. Kojima S, etal., Peptides. 2009 May;30(5):962-6. Epub 2009 Jan 22.
41. Leptin treatment confers clinical benefit at multiple stages of virally induced type 1 diabetes in BB rats. Kruger AJ, etal., Autoimmunity. 2011 Mar;44(2):137-48. Epub 2010 Aug 9.
42. Association Between Serum Leptin and Adiponectin Levels with Risk of Insulin Resistance and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Non-diabetic Women. Lee CY, etal., Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2009 Mar;25(3):116-25.
43. [Distribution of leptin expression and its effect on the recovery of sepsis-induced internal disorders]. Lin J, etal., Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2008 May;39(3):360-3, 417.
44. Endogenous leptin fluctuates in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury and represents a potential therapeutic target. Lin J, etal., World J Gastroenterol. 2010 Nov 21;16(43):5424-34.
45. Polymorphism of human leptin receptor gene is associated with type 2 diabetic patients complicated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in China. Lu H, etal., J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Feb;24(2):228-32. Epub 2008 Aug 17.
46. Leptin is associated with blood pressure and hypertension in women from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study. Ma D, etal., Hypertension. 2009 Mar;53(3):473-9. Epub 2009 Feb 9.
47. [Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in leptin receptor gene with knee osteoarthritis in the Ningxia Hui population]. Ma XJ, etal., Yi Chuan. 2013 Mar;35(3):359-64.
48. Amyloid beta lowering and cognition enhancing effects of ghrelin receptor analog [D-Lys (3)] GHRP-6 in rat model of obesity. Madhavadas S, etal., Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2014 Aug;51(4):257-62.
49. Leptin-deficient mice exhibit impaired host defense in Gram-negative pneumonia. Mancuso P, etal., J Immunol. 2002 Apr 15;168(8):4018-24.
50. Disruption of leptin receptor-STAT3 signaling enhances leukotriene production and pulmonary host defense against pneumococcal pneumonia. Mancuso P, etal., J Immunol. 2011 Jan 15;186(2):1081-90. Epub 2010 Dec 10.
51. Accelerated renal disease is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome in a glucolipotoxic mouse model. Martinez-Garcia C, etal., Dis Model Mech. 2012 Sep;5(5):636-48. doi: 10.1242/dmm.009266. Epub 2012 Jul 5.
52. Central overexpression of leptin antagonist reduces wheel running and underscores importance of endogenous leptin receptor activity in energy homeostasis. Matheny M, etal., Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009 Nov;297(5):R1254-61. Epub 2009 Sep 2.
53. Leptin signalling reduces the severity of cardiac dysfunction and remodelling after chronic ischaemic injury. McGaffin KR, etal., Cardiovasc Res. 2008 Jan;77(1):54-63. Epub 2007 Sep 20.
54. [Plasma leptin level in patients with bronchial asthma]. Mineev VN, etal., Klin Med (Mosk). 2009;87(7):33-7.
55. Leptin, adiponectin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in relation to the metabolic syndrome in urban South African blacks with and without coronary artery disease. Ntyintyane L, etal., Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2009 Jun;7(3):243-8.
56. Dual relation between leptin and cortisol in humans is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease. Olsson T, etal., Biol Psychiatry. 1998 Sep 1;44(5):374-6.
57. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
58. Effects of the obese gene product on body weight regulation in ob/ob mice. Pelleymounter MA, etal., Science. 1995 Jul 28;269(5223):540-3.
59. Association of serum leptin with hypoventilation in human obesity. Phipps PR, etal., Thorax. 2002 Jan;57(1):75-6.
60. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
61. PID Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import Pathway Interaction Database annotations from NCI into RGD
62. Relationship between osteoporosis and adipose tissue leptin and osteoprotegerin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pobeha P, etal., Bone. 2011 Mar 1.
63. Leptin Expression and Gene Methylation Patterns in Alcohol-Dependent Patients with Ethyltoxic Cirrhosis-Normalization After Liver Transplantation and Implications for Future Research. Proskynitopoulos PJ, etal., Alcohol Alcohol. 2018 Sep 1;53(5):511-517. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/agy038.
64. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
65. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
66. RGD HPO Phenotype Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for human HPO-to-gene-to-disease annotations
67. Leptin-leptin receptor are involved in angiogenesis in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Ribatti D, etal., Peptides. 2008 Sep;29(9):1596-602. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2008.05.011. Epub 2008 May 22.
68. Serum leptin and insulin in paediatric end-stage liver disease and following successful orthotopic liver transplantation. Roberts GA, etal., Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1998 Apr;48(4):401-6. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2265.1998.00448.x.
69. Effects of apelin and leptin on renal functions following renal ischemia/reperfusion: An experimental study. Sagiroglu T, etal., Exp Ther Med. 2012 May;3(5):908-914. Epub 2012 Feb 29.
70. Pharmacology of Cimicifuga racemosa extract BNO 1055 in rats: bone, fat and uterus. Seidlova-Wuttke D, etal., Maturitas. 2003 Mar 14;44 Suppl 1:S39-50.
71. 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone vs. testosterone implants for hypogonadal osteoporosis: a preclinical study in the aged male orchidectomized rat model. Sinnesael M, etal., Int J Androl. 2011 Dec;34(6 Pt 2):e601-11. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01198.x. Epub 2011 Jul 26.
72. Common SNPs in LEP and LEPR associated with birth weight and type 2 diabetes-related metabolic risk factors in twins. Souren NY, etal., Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Aug;32(8):1233-9. Epub 2008 May 20.
73. Inverse association of leptin levels with renal cell carcinoma: results from a case-control study. Spyridopoulos TN, etal., Hormones (Athens). 2009 Jan-Mar;8(1):39-46.
74. Leptin as a critical regulator of hepatocellular carcinoma development through modulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase. Stefanou N, etal., BMC Cancer. 2010 Aug 19;10:442. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-10-442.
75. Leptin affects intestinal epithelial cell turnover in correlation with leptin receptor expression along the villus-crypt axis after massive small bowel resection in a rat. Sukhotnik I, etal., Pediatr Res. 2009 Dec;66(6):648-53.
76. Serum leptin, soluble leptin receptor, free leptin index and bone mineral density in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Szalay F, etal., Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Sep;17(9):923-8.
77. Elevated serum leptin levels: a risk factor for non-small-cell lung cancer? Terzidis A, etal., Oncology. 2009;76(1):19-25. Epub 2008 Nov 24.
78. Metabolic syndrome triggered by high-fructose diet favors choroidal neovascularization and impairs retinal light sensitivity in the rat. Thierry M, etal., PLoS One. 2014 Nov 7;9(11):e112450. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0112450. eCollection 2014.
79. Creation and preliminary characterization of a leptin knockout rat. Vaira S, etal., Endocrinology. 2012 Nov;153(11):5622-8. doi: 10.1210/en.2012-1462. Epub 2012 Sep 4.
80. Effect of leptin on bone metabolism in rat model of traumatic brain injury and femoral fracture. Wang L, etal., Chin J Traumatol. 2011 Feb 1;14(1):7-13.
81. Hepatic steatosis depresses alpha-1-antitrypsin levels in human and rat acute pancreatitis. Wang Q, etal., Sci Rep. 2015 Dec 4;5:17833. doi: 10.1038/srep17833.
82. Leptin protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopaminergic cell death via mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Weng Z, etal., J Biol Chem. 2007 Nov 23;282(47):34479-91. Epub 2007 Sep 25.
83. Hepatitis C and the leptin system: bound leptin levels are elevated in patients with hepatitis C and decrease during antiviral therapy. Widjaja A, etal., Scand J Gastroenterol. 2001 Apr;36(4):426-31. doi: 10.1080/003655201300051333.
84. [Preliminary investigation of the changes and mechanism of Leptin after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury]. Xue H, etal., Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2010 Nov;22(11):680-3.
85. Change in lipid components in the adipose and liver tissues of regucalcin transgenic rats with increasing age: suppression of leptin and adiponectin gene expression. Yamaguchi M and Nakagawa T, Int J Mol Med. 2007 Sep;20(3):323-8.
86. The polymorphism -2548G/A in leptin and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ye XW, etal., Int J Immunogenet. 2011 Feb;38(1):45-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-313X.2010.00968.x. Epub 2010 Sep 20.
87. Treatment of obesity hypoventilation syndrome and serum leptin. Yee BJ, etal., Respiration. 2006;73(2):209-12. Epub 2005 Sep 20.
88. Assessment of insulin sensitivity/resistance and their relations with leptin concentrations and anthropometric measures in a pregnant population with and without gestational diabetes mellitus. Yilmaz O, etal., J Diabetes Complications. 2009 Mar 6.
89. Adenovirus-mediated leptin expression normalises hypertension associated with diet-induced obesity. Zhang W, etal., J Neuroendocrinol. 2010 Mar;22(3):175-80. Epub 2010 Jan 5.
90. Propranolol Prevents Osteoporosis and up-regulates Leptin in Ovariectomized Rats. Zhang X, etal., Iran J Pharm Res. 2013 Summer;12(3):557-62.
91. The effect of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate on inflammation and lipid metabolic disorder in rats. Zhou L, etal., Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019 Apr 15;170:391-398. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.12.009. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
92. Effects of energy restriction and wheel running on mammary carcinogenesis and host systemic factors in a rat model. Zhu Z, etal., Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012 Mar;5(3):414-22. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0454. Epub 2012 Jan 13.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:3952   PMID:1686014   PMID:7499240   PMID:7789654   PMID:7984236   PMID:8589726   PMID:8608603   PMID:8621021   PMID:8626726   PMID:8717050   PMID:9144295   PMID:9166907  
PMID:9202122   PMID:9205417   PMID:9500540   PMID:9537324   PMID:9724018   PMID:9724081   PMID:9796811   PMID:9924798   PMID:10428856   PMID:11061506   PMID:11068878   PMID:11118025  
PMID:11140377   PMID:11140838   PMID:11196643   PMID:11460888   PMID:11461187   PMID:11508653   PMID:11702849   PMID:11743056   PMID:11787735   PMID:11797013   PMID:11800057   PMID:11822578  
PMID:11886494   PMID:11890967   PMID:11920898   PMID:11932568   PMID:11934840   PMID:11935372   PMID:11979399   PMID:11994543   PMID:11997181   PMID:11997182   PMID:12003376   PMID:12007531  
PMID:12009346   PMID:12010881   PMID:12021212   PMID:12031914   PMID:12037648   PMID:12047393   PMID:12050272   PMID:12053815   PMID:12054648   PMID:12062855   PMID:12073010   PMID:12084725  
PMID:12086939   PMID:12100031   PMID:12105280   PMID:12105281   PMID:12133430   PMID:12140788   PMID:12149424   PMID:12153737   PMID:12153747   PMID:12161541   PMID:12164325   PMID:12187394  
PMID:12189581   PMID:12189588   PMID:12199340   PMID:12200109   PMID:12211425   PMID:12213831   PMID:12215445   PMID:12218376   PMID:12218380   PMID:12230820   PMID:12324651   PMID:12354677  
PMID:12359239   PMID:12364439   PMID:12376297   PMID:12393845   PMID:12395215   PMID:12396559   PMID:12402972   PMID:12445819   PMID:12468269   PMID:12473840   PMID:12477932   PMID:12482897  
PMID:12484512   PMID:12504075   PMID:12512839   PMID:12519883   PMID:12529499   PMID:12535698   PMID:12552573   PMID:12556356   PMID:12582219   PMID:12590942   PMID:12606591   PMID:12609752  
PMID:12626032   PMID:12634431   PMID:12634434   PMID:12637980   PMID:12647279   PMID:12649069   PMID:12658369   PMID:12659876   PMID:12660261   PMID:12660878   PMID:12663125   PMID:12665505  
PMID:12668159   PMID:12679437   PMID:12679442   PMID:12679465   PMID:12687277   PMID:12690081   PMID:12690082   PMID:12690084   PMID:12690205   PMID:12694970   PMID:12702488   PMID:12707489  
PMID:12711260   PMID:12712467   PMID:12713059   PMID:12721156   PMID:12724016   PMID:12727933   PMID:12732844   PMID:12734209   PMID:12734788   PMID:12746757   PMID:12748507   PMID:12773447  
PMID:12779248   PMID:12788860   PMID:12788897   PMID:12805252   PMID:12805399   PMID:12824284   PMID:12829648   PMID:12843185   PMID:12857430   PMID:12865594   PMID:12880122   PMID:12890940  
PMID:12898374   PMID:12899679   PMID:12902351   PMID:12914539   PMID:12951634   PMID:12955866   PMID:12969578   PMID:14506615   PMID:14508221   PMID:14514348   PMID:14530607   PMID:14557480  
PMID:14561193   PMID:14567439   PMID:14599116   PMID:14618446   PMID:14623061   PMID:14636218   PMID:14671171   PMID:14681862   PMID:14683458   PMID:14715846   PMID:14715859   PMID:14715869  
PMID:14720418   PMID:14722031   PMID:14726256   PMID:14726619   PMID:14734764   PMID:14739054   PMID:14746672   PMID:14761840   PMID:14967380   PMID:14978271   PMID:14985328   PMID:14993217  
PMID:14993491   PMID:15012781   PMID:15016839   PMID:15037014   PMID:15042602   PMID:15044670   PMID:15052530   PMID:15055469   PMID:15055477   PMID:15059070   PMID:15063934   PMID:15070752  
PMID:15080789   PMID:15104370   PMID:15109449   PMID:15114526   PMID:15126241   PMID:15126576   PMID:15156414   PMID:15159310   PMID:15161768   PMID:15164950   PMID:15166121   PMID:15181040  
PMID:15219792   PMID:15231997   PMID:15232612   PMID:15240518   PMID:15240636   PMID:15254881   PMID:15256287   PMID:15277432   PMID:15292320   PMID:15300888   PMID:15307204   PMID:15324935  
PMID:15333744   PMID:15336575   PMID:15340103   PMID:15351798   PMID:15358050   PMID:15374699   PMID:15476444   PMID:15478389   PMID:15479128   PMID:15483214   PMID:15489334   PMID:15492859  
PMID:15533361   PMID:15542348   PMID:15544427   PMID:15576385   PMID:15582127   PMID:15588160   PMID:15588161   PMID:15588162   PMID:15607649   PMID:15624271   PMID:15648019   PMID:15653206  
PMID:15655824   PMID:15660115   PMID:15677474   PMID:15677491   PMID:15724240   PMID:15736103   PMID:15736116   PMID:15752580   PMID:15757855   PMID:15760495   PMID:15782310   PMID:15784704  
PMID:15784711   PMID:15795476   PMID:15797495   PMID:15803114   PMID:15808376   PMID:15811876   PMID:15820811   PMID:15821102   PMID:15855322   PMID:15863950   PMID:15864530   PMID:15882975  
PMID:15886225   PMID:15899045   PMID:15905315   PMID:15905523   PMID:15919610   PMID:15928249   PMID:15932773   PMID:15944217   PMID:15944317   PMID:15948239   PMID:15950978   PMID:15952938  
PMID:15964364   PMID:15972940   PMID:15978856   PMID:15983199   PMID:15983324   PMID:16009333   PMID:16048798   PMID:16113562   PMID:16115391   PMID:16135994   PMID:16136022   PMID:16136023  
PMID:16160698   PMID:16166222   PMID:16170833   PMID:16173077   PMID:16213321   PMID:16231024   PMID:16244494   PMID:16261186   PMID:16269446   PMID:16273205   PMID:16273647   PMID:16335797  
PMID:16343040   PMID:16344560   PMID:16352686   PMID:16359991   PMID:16412323   PMID:16434209   PMID:16497805   PMID:16504019   PMID:16533767   PMID:16534235   PMID:16552343   PMID:16571841  
PMID:16580675   PMID:16582918   PMID:16609020   PMID:16621515   PMID:16630717   PMID:16645018   PMID:16705078   PMID:16734391   PMID:16737635   PMID:16756630   PMID:16762576   PMID:16764962  
PMID:16774845   PMID:16786343   PMID:16793957   PMID:16799400   PMID:16804073   PMID:16874844   PMID:16883064   PMID:16912864   PMID:16932309   PMID:16936761   PMID:16988079   PMID:17003027  
PMID:17006991   PMID:17016694   PMID:17021346   PMID:17027833   PMID:17031518   PMID:17033261   PMID:17054914   PMID:17062814   PMID:17065346   PMID:17072067   PMID:17072262   PMID:17114907  
PMID:17118479   PMID:17122358   PMID:17125610   PMID:17141244   PMID:17148566   PMID:17184143   PMID:17186687   PMID:17192493   PMID:17207170   PMID:17207965   PMID:17212806   PMID:17215165  
PMID:17229323   PMID:17236585   PMID:17240472   PMID:17263085   PMID:17285096   PMID:17299381   PMID:17311679   PMID:17325687   PMID:17325688   PMID:17333366   PMID:17342078   PMID:17344214  
PMID:17344504   PMID:17347881   PMID:17350295   PMID:17362752   PMID:17365928   PMID:17374708   PMID:17404022   PMID:17433782   PMID:17436104   PMID:17443329   PMID:17445536   PMID:17465693  
PMID:17476615   PMID:17482294   PMID:17485120   PMID:17495032   PMID:17502770   PMID:17506117   PMID:17530161   PMID:17535427   PMID:17558893   PMID:17562334   PMID:17573060   PMID:17585917  
PMID:17587397   PMID:17591803   PMID:17604668   PMID:17609506   PMID:17615382   PMID:17617917   PMID:17618952   PMID:17636087   PMID:17641728   PMID:17653093   PMID:17666470   PMID:17679810  
PMID:17688465   PMID:17690262   PMID:17693966   PMID:17702747   PMID:17705690   PMID:17706208   PMID:17714215   PMID:17726024   PMID:17728393   PMID:17763005   PMID:17804136   PMID:17850913  
PMID:17852540   PMID:17879022   PMID:17884293   PMID:17895321   PMID:17895848   PMID:17913045   PMID:17923273   PMID:17938644   PMID:17957153   PMID:17957164   PMID:17965293   PMID:17965621  
PMID:17967974   PMID:17973271   PMID:17983356   PMID:17989154   PMID:17992641   PMID:18000612   PMID:18000615   PMID:18004080   PMID:18007248   PMID:18040853   PMID:18050615   PMID:18055420  
PMID:18059035   PMID:18075970   PMID:18082739   PMID:18173522   PMID:18196243   PMID:18198306   PMID:18202542   PMID:18204121   PMID:18221467   PMID:18222172   PMID:18226448   PMID:18234641  
PMID:18239579   PMID:18239655   PMID:18242170   PMID:18249383   PMID:18253488   PMID:18255222   PMID:18263705   PMID:18273796   PMID:18280066   PMID:18283238   PMID:18284032   PMID:18292831  
PMID:18299465   PMID:18299466   PMID:18299467   PMID:18308368   PMID:18316358   PMID:18334610   PMID:18349107   PMID:18356738   PMID:18356846   PMID:18357374   PMID:18358569   PMID:18359113  
PMID:18365276   PMID:18374411   PMID:18376301   PMID:18381870   PMID:18390991   PMID:18394743   PMID:18397989   PMID:18398047   PMID:18403928   PMID:18404969   PMID:18413223   PMID:18445667  
PMID:18445880   PMID:18448790   PMID:18460775   PMID:18463145   PMID:18464752   PMID:18466078   PMID:18468820   PMID:18473416   PMID:18473418   PMID:18474470   PMID:18490835   PMID:18492761  
PMID:18501706   PMID:18505467   PMID:18510797   PMID:18515891   PMID:18534061   PMID:18534134   PMID:18547265   PMID:18547340   PMID:18552206   PMID:18556347   PMID:18562232   PMID:18563679  
PMID:18568078   PMID:18577878   PMID:18579252   PMID:18584199   PMID:18595130   PMID:18596833   PMID:18604373   PMID:18619412   PMID:18624112   PMID:18624749   PMID:18633111   PMID:18636124  
PMID:18657007   PMID:18658052   PMID:18660489   PMID:18663995   PMID:18665387   PMID:18666562   PMID:18670142   PMID:18676680   PMID:18679012   PMID:18681781   PMID:18690407   PMID:18712185  
PMID:18716353   PMID:18716356   PMID:18725053   PMID:18753993   PMID:18756258   PMID:18761104   PMID:18769731   PMID:18779635   PMID:18787032   PMID:18787400   PMID:18814267   PMID:18819946  
PMID:18821585   PMID:18828732   PMID:18828733   PMID:18839053   PMID:18843191   PMID:18850205   PMID:18855010   PMID:18923972   PMID:18939509   PMID:18941624   PMID:18949391   PMID:18955751  
PMID:18957939   PMID:18958356   PMID:18958774   PMID:18958929   PMID:18978578   PMID:18979105   PMID:18979162   PMID:18988190   PMID:18992263   PMID:18997680   PMID:19001191   PMID:19004538  
PMID:19004982   PMID:19008309   PMID:19009296   PMID:19025443   PMID:19035456   PMID:19038795   PMID:19041299   PMID:19049975   PMID:19050975   PMID:19057526   PMID:19058789   PMID:19059729  
PMID:19073905   PMID:19075139   PMID:19077438   PMID:19079651   PMID:19086053   PMID:19088762   PMID:19112600   PMID:19127383   PMID:19132239   PMID:19141993   PMID:19142102   PMID:19150454  
PMID:19156569   PMID:19160571   PMID:19170196   PMID:19189686   PMID:19190112   PMID:19191138   PMID:19202898   PMID:19208597   PMID:19214176   PMID:19223200   PMID:19229195   PMID:19236341  
PMID:19241089   PMID:19249901   PMID:19250936   PMID:19267370   PMID:19273568   PMID:19299541   PMID:19301149   PMID:19322011   PMID:19332528   PMID:19337797   PMID:19340711   PMID:19367093  
PMID:19376162   PMID:19382181   PMID:19391127   PMID:19397477   PMID:19398923   PMID:19408304   PMID:19415994   PMID:19419266   PMID:19424644   PMID:19429119   PMID:19453261   PMID:19466592  
PMID:19488934   PMID:19491387   PMID:19492417   PMID:19502655   PMID:19506390   PMID:19520793   PMID:19524014   PMID:19531256   PMID:19539983   PMID:19559018   PMID:19576209   PMID:19589139  
PMID:19604093   PMID:19625176   PMID:19634986   PMID:19656776   PMID:19667019   PMID:19688109   PMID:19692168   PMID:19697123   PMID:19705241   PMID:19722179   PMID:19723917   PMID:19725899  
PMID:19732895   PMID:19747414   PMID:19751193   PMID:19754412   PMID:19760027   PMID:19772655   PMID:19775291   PMID:19781705   PMID:19794290   PMID:19804472   PMID:19838920   PMID:19841291  
PMID:19849856   PMID:19873684   PMID:19874574   PMID:19876927   PMID:19884906   PMID:19886360   PMID:19910644   PMID:19913121   PMID:19913442   PMID:19913498   PMID:19915520   PMID:19919993  
PMID:19922035   PMID:19940178   PMID:19941883   PMID:19942621   PMID:19952122   PMID:19955758   PMID:19959759   PMID:19965946   PMID:20008098   PMID:20019673   PMID:20038928   PMID:20047585  
PMID:20050765   PMID:20054230   PMID:20058257   PMID:20070288   PMID:20093782   PMID:20097762   PMID:20140086   PMID:20141628   PMID:20142631   PMID:20146878   PMID:20150891   PMID:20153489  
PMID:20171193   PMID:20183928   PMID:20185531   PMID:20197188   PMID:20200332   PMID:20201642   PMID:20203064   PMID:20204272   PMID:20215915   PMID:20220015   PMID:20222875   PMID:20232565  
PMID:20237279   PMID:20237333   PMID:20237929   PMID:20306680   PMID:20339829   PMID:20372853   PMID:20382689   PMID:20395593   PMID:20396799   PMID:20413520   PMID:20416077   PMID:20452482  
PMID:20453000   PMID:20455195   PMID:20462372   PMID:20465992   PMID:20468064   PMID:20482813   PMID:20484458   PMID:20492333   PMID:20497020   PMID:20500101   PMID:20502402   PMID:20504252  
PMID:20517895   PMID:20519646   PMID:20520958   PMID:20538960   PMID:20541434   PMID:20546344   PMID:20553219   PMID:20562674   PMID:20569445   PMID:20587319   PMID:20589829   PMID:20591628  
PMID:20597904   PMID:20628086   PMID:20633033   PMID:20642810   PMID:20664554   PMID:20673868   PMID:20688883   PMID:20712424   PMID:20713036   PMID:20717042   PMID:20724651   PMID:20727862  
PMID:20728234   PMID:20733583   PMID:20734064   PMID:20816195   PMID:20825374   PMID:20826994   PMID:20841449   PMID:20842437   PMID:20873117   PMID:20886658   PMID:20945385   PMID:21042325  
PMID:21045260   PMID:21046482   PMID:21056886   PMID:21099209   PMID:21114131   PMID:21118367   PMID:21119198   PMID:21123564   PMID:21146171   PMID:21173433   PMID:21176234   PMID:21176905  
PMID:21178976   PMID:21195702   PMID:21207066   PMID:21209035   PMID:21227945   PMID:21228692   PMID:21254741   PMID:21258826   PMID:21263187   PMID:21287461   PMID:21294754   PMID:21312272  
PMID:21315000   PMID:21329629   PMID:21334312   PMID:21340571   PMID:21346363   PMID:21347230   PMID:21349112   PMID:21358603   PMID:21385539   PMID:21407103   PMID:21418891   PMID:21421855  
PMID:21449093   PMID:21465273   PMID:21474811   PMID:21498926   PMID:21512510   PMID:21521316   PMID:21526991   PMID:21527729   PMID:21554807   PMID:21558317   PMID:21562093   PMID:21569107  
PMID:21574190   PMID:21584748   PMID:21600576   PMID:21602135   PMID:21616679   PMID:21631924   PMID:21632080   PMID:21632143   PMID:21633502   PMID:21643812   PMID:21659488   PMID:21675251  
PMID:21680707   PMID:21697251   PMID:21704006   PMID: