Tlr9 (toll-like receptor 9) - Rat Genome Database

Send us a Message

Submit Data |  Help |  Video Tutorials |  News |  Publications |  Download |  REST API |  Citing RGD |  Contact   
Gene: Tlr9 (toll-like receptor 9) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Tlr9
Name: toll-like receptor 9
RGD ID: 631352
Description: Enables unmethylated CpG binding activity. Involved in several processes, including cellular response to lipopolysaccharide; microglial cell activation; and toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Located in plasma membrane. Biomarker of acute necrotizing pancreatitis; mastitis; and perinatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in several diseases, including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis; cystic fibrosis; glomerulonephritis (multiple); hepatitis B; and lung disease (multiple). Orthologous to human TLR9 (toll like receptor 9); PARTICIPATES IN Toll-like receptor signaling pathway; Chagas disease pathway; malaria pathway; INTERACTS WITH 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid; acrylamide; Ammothamnine.
Type: protein-coding
RGD Orthologs
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.28106,864,680 - 106,868,796 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl8106,864,680 - 106,868,796 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx8112,489,116 - 112,493,226 (+)NCBIRnor_SHR
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.08110,688,285 - 110,692,395 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSP
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.08108,531,077 - 108,535,188 (+)NCBIRnor_WKY
Rnor_6.08114,916,122 - 114,920,171 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl8114,916,122 - 114,920,171 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.08114,279,020 - 114,283,069 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
Celera8106,185,754 - 106,189,869 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map8q32NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
Achlorhydria  (ISO)
acute kidney failure  (ISO)
acute necrotizing pancreatitis  (IEP)
adult respiratory distress syndrome  (ISO)
alcoholic liver cirrhosis  (ISO)
allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis  (ISO)
allergic conjunctivitis  (ISO)
allergic rhinitis  (ISO)
anogenital venereal wart  (ISO)
asthma  (ISO)
bacterial pneumonia  (ISO)
Brain Injuries  (ISO)
breast cancer  (ISO)
bronchiolitis obliterans  (ISO)
cardiovascular system disease  (ISO)
cervix uteri carcinoma in situ  (ISO)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury  (ISO)
chronic granulomatous disease  (ISO)
Chronic Hepatitis B  (ISO)
Chronic Hepatitis C  (ISO)
chronic kidney disease  (ISS)
Chronic Periodontitis  (ISO)
crescentic glomerulonephritis  (ISO)
Crohn's disease  (ISO)
cutaneous leishmaniasis  (ISO)
cystic fibrosis  (ISO)
dermatomyositis  (ISO)
Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis  (IEP)
Granuloma, Foreign-Body  (ISO)
Hearing Loss  (ISO)
hepatitis B  (ISO)
hepatitis C  (ISO)
hepatocellular carcinoma  (ISO)
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis  (IEP)
herpes simplex virus keratitis  (ISO)
Hypergammaglobulinemia  (ISO)
IgA glomerulonephritis  (ISO)
Inflammation  (ISO)
interstitial lung disease  (ISO)
Klebsiella Infections  (ISO)
Legionnaires' disease  (ISO)
Liver Injury  (ISO)
Lung Neoplasms  (ISO)
lung non-small cell carcinoma  (ISO)
lupus nephritis  (ISO)
Malarial Anemia  (ISO)
mastitis  (IEP)
membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis  (ISO)
non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  (ISO)
non-alcoholic steatohepatitis  (ISO)
Oral Lichen Planus  (ISO)
papillomavirus infectious disease  (ISO)
perinatal necrotizing enterocolitis  (IEP)
Pneumococcal Infections  (ISO)
Pneumococcal Meningitis  (ISO)
primary biliary cholangitis  (ISO)
proteinuria  (ISO)
pulmonary fibrosis  (ISO)
pulmonary tuberculosis  (ISO)
renal cell carcinoma  (ISO)
Respiratory Sounds  (ISO)
Respiratory Tract Granuloma  (ISO)
Schistosomiasis Mansoni  (ISO)
sinusitis  (ISO)
squamous cell carcinoma  (ISO)
systemic lupus erythematosus  (ISO)
Tracheoesophageal Fistula  (ISO)
Transplant Rejection  (ISO)
Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms  (ISO)
trypanosomiasis  (ISO)
ureteral obstruction  (ISO)
viral pneumonia  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
activation of innate immune response  (ISO)
cellular response to chloroquine  (ISO)
cellular response to lipopolysaccharide  (IEP)
cellular response to metal ion  (IEP)
defense response to Gram-negative bacterium  (ISO)
defense response to virus  (IBA,IMP,ISO)
I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling  (IBA,ISO)
I-kappaB phosphorylation  (ISO)
immune response  (ISO)
innate immune response  (IEA)
maintenance of gastrointestinal epithelium  (ISO)
male gonad development  (IEP)
microglial cell activation  (IDA)
MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway  (ISO)
negative regulation of ATPase-coupled calcium transmembrane transporter activity  (ISO)
negative regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade  (ISO)
negative regulation of interleukin-6 production  (ISO)
negative regulation of interleukin-8 production  (ISO)
negative regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity  (ISO)
negative regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway  (ISO)
positive regulation of autophagy  (IDA)
positive regulation of B cell activation  (ISO)
positive regulation of B cell proliferation  (ISO)
positive regulation of chemokine production  (ISO)
positive regulation of cytokine production  (ISO)
positive regulation of gene expression  (ISO)
positive regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production  (ISO)
positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling  (ISO)
positive regulation of immunoglobulin production  (ISO)
positive regulation of interferon-alpha production  (ISO)
positive regulation of interferon-beta production  (ISO)
positive regulation of interleukin-10 production  (ISO)
positive regulation of interleukin-12 production  (ISO)
positive regulation of interleukin-18 production  (ISO)
positive regulation of interleukin-6 production  (IBA,ISO)
positive regulation of interleukin-8 production  (ISO)
positive regulation of JUN kinase activity  (ISO)
positive regulation of MAPK cascade  (ISO)
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity  (IBA,ISO)
positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling  (ISO)
positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase biosynthetic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway  (ISO)
positive regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway  (ISO)
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  (ISO)
positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production  (ISO)
positive regulation of type II interferon production  (ISO)
regulation of B cell activation  (ISO)
regulation of B cell differentiation  (ISO)
regulation of dendritic cell cytokine production  (ISO)
regulation of inflammatory response  (ISO)
regulation of protein phosphorylation  (ISO)
regulation of toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway  (ISO)
response to virus  (ISO)
toll-like receptor signaling pathway  (IBA,IDA)

Cellular Component

Molecular Function

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Toll-like receptor 9 acts at an early stage in host defence against pneumococcal infection. Albiger B, etal., Cell Microbiol. 2007 Mar;9(3):633-44. Epub 2006 Sep 27.
2. TLR9 Mediates Remote Liver Injury following Severe Renal Ischemia Reperfusion. Bakker PJ, etal., PLoS One. 2015 Sep 11;10(9):e0137511. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0137511. eCollection 2015.
3. TLR4 links podocytes with the innate immune system to mediate glomerular injury. Banas MC, etal., J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 Apr;19(4):704-13. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2007040395. Epub 2008 Feb 6.
4. Hepatic expression of toll-like receptors 3, 4, and 9 in primary biliary cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis C. Benias PC, etal., Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2012 Oct;36(5):448-54. doi: 10.1016/j.clinre.2012.07.001. Epub 2012 Sep 29.
5. Involvement of renal tubular Toll-like receptor 9 in the development of tubulointerstitial injury in systemic lupus. Benigni A, etal., Arthritis Rheum. 2007 May;56(5):1569-78.
6. Influence of perineurial cells and Toll-like receptors 2 and 9 on Herpes simplex type 1 entry to the central nervous system in rat encephalitis. Bereczky-Veress B, etal., PLoS One. 2010 Aug 27;5(8):e12350.
7. Comparative proteomics study reveals that bacterial CpG motifs induce tumor cell autophagy in vitro and in vivo. Bertin S, etal., Mol Cell Proteomics. 2008 Jul 15.
8. Toll-like receptor 9 regulates the lung macrophage phenotype and host immunity in murine pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila. Bhan U, etal., Infect Immun. 2008 Jul;76(7):2895-904. Epub 2008 Apr 21.
9. TLR9 is required for protective innate immunity in Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia: role of dendritic cells. Bhan U, etal., J Immunol. 2007 Sep 15;179(6):3937-46.
10. Cooperative interactions between TLR4 and TLR9 regulate interleukin 23 and 17 production in a murine model of gram negative bacterial pneumonia. Bhan U, etal., PLoS One. 2010 Mar 26;5(3):e9896.
11. Identification of Toll-like receptors in the rat (Rattus norvegicus): messenger RNA expression in the male reproductive tract under conditions of androgen variation. Biswas B, etal., Am J Reprod Immunol. 2009 Oct;62(4):243-52. Epub 2009 Aug 24.
12. A TLR2 polymorphism is associated with type 1 diabetes and allergic asthma. Bjornvold M, etal., Genes Immun. 2009 Mar;10(2):181-7. Epub 2009 Jan 15.
13. Expression of Toll-like receptors in healthy and allergic conjunctiva. Bonini S, etal., Ophthalmology. 2005 Sep;112(9):1528; discussion 1548-9.
14. Differential regulation of Toll-like receptor mRNAs in experimental murine central nervous system infections. Bottcher T, etal., Neurosci Lett. 2003 Jun 19;344(1):17-20.
15. TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 are differentially modulated in liver lethally injured from BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice during Trypanosoma cruzi acute infection. Carrera-Silva EA, etal., Mol Immunol. 2008 Aug;45(13):3580-8. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2008.05.004. Epub 2008 Jun 18.
16. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor genes and susceptibility to infections in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Carvalho A, etal., Exp Hematol. 2009 Sep;37(9):1022-9. Epub 2009 Jun 17.
17. Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor genes and susceptibility to pulmonary aspergillosis. Carvalho A, etal., J Infect Dis. 2008 Feb 15;197(4):618-21.
18. Blockade of TLR9 signaling in B cells impaired anti-dsDNA antibody production in mice induced by activated syngenic lymphocyte-derived DNA immunization. Chen M, etal., Mol Immunol. 2011 Jul;48(12-13):1532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2011.04.016. Epub 2011 May 18.
19. Toll-like receptor 9 polymorphisms and Hepatitis B virus clearance in Moroccan chronic carriers. Chihab H, etal., Gene. 2019 Mar 1;687:212-218. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2018.11.041. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
20. Toll-like receptor 7 and TLR9 dictate autoantibody specificity and have opposing inflammatory and regulatory roles in a murine model of lupus. Christensen SR, etal., Immunity. 2006 Sep;25(3):417-28.
21. Toll-like receptor expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells in asthmatics; implications for asthma management. Chun E, etal., J Clin Immunol. 2010 May;30(3):459-64. Epub 2010 Jan 14.
22. Hepatitis C may enhance key amplifiers of psoriasis. Chun K, etal., J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2017 Apr;31(4):672-678. doi: 10.1111/jdv.13578. Epub 2016 May 17.
23. Direct evidence that toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) functionally binds plasmid DNA by specific cytosine-phosphate-guanine motif recognition. Cornelie S, etal., J Biol Chem 2004 Apr 9;279(15):15124-9. Epub 2004 Jan 20.
24. Both bone marrow-derived and non-bone marrow-derived cells contribute to AIM2 and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a MyD88-dependent manner in dietary steatohepatitis. Csak T, etal., Liver Int. 2014 Oct;34(9):1402-13. doi: 10.1111/liv.12537. Epub 2014 Apr 17.
25. Association between toll-like receptor expression and human papillomavirus type 16 persistence. Daud II, etal., Int J Cancer. 2011 Feb 15;128(4):879-86. doi: 10.1002/ijc.25400.
26. Expression of TLR4 and TLR9 mRNA in Lewis rats with experimental allergic neuritis. Deng YN and Zhou WB, Neuroimmunomodulation. 2007;14(6):337-43. Epub 2008 Apr 23.
27. Human lung cancer cells express functionally active Toll-like receptor 9. Droemann D, etal., Respir Res. 2005 Jan 4;6:1.
28. Evaluation of neonatal Toll-like receptors 3 (c.1377C/T) and 9 (G2848A) gene polymorphisms in HBV intrauterine transmission susceptibility. Gao Y, etal., Epidemiol Infect. 2015 Jul;143(9):1868-75. doi: 10.1017/S0950268814002921. Epub 2014 Nov 12.
29. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
30. A multi-centre study of candidate genes for wheeze and allergy: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase 2. Genuneit J, etal., Clin Exp Allergy. 2009 Dec;39(12):1875-88.
31. Systemic inflammation and liver injury following hemorrhagic shock and peripheral tissue trauma involve functional TLR9 signaling on bone marrow-derived cells and parenchymal cells. Gill R, etal., Shock. 2011 Feb;35(2):164-70. doi: 10.1097/SHK.0b013e3181eddcab.
32. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
33. Combinations of TLR and NOD2 ligands stimulate rat microglial P2X4R expression. Guo LH, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Oct 27;349(3):1156-62. Epub 2006 Sep 1.
34. Dysregulation of innate immune receptors on neutrophils in chronic granulomatous disease. Hartl D, etal., J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 Feb;121(2):375-382.e9. Epub 2007 Dec 26.
35. Effects of oligodeoxynucleotide with CCT repeats on chronic graft versus host disease induced experimental lupus nephritis in mice. He C, etal., Clin Immunol. 2011 Sep;140(3):300-6. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2011.04.016. Epub 2011 May 4.
36. Therapeutic effect of leflunomide on the development of experimental lupus nephritis in mice. He C, etal., Rheumatol Int. 2012 Mar;32(3):633-8. doi: 10.1007/s00296-010-1630-z. Epub 2010 Dec 3.
37. Toll-like receptors and their adaptors are regulated in macrophages after phagocytosis of lipopolysaccharide-coated titanium particles. Hirayama T, etal., J Orthop Res. 2011 Feb 9. doi: 10.1002/jor.21369.
38. A novel small-molecule enantiomeric analogue of traditional (-)-morphinans has specific TLR9 antagonist properties and reduces sterile inflammation-induced organ damage. Hoque R, etal., J Immunol. 2013 Apr 15;190(8):4297-304. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1202184. Epub 2013 Mar 15.
39. Reduced toll-like receptor 9 expression on peripheral CD14+ monocytes of chronic hepatitis B patients and its restoration by effective therapy. Huang YW, etal., Antivir Ther. 2014;19(7):637-43. doi: 10.3851/IMP2762. Epub 2014 Mar 12.
40. Toll-like receptor 9 mediates CpG oligonucleotide-induced cellular invasion. Ilvesaro JM, etal., Mol Cancer Res. 2008 Oct;6(10):1534-43. doi: 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-07-2005.
41. Acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice is dependent on Tlr9 and the Nalp3 inflammasome. Imaeda AB, etal., J Clin Invest. 2009 Feb;119(2):305-14. doi: 10.1172/JCI35958. Epub 2009 Jan 26.
42. TLR9 activation is a key event for the maintenance of a mycobacterial antigen-elicited pulmonary granulomatous response. Ito T, etal., Eur J Immunol. 2007 Oct;37(10):2847-55.
43. Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes associated with development of bronchiolitis obliterans after lung transplantation. Kastelijn EA, etal., J Heart Lung Transplant. 2010 Jun;29(6):665-71. Epub 2010 Mar 15.
44. Expression of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 in dermatomyositis and polymyositis. Kim GT, etal., Clin Rheumatol. 2010 Mar;29(3):273-9. doi: 10.1007/s10067-009-1316-7. Epub 2009 Dec 2.
45. CpG oligonucleotide activates Toll-like receptor 9 and causes lung inflammation in vivo. Knuefermann P, etal., Respir Res. 2007 Oct 9;8:72.
46. A comprehensive genotype-phenotype interaction of different Toll-like receptor variations in a renal transplant cohort. Kruger B, etal., Clin Sci (Lond). 2010 Dec;119(12):535-44. doi: 10.1042/CS20100190.
47. Pathogen recognition by the innate immune system. Kumar H, etal., Int Rev Immunol. 2011 Feb;30(1):16-34.
48. Toll-like receptors and CD14 genes polymorphisms and susceptibility to asthma in Tunisian children. Lachheb J, etal., Tissue Antigens. 2008 May;71(5):417-25. Epub 2008 Feb 28.
49. Comprehensive genetic assessment of a functional TLR9 promoter polymorphism: no replicable association with asthma or asthma-related phenotypes. Lange NE, etal., BMC Med Genet. 2011 Feb 15;12:26.
50. TLR4 and TLR9 Expression in Different Phenotypes of Rhinitis. Lauriello M, etal., Int J Otolaryngol. 2012;2012:925164. doi: 10.1155/2012/925164. Epub 2012 Apr 10.
51. Increased toll-like receptor 9 expression in cervical neoplasia. Lee JW, etal., Mol Carcinog. 2007 Nov;46(11):941-7.
52. Small interfering RNA targeting Toll-like receptor 9 protects mice against polymicrobial septic acute kidney injury. Liu L, etal., Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2012;122(1-2):51-61. doi: 10.1159/000346953. Epub 2013 Mar 15.
53. Changes in intestinal Toll-like receptors and cytokines precede histological injury in a rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis. Liu Y, etal., Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009 Sep;297(3):G442-50. Epub 2009 Jul 16.
54. The T-1237C polymorphism of the Toll-like receptor-9 gene is associated with chronic kidney disease in a Han Chinese population. Lu KC, etal., Tohoku J Exp Med. 2011;225(2):109-16.
55. Neutrophil Toll-Like Receptor 9 Expression and the Systemic Inflammatory Response in Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Failure. Manakkat Vijay GK, etal., Crit Care Med. 2016 Jan;44(1):43-53. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001309.
56. Immunohistochemical detection of toll-like receptor-2, -4 and -9 in exocrine glands associated with rat alimentary tract. Mantani Y, etal., J Vet Med Sci. 2012 Nov;74(11):1429-38. Epub 2012 Jun 19.
57. [TLR9 expression is positively correlated with the levels of CD38, HLA-DR and CD95 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells in chronic HBV infected patients]. Mao X, etal., Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2016 May;32(5):660-5.
58. TLR9 is expressed in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and its activation promotes in vitro myofibroblast differentiation. Meneghin A, etal., Histochem Cell Biol. 2008 Nov;130(5):979-92. Epub 2008 Jul 17.
59. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
60. TLR9 is up-regulated in human and murine NASH: pivotal role in inflammatory recruitment and cell survival. Mridha AR, etal., Clin Sci (Lond). 2017 Jul 24;131(16):2145-2159. doi: 10.1042/CS20160838. Print 2017 Aug 15.
61. Polymorphisms in the Fc gamma receptor IIIA and Toll-like receptor 9 are associated with protection against severe malarial anemia and changes in circulating gamma interferon levels. Munde EO, etal., Infect Immun. 2012 Dec;80(12):4435-43. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00945-12. Epub 2012 Oct 8.
62. Increase in NF-kappaB binding affinity of the variant C allele of the toll-like receptor 9 -1237T/C polymorphism is associated with Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric disease. Ng MT, etal., Infect Immun. 2010 Mar;78(3):1345-52. Epub 2009 Dec 28.
63. Exacerbated autoimmunity in the absence of TLR9 in MRL.Fas(lpr) mice depends on Ifnar1. Nickerson KM, etal., J Immunol. 2013 Apr 15;190(8):3889-94. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1203525. Epub 2013 Mar 6.
64. Glomerular expression of toll-like receptor-9 in lupus nephritis but not in normal kidneys: implications for the amplification of the inflammatory response. Papadimitraki ED, etal., Lupus. 2009 Aug;18(9):831-5. doi: 10.1177/0961203309103054.
65. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
66. Association between -1486 T>C and +1174 G>A single nucleotide polymorphisms in TLR9 gene and severity of lupus nephritis. Ramachandran R, etal., Indian J Nephrol. 2012 Mar;22(2):125-9. doi: 10.4103/0971-4065.97133.
67. Sinonasal epithelial cell expression of toll-like receptor 9 is decreased in chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps. Ramanathan M Jr, etal., Am J Rhinol. 2007 Jan-Feb;21(1):110-6.
68. Th2 cytokines associated with chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps down-regulate the antimicrobial immune function of human sinonasal epithelial cells. Ramanathan M Jr, etal., Am J Rhinol. 2008 Mar-Apr;22(2):115-21.
69. Intranasal CpG therapy attenuated experimental fungal asthma in a TLR9-dependent and -independent manner. Ramaprakash H and Hogaboam CM, Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;152(2):98-112. Epub 2009 Dec 16.
70. Toll-like receptor 9 modulates immune responses to Aspergillus fumigatus conidia in immunodeficient and allergic mice. Ramaprakash H, etal., Infect Immun. 2009 Jan;77(1):108-19. Epub 2008 Oct 20.
71. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
72. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
73. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
74. Comprehensive gene review and curation RGD comprehensive gene curation
75. Expression of toll-like receptors 2, 4 and 9 is increased in gingival tissue from patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis. Rojo-Botello NR, etal., J Periodontal Res. 2012 Feb;47(1):62-73. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.2011.01405.x. Epub 2011 Aug 17.
76. Absent Toll-like receptor-9 expression predicts poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma. Ronkainen H, etal., J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2011 Sep 19;30:84. doi: 10.1186/1756-9966-30-84.
77. Innate recognition network driving herpes simplex virus-induced corneal immunopathology: role of the toll pathway in early inflammatory events in stromal keratitis. Sarangi PP, etal., J Virol. 2007 Oct;81(20):11128-38. Epub 2007 Aug 8.
78. Mechanistic investigation of immunosuppression in patients with condyloma acuminata. Shi YJ, etal., Mol Med Rep. 2013 Aug;8(2):480-6. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2013.1511. Epub 2013 Jun 6.
79. TLR4 and TLR9 are induced in oral lichen planus. Siponen M, etal., J Oral Pathol Med. 2012 Nov;41(10):741-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2012.01169.x. Epub 2012 Jun 5.
80. Dominance of E. coli phagocytosis over LPS in the inflammatory response of microglia. Sivagnanam V, etal., J Neuroimmunol. 2010 Oct 8;227(1-2):111-9. Epub 2010 Jul 22.
81. Toll-like receptor signaling and SIGIRR in renal fibrosis upon unilateral ureteral obstruction. Skuginna V, etal., PLoS One. 2011 Apr 22;6(4):e19204. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019204.
82. Association studies of Toll-like receptor gene polymorphisms with allograft survival in renal transplant recipients of North India. Srivastava P, etal., Clin Transplant. 2012 Jul-Aug;26(4):581-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-0012.2011.01577.x. Epub 2012 Jan 17.
83. Effect of probiotic treatment on deranged neutrophil function and cytokine responses in patients with compensated alcoholic cirrhosis. Stadlbauer V, etal., J Hepatol. 2008 Jun;48(6):945-51. Epub 2008 Mar 25.
84. Genes that determine immunology and inflammation modify the basic defect of impaired ion conductance in cystic fibrosis epithelia. Stanke F, etal., J Med Genet. 2011 Jan;48(1):24-31. Epub 2010 Sep 12.
85. Toll-like receptor 9 enhances nephritogenic immunity and glomerular leukocyte recruitment, exacerbating experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis. Summers SA, etal., Am J Pathol. 2010 Nov;177(5):2234-44. doi: 10.2353/ajpath.2010.100153. Epub 2010 Sep 16.
86. Toll-like receptor 9 affects severity of IgA nephropathy. Suzuki H, etal., J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 Dec;19(12):2384-95. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2007121311. Epub 2008 Sep 5.
87. Toll-like receptors in the interface membrane around loosening total hip replacement implants. Takagi M, etal., J Biomed Mater Res A. 2007 Jun 15;81(4):1017-26.
88. The expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 in the epidermis of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Tuon FF, etal., J Dermatol Sci. 2010 Jul;59(1):55-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2010.04.009. Epub 2010 May 20.
89. Endosomal toll-like receptor gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to HIV and HCV co-infection - Differential influence in individuals with distinct ethnic background. Valverde-Villegas JM, etal., Hum Immunol. 2017 Feb;78(2):221-226. doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2017.01.001. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
90. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 are highly associated with hearing loss in survivors of bacterial meningitis. van Well GT, etal., PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e35837. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035837. Epub 2012 May 25.
91. Variants in toll-like receptors 2 and 9 influence susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in Caucasians, African-Americans, and West Africans. Velez DR, etal., Hum Genet. 2010 Jan;127(1):65-73. Epub 2009 Sep 22.
92. Association study of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the exon 2 region of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) gene with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus among Chinese. Xu CJ, etal., Mol Biol Rep. 2009 Nov;36(8):2245-8. Epub 2009 Jan 7.
93. Toll-like receptor 7 and 9 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with chronic hepatitis B and related hepatocellular carcinoma. Xu N, etal., Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2008 Feb;29(2):239-44. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-7254.2008.00711.x.
94. Toll-like receptor 9 is expressed in rat pancreas and is involved in cerulein-induced pancreatitis. Zeng YJ, etal., Pancreas. 2008 Mar;36(2):212-4.
95. Phosphorothioate-modified CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) induces apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells independent of TLR9. Zhang Y, etal., Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2014 Apr;63(4):357-67. doi: 10.1007/s00262-014-1518-y. Epub 2014 Jan 23.
96. Increased expression of Toll-like receptors 4 and 9 in human lung cancer. Zhang YB, etal., Mol Biol Rep. 2009 Jul;36(6):1475-81. Epub 2008 Sep 2.
97. Expression of toll-like receptor 9 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with different hepatitis B and C viral loads. Zhou J, etal., J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2009 Jun;29(3):313-7. doi: 10.1007/s11596-009-0310-2. Epub 2009 Jun 10.
98. Association of TLR9 gene polymorphisms with lupus nephritis in a Chinese Han population. Zhou XJ, etal., Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2010 May-Jun;28(3):397-400. Epub 2010 Jun 23.
99. Protective effect of CpG-DNA against mastitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus infection in a rat model. Zhu YM, etal., Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Apr;7(4):435-43. Epub 2006 Nov 27.
100. TLR9-signaling pathways are involved in Kilham rat virus-induced autoimmune diabetes in the biobreeding diabetes-resistant rat. Zipris D, etal., J Immunol. 2007 Jan 15;178(2):693-701.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:11130078   PMID:12925853   PMID:14993594   PMID:15356140   PMID:15723075   PMID:16098606   PMID:16286015   PMID:16415873   PMID:17128265   PMID:17475835   PMID:18203139   PMID:18250457  
PMID:18305481   PMID:18820679   PMID:18931679   PMID:19047410   PMID:19740627   PMID:20847273   PMID:21402738   PMID:21747311   PMID:21864114   PMID:21870333   PMID:22427638   PMID:23109291  
PMID:23479602   PMID:23826189   PMID:23857366   PMID:24091496   PMID:24409285   PMID:24535292   PMID:24610369   PMID:24740015   PMID:25384124   PMID:25686612   PMID:25910936   PMID:25917084  
PMID:26934958   PMID:28647749   PMID:28990073   PMID:29128901   PMID:29348267   PMID:29445737   PMID:29929196   PMID:29992753   PMID:30106134   PMID:30577532   PMID:33381567   PMID:34889455  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.28106,864,680 - 106,868,796 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl8106,864,680 - 106,868,796 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx8112,489,116 - 112,493,226 (+)NCBIRnor_SHR
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.08110,688,285 - 110,692,395 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSP
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.08108,531,077 - 108,535,188 (+)NCBIRnor_WKY
Rnor_6.08114,916,122 - 114,920,171 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl8114,916,122 - 114,920,171 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.08114,279,020 - 114,283,069 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
Celera8106,185,754 - 106,189,869 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map8q32NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38352,221,080 - 52,225,645 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl352,221,080 - 52,225,645 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37352,255,096 - 52,259,661 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36352,230,138 - 52,235,219 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 34352,230,137 - 52,233,247NCBI
Celera352,234,410 - 52,239,491 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map3p21.2NCBI
HuRef352,317,258 - 52,322,341 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1352,207,624 - 52,212,707 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.0352,253,966 - 52,258,531 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm399106,099,797 - 106,104,075 (+)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl9106,099,797 - 106,104,082 (+)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm389106,222,598 - 106,226,876 (+)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl9106,222,598 - 106,226,883 (+)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv379106,124,929 - 106,129,207 (+)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv369106,080,699 - 106,084,977 (+)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera9105,848,890 - 105,853,167 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map9F1NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_0049555323,828,775 - 3,832,582 (-)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_0049555323,828,645 - 3,832,699 (-)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.12037,529,322 - 37,547,117 (+)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl2037,529,401 - 37,539,957 (+)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl2037,542,340 - 37,547,114 (+)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha2037,510,887 - 37,521,504 (+)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha2037,523,889 - 37,528,666 (+)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.02037,879,856 - 37,897,682 (+)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl2037,892,901 - 37,897,671 (+)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl2037,879,518 - 37,890,512 (+)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.12037,243,558 - 37,254,192 (+)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UMICH_Zoey_3.12037,256,577 - 37,261,354 (+)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.02037,665,125 - 37,669,902 (+)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.02037,652,111 - 37,662,740 (+)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.02037,950,172 - 37,954,949 (+)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.02037,936,949 - 37,947,576 (+)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl1334,349,609 - 34,357,673 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.11334,353,444 - 34,370,990 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.21337,634,343 - 37,652,036 (+)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3


Variants in Tlr9
28 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:63
Count of miRNA genes:58
Interacting mature miRNAs:61
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
1581557Eae16Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 163.8nervous system integrity trait (VT:0010566)experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis incidence/prevalence measurement (CMO:0001046)88462195110921472Rat
631650Stl6Serum triglyceride level QTL 640.0019blood triglyceride amount (VT:0002644)plasma triglyceride level (CMO:0000548)810378157112202585Rat
1554321Bmd3Bone mineral density QTL 37.90.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)840952565123900184Rat
70197BpQTLcluster8Blood pressure QTL cluster 83.482arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)846531639119088624Rat
70197BpQTLcluster8Blood pressure QTL cluster 83.482arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)pulse pressure (CMO:0000292)846531639119088624Rat
70197BpQTLcluster8Blood pressure QTL cluster 83.482arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)absolute change in systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000607)846531639119088624Rat
70197BpQTLcluster8Blood pressure QTL cluster 83.482arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)846531639119088624Rat
1358912Bw51Body weight QTL 512.95body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)851351728107062046Rat
2303171Bp331Blood pressure QTL 3315.570.005arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)861290298119084929Rat
631653Bp125Blood pressure QTL 1253.3arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)866142385111142385Rat
631210Bw3Body weight QTL35.9mesenteric fat pad mass (VT:0010427)mesenteric fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000654)869349194112783834Rat
1300171Bp184Blood pressure QTL 1843.66arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)blood pressure time series experimental set point of the baroreceptor response (CMO:0002593)870513503118219066Rat
8694446Bw170Body weight QTL 17012.070.001retroperitoneal fat pad mass (VT:0010430)retroperitoneal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000635)871888757116888757Rat
9590292Uminl3Urine mineral level QTL 33.620.001urine mineral amount (VT:0015086)urine electrolyte level (CMO:0000593)871888757116888757Rat
8694200Abfw4Abdominal fat weight QTL 49.070.001visceral adipose mass (VT:0010063)abdominal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000095)871888757116888757Rat
8694392Bw161Body weight QTL 1618.060.001body lean mass (VT:0010483)lean tissue morphological measurement (CMO:0002184)871888757116888757Rat
1549909Stresp11Stress response QTL 116.830.0019stress-related behavior trait (VT:0010451)number of approaches toward negative stimulus before onset of defensive burying response (CMO:0001960)873473045118473045Rat
2300181Bmd55Bone mineral density QTL 555.70.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)876468691121468691Rat
61437Cia6Collagen induced arthritis QTL 6joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)882460758122812818Rat
2313400Anxrr25Anxiety related response QTL 25aggression-related behavior trait (VT:0015014)tameness/aggressiveness composite score (CMO:0002136)889265192114019816Rat
738011Anxrr9Anxiety related response QTL 96.1exploratory behavior trait (VT:0010471)number of entries into a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000960)893535351123900184Rat
1358893Bp263Blood pressure QTL 2635.01arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)893965141123900184Rat
1358903Bp252Blood pressure QTL 25270.0001arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)893965141123900184Rat
738014Anxrr15Anxiety related response QTL 153.60.005locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of experiment time spent in a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000958)895718998123900184Rat
2300182Bmd56Bone mineral density QTL 565.4femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)895718998123900184Rat
724539Cm19Cardiac mass QTL 192.6heart mass (VT:0007028)calculated heart weight (CMO:0000073)8100149864120994388Rat
631217Activ1Activity QTL 115.9voluntary movement trait (VT:0003491)number of photobeam interruptions in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0001517)8102370617108923645Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.28106,868,325 - 106,868,644 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.08114,919,768 - 114,920,086NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.08114,282,666 - 114,282,984UniSTSRnor5.0
Celera8106,189,400 - 106,189,718UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.28106,868,367 - 106,868,627 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.08114,919,810 - 114,920,069NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.08114,282,708 - 114,282,967UniSTSRnor5.0
Celera8106,189,442 - 106,189,701UniSTS


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 1 5
Low 1 2 12 13 16 11 8 11
Below cutoff 1 31 39 35 1 35 7 10 56 24 30 7


Reference Sequences
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000074194   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000066453
RefSeq Status:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl8106,864,680 - 106,868,796 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl8114,916,122 - 114,920,171 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_198131   ⟹   NP_937764
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.28106,864,680 - 106,868,796 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.08114,916,122 - 114,920,171 (+)NCBI
Rnor_5.08114,279,020 - 114,283,069 (+)NCBI
Celera8106,185,754 - 106,189,869 (+)RGD
Protein Sequences
Protein RefSeqs NP_937764 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
GenBank Protein AAO62342 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAO91938 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAO93109 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAW50953 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL77326 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
Reference Sequences
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_937764   ⟸   NM_198131
- Peptide Label: precursor
- UniProtKB: Q6Y1S0 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000066453   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000074194
Protein Domains

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-M0RAA8-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold M0RAA8 1-1032 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13696246
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R6770
Type:initiation region
Description:toll-like receptor 9
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.08114,916,122 - 114,916,182EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:631352 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-29249 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000048161 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Protein ENSRNOP00000066453 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOP00000066453.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000074194 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000074194.2 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro Leu-rich_rpt UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Leu-rich_rpt_typical-subtyp UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  LRR_12 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  LRR_dom_sf UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  TIR_dom UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Toll_tir_struct_dom_sf UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:338457 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam LRR_12 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  LRR_6 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  LRR_8 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Tlr9 PhenoGen
Superfamily-SCOP TIR UniProtKB/TrEMBL

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2004-02-11 Tlr9  toll-like receptor 9      Symbol and Name status set to approved 625702 APPROVED