Ptn (pleiotrophin) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Ptn (pleiotrophin) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Ptn
Name: pleiotrophin
RGD ID: 3444
Description: Enables several functions, including glycosaminoglycan binding activity; growth factor activity; and syndecan binding activity. Involved in several processes, including cellular response to platelet-derived growth factor stimulus; negative regulation of cell population proliferation; and nervous system development. Located in several cellular components, including cell surface; neuromuscular junction; and perinuclear region of cytoplasm. Is active in postsynapse and presynapse. Used to study Parkinson's disease. Biomarker of several diseases, including extrahepatic cholestasis; liver cirrhosis; sciatic neuropathy; transient cerebral ischemia; and visual epilepsy. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in adrenal carcinoma. Orthologous to human PTN (pleiotrophin); PARTICIPATES IN syndecan signaling pathway; INTERACTS WITH 1-naphthyl isothiocyanate; 17alpha-ethynylestradiol; 17beta-estradiol.
Type: protein-coding
Previously known as: HARP; HB-GAM; HBBM; HBGF-8; Hbnf; heparin affine regulatory peptide; heparin binding factor; heparin-binding brain mitogen; heparin-binding growth factor 8; heparin-binding growth-associated molecule; heparin-binding neurotrophic factor; heparin-binding neutrophic factor; OSF-1; osteoblast-specific factor 1; Pleiotrophin (Heparine binding factor, Hbnf, in the mouse)
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Orthologs
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr8466,260,764 - 66,342,614 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.2465,293,731 - 65,375,572 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl465,293,734 - 65,375,456 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx470,249,455 - 70,330,998 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0466,170,411 - 66,252,058 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0464,567,580 - 64,649,115 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0464,239,156 - 64,330,996 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl464,239,158 - 64,330,996 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0464,063,952 - 64,156,123 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4464,078,755 - 64,160,135 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1464,354,886 - 64,436,265 (-)NCBI
Celera460,333,929 - 60,415,522 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map4q22NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
1-naphthyl isothiocyanate  (EXP)
1-nitropyrene  (ISO)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,4-dibromophenyl 2,4,5-tribromophenyl ether  (ISO)
2-acetamidofluorene  (EXP)
2-amino-2-deoxy-D-galactopyranose  (EXP)
3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl  (EXP)
3-methylcholanthrene  (ISO)
4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane  (EXP)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
7,12-dimethyltetraphene  (ISO)
acrylamide  (ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (ISO)
amitrole  (EXP)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
amphetamine  (EXP,ISO)
arsane  (ISO)
arsenic atom  (ISO)
atrazine  (EXP)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide I  (ISO)
beta-naphthoflavone  (EXP)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
butanal  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (ISO)
calcitriol  (EXP,ISO)
cannabidiol  (ISO)
chondroitin sulfate  (ISO)
cocaine  (ISO)
copper atom  (EXP)
copper(0)  (EXP)
cycloheximide  (ISO)
cyclosporin A  (ISO)
dermatan sulfate  (ISO)
dextran sulfate  (ISO)
diazinon  (EXP)
dichlorine  (EXP)
dieldrin  (EXP)
diethylstilbestrol  (ISO)
dizocilpine maleate  (EXP)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (ISO)
ellagic acid  (ISO)
endosulfan  (EXP)
ethanol  (ISO)
folic acid  (ISO)
fulvestrant  (ISO)
furan  (EXP)
furosemide  (EXP)
gentamycin  (EXP)
glyphosate  (ISO)
L-ascorbic acid  (ISO)
methimazole  (EXP)
methylmercury chloride  (ISO)
miconazole  (ISO)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (ISO)
N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine  (ISO)
N-nitrosodiethylamine  (EXP)
N-nitrosodimethylamine  (EXP)
nickel atom  (ISO)
okadaic acid  (ISO)
oxaliplatin  (EXP)
ozone  (EXP)
p-chloromercuribenzoic acid  (ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP)
paraquat  (ISO)
pentachlorophenol  (ISO)
perfluorohexanesulfonic acid  (ISO)
perfluorooctanoic acid  (EXP)
phenylmercury acetate  (ISO)
phorbol 13-acetate 12-myristate  (ISO)
progesterone  (ISO)
SB 431542  (ISO)
silver atom  (ISO)
silver(0)  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (ISO)
sulfadimethoxine  (EXP)
sunitinib  (ISO)
tamoxifen  (ISO)
testosterone enanthate  (ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (EXP)
thioacetamide  (EXP)
topotecan  (EXP)
Tributyltin oxide  (ISO)
trichostatin A  (ISO)
trimellitic anhydride  (ISO)
valproic acid  (ISO)
vorinostat  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
bone mineralization  (IEA,ISO)
cellular response to hypoxia  (IEP)
cellular response to organic cyclic compound  (IEP)
cellular response to platelet-derived growth factor stimulus  (IEP)
cellular response to UV  (IEP)
cellular response to vitamin D  (IEP)
cerebellum development  (IEP)
decidualization  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
dendrite arborization  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
dendrite regeneration  (IDA)
endothelial cell differentiation  (IEP)
estrous cycle  (IEA,IEP,ISO,ISS)
heart development  (IEP)
hindbrain development  (IEP)
integrin-mediated signaling pathway  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
learning  (IEA,IEP,ISO,ISS)
leukocyte chemotaxis involved in inflammatory response  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
liver development  (IEP)
long-term synaptic potentiation  (IEP)
lung development  (IEP)
memory  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
modulation of chemical synaptic transmission  (ISO)
negative regulation of angiogenesis  (IMP)
negative regulation of cell migration  (IMP)
negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation  (IDA)
negative regulation of glial cell proliferation  (IMP)
negative regulation of long-term synaptic potentiation  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
negative regulation of membrane potential  (IDA)
negative regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation  (IDA)
negative regulation of neuroblast proliferation  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
negative regulation of neuromuscular junction development  (IDA)
oogenesis  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
ossification  (ISO)
ossification involved in bone remodeling  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of apoptotic process  (IMP)
positive regulation of axon regeneration  (IDA)
positive regulation of bone mineralization  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of cell differentiation  (ISO)
positive regulation of cell division  (IEA)
positive regulation of cell population proliferation  (ISO)
positive regulation of cell-substrate adhesion  (IDA)
positive regulation of dendrite development  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of hepatocyte proliferation  (IDA,IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of neuron projection development  (IDA)
positive regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of ossification  (IMP)
positive regulation of skeletal muscle acetylcholine-gated channel clustering  (IDA)
positive regulation of stem cell differentiation  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
receptor clustering  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
regulation of cell shape  (IMP)
regulation of endothelial cell migration  (ISS)
regulation of hemopoiesis  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
regulation of myelination  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
regulation of stem cell population maintenance  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
regulation of synaptic plasticity  (ISO,ISS)
response to activity  (IEP)
response to auditory stimulus  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
response to ciliary neurotrophic factor  (IEP)
response to estradiol  (IEP)
response to kainic acid  (IEP)
response to nerve growth factor  (IEP)
response to progesterone  (IEP)
response to xenobiotic stimulus  (IEP)
retina development in camera-type eye  (IEP)
retinal rod cell differentiation  (IMP)
rod bipolar cell differentiation  (IEP)
spinal cord development  (IEP)
thalamus development  (IEP)
tissue regeneration  (IEA,ISO,ISS)

Cellular Component

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Upregulation of pleiotrophin expression in rat hepatic stellate cells by PDGF and hypoxia: implications for its role in experimental biliary liver fibrogenesis. Antoine M, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Dec 2;337(4):1153-64. Epub 2005 Oct 6.
2. Pleiotrophin/heparin-binding growth-associated molecule as a mitogen of rat hepatocytes and its role in regeneration and development of liver. Asahina K, etal., Am J Pathol 2002 Jun;160(6):2191-205.
3. Alterations of overused supraspinatus tendon: a possible role of glycosaminoglycans and HARP/pleiotrophin in early tendon pathology. Attia M, etal., J Orthop Res. 2012 Jan;30(1):61-71. doi: 10.1002/jor.21479. Epub 2011 Jun 17.
4. Heparin-binding growth factor, pleiotrophin, mediates neuritogenic activity of embryonic pig brain-derived chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate hybrid chains. Bao X, etal., J Biol Chem. 2005 Mar 11;280(10):9180-91. Epub 2005 Jan 4.
5. Intramyocardial protein therapy with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-165) induces functional angiogenesis in rat senescent myocardium. Besse S, etal., J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010 Dec;61(6):651-61.
6. Upregulation of HARP during in vitro myogenesis and rat soleus muscle regeneration. Caruelle D, etal., J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2004;25(1):45-53.
7. Different pattern of pleiotrophin and midkine expression in neuropathic pain: correlation between changes in pleiotrophin gene expression and rat strain differences in neuropathic pain. Ezquerra L, etal., Growth Factors. 2008 Feb;26(1):44-8. doi: 10.1080/08977190801987711.
8. Pleiotrophin stimulates fibroblasts and endothelial and epithelial cells and is expressed in human cancer. Fang W, etal., J Biol Chem. 1992 Dec 25;267(36):25889-97.
9. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
10. Receptor binding of osteoblast-specific factor 1 (OSF-1/HB-GAM) to human osteosarcoma cells promotes cell attachment. Gieffers C, etal., Eur J Cell Biol. 1993 Dec;62(2):352-61.
11. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
12. Genetic deletion of pleiotrophin leads to disruption of spinal nociceptive transmission: evidence for pleiotrophin modulation of morphine-induced analgesia. Gramage E and Herradon G, Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Nov 25;647(1-3):97-102. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.08.029. Epub 2010 Sep 6.
13. Osteoblast recruitment and bone formation enhanced by cell matrix-associated heparin-binding growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM). Imai S, etal., J Cell Biol. 1998 Nov 16;143(4):1113-28.
14. N-syndecan and HB-GAM (heparin-binding growth-associated molecule) associate with early axonal tracts in the rat brain. Kinnunen A, etal., Eur J Neurosci. 1998 Feb;10(2):635-48.
15. Heparan sulphate and HB-GAM (heparin-binding growth-associated molecule) in the development of the thalamocortical pathway of rat brain. Kinnunen A, etal., Eur J Neurosci. 1999 Feb;11(2):491-502.
16. Neurite outgrowth in brain neurons induced by heparin-binding growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM) depends on the specific interaction of HB-GAM with heparan sulfate at the cell surface. Kinnunen T, etal., J Biol Chem. 1996 Jan 26;271(4):2243-8.
17. Effect of heparin-binding growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM) on synaptic transmission and early LTP in rat hippocampal slices. Lauri SE, etal., Eur J Neurosci. 1998 Jan;10(1):188-94.
18. Activity-induced enhancement of HB-GAM expression in rat hippocampal slices. Lauri SE, etal., Neuroreport. 1996 Jul 8;7(10):1670-4.
19. The pro-angiogenic cytokine pleiotrophin potentiates cardiomyocyte apoptosis through inhibition of endogenous AKT/PKB activity. Li J, etal., J Biol Chem. 2007 Nov 30;282(48):34984-93. Epub 2007 Oct 9.
20. Cloning and expression of a developmentally regulated protein that induces mitogenic and neurite outgrowth activity. Li YS, etal., Science. 1990 Dec 21;250(4988):1690-4.
21. Basic FGF and FGF receptor 1 are expressed in microglia during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: temporally distinct expression of midkine and pleiotrophin. Liu X, etal., Glia. 1998 Dec;24(4):390-7.
22. 6B4 proteoglycan/phosphacan, an extracellular variant of receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase zeta/RPTPbeta, binds pleiotrophin/heparin-binding growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM). Maeda N, etal., J Biol Chem. 1996 Aug 30;271(35):21446-52.
23. delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol regulates gene expression of the growth factor pleiotrophin in the forebrain. Mailleux P, etal., Neurosci Lett. 1994 Jul 4;175(1-2):25-7.
24. A novel family of heparin-binding growth factors, pleiotrophin and midkine, is expressed in the developing rat cerebral cortex. Matsumoto K, etal., Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1994 Jun 17;79(2):229-41.
25. Molecular cloning of the 18-kDa growth-associated protein of developing brain. Merenmies J and Rauvala H, J Biol Chem 1990 Oct 5;265(28):16721-4.
26. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
27. Upregulation of the angiogenic factor heparin affin regulatory peptide by progesterone in rat uterus. Milhiet PE, etal., J Endocrinol. 1998 Sep;158(3):389-99.
28. Neuroglycan C, a brain-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, interacts with pleiotrophin, a heparin-binding growth factor. Nakanishi K, etal., Neurochem Res. 2010 Aug;35(8):1131-7. doi: 10.1007/s11064-010-0164-9. Epub 2010 Apr 6.
29. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
30. Aging-induced proteostatic changes in the rat hippocampus identify ARP3, NEB2 and BRAG2 as a molecular circuitry for cognitive impairment. Ottis P, etal., PLoS One. 2013 Sep 19;8(9):e75112. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075112. eCollection 2013.
31. Pleiotrophin inhibits transforming growth factor beta1-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cell lines. Park TJ, etal., Mol Carcinog. 2008 Oct;47(10):784-96. doi: 10.1002/mc.20438.
32. Heparin affin regulatory peptide/pleiotrophin negatively affects diverse biological activities in C6 glioma cells. Parthymou A, etal., Eur J Cell Biol. 2008 Jan;87(1):17-29. Epub 2007 Sep 18.
33. HB-GAM (pleiotrophin) reverses inhibition of neural regeneration by the CNS extracellular matrix. Paveliev M, etal., Sci Rep. 2016 Sep 27;6:33916. doi: 10.1038/srep33916.
34. The role of heparin-binding growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM) in the postsynaptic induction in cultured muscle cells. Peng HB, etal., J Neurosci. 1995 Apr;15(4):3027-38.
35. Heparin-binding determinants of GDNF reduce its tissue distribution but are beneficial for the protection of nigral dopaminergic neurons. Piltonen M, etal., Exp Neurol. 2009 Oct;219(2):499-506. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.07.002. Epub 2009 Jul 15.
36. PID Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import Pathway Interaction Database annotations from NCI into RGD
37. Isolation of a neuronal cell surface receptor of heparin binding growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM). Identification as N-syndecan (syndecan-3). Raulo E, etal., J Biol Chem. 1994 Apr 29;269(17):12999-3004.
38. Expression of HB-GAM (heparin-binding growth-associated molecules) in the pathways of developing axonal processes in vivo and neurite outgrowth in vitro induced by HB-GAM. Rauvala H, etal., Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1994 Jun 17;79(2):157-76.
39. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
40. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
41. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
42. Involvement of Pleiotrophin in CNTF-mediated differentiation of the late retinal progenitor cells. Roger J, etal., Dev Biol. 2006 Oct 15;298(2):527-39. Epub 2006 Jul 12.
43. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. Strausberg RL, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Dec 24;99(26):16899-903. Epub 2002 Dec 11.
44. Role of HB-GAM (heparin-binding growth-associated molecule) in proliferation arrest in cells of the developing rat limb and its expression in the differentiating neuromuscular system. Szabat E and Rauvala H, Dev Biol. 1996 Aug 25;178(1):77-89.
45. Induction of heparin-binding growth-associated molecule expression in reactive astrocytes following hippocampal neuronal injury. Takeda A, etal., Neuroscience. 1995 Sep;68(1):57-64.
46. 1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) down-regulates pleiotrophin messenger RNA expression in osteoblast-like cells. Tamura M, etal., Endocrine. 1995 Jan;3(1):21-4. doi: 10.1007/BF02917444.
47. Expression and function of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta and its ligand pleiotrophin in human astrocytomas. Ulbricht U, etal., J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2003 Dec;62(12):1265-75. doi: 10.1093/jnen/62.12.1265.
48. Immunohistochemical localization of pleiotrophin and midkine in the lingual epithelium of the adult rat. Wakisaka S, etal., Arch Histol Cytol. 1998 Dec;61(5):475-80.
49. Developmentally regulated expression of pleiotrophin, a novel heparin binding growth factor, in the nervous system of the rat. Wanaka A, etal., Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1993 Mar 19;72(1):133-44.
50. Immunocytochemical localization of the heparin-binding growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM) in the developing and adult rat cerebellar cortex. Wewetzer K, etal., Brain Res. 1995 Sep 25;693(1-2):31-8.
51. Factors released from cholestatic rat livers possibly involved in inducing bone marrow hepatic stem cell priming. Xu J, etal., Stem Cells Dev. 2008 Feb;17(1):143-55.
52. Upregulation of pleiotrophin gene expression in developing microvasculature, macrophages, and astrocytes after acute ischemic brain injury. Yeh HJ, etal., J Neurosci. 1998 May 15;18(10):3699-707.
53. CCN1 promotes the differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells and reendothelialization in the early phase after vascular injury. Yu Y, etal., Basic Res Cardiol. 2010 Nov;105(6):713-24. doi: 10.1007/s00395-010-0117-0. Epub 2010 Sep 10.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:1700712   PMID:1733956   PMID:2388713   PMID:11414790   PMID:11999218   PMID:12093164   PMID:12413943   PMID:12786979   PMID:12840014   PMID:14586627   PMID:15121180   PMID:15482347  
PMID:15489334   PMID:15949466   PMID:16155004   PMID:16325783   PMID:16619002   PMID:17121547   PMID:17360581   PMID:17368428   PMID:18599487   PMID:18727926   PMID:19141530   PMID:19384682  
PMID:19442624   PMID:20873783   PMID:21791434   PMID:21928404   PMID:23000062   PMID:25000129   PMID:25108770   PMID:26222257   PMID:26615567   PMID:26896299   PMID:27445335   PMID:28657144  
PMID:30497772   PMID:30667096  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr8466,260,764 - 66,342,614 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.2465,293,731 - 65,375,572 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl465,293,734 - 65,375,456 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx470,249,455 - 70,330,998 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0466,170,411 - 66,252,058 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0464,567,580 - 64,649,115 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0464,239,156 - 64,330,996 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl464,239,158 - 64,330,996 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0464,063,952 - 64,156,123 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4464,078,755 - 64,160,135 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1464,354,886 - 64,436,265 (-)NCBI
Celera460,333,929 - 60,415,522 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map4q22NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh387137,227,341 - 137,343,733 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl7137,227,341 - 137,343,774 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh377136,912,088 - 137,028,479 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 367136,562,628 - 136,679,086 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 347136,369,349 - 136,485,801NCBI
Celera7131,651,010 - 131,767,463 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map7q33NCBI
HuRef7131,217,379 - 131,333,760 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_17136,845,103 - 136,961,863 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.07138,536,475 - 138,652,884 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
CRA_TCAGchr7v27136,256,123 - 136,372,579 (-)NCBI
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm39636,691,863 - 36,787,114 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl636,691,864 - 36,787,155 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm38636,714,924 - 36,810,179 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl636,714,929 - 36,810,220 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv37636,665,663 - 36,761,361 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv36636,645,815 - 36,741,513 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera636,692,206 - 36,788,072 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map6B1NCBI
cM Map615.48NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_0049554945,580,422 - 5,684,190 (+)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_0049554945,580,264 - 5,681,848 (+)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1-v26174,039,263 - 174,155,443 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1-v2
NHGRI_mPanPan1726,049,516 - 26,165,561 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v07129,184,786 - 129,300,815 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.17141,678,056 - 141,794,565 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl7141,701,430 - 141,705,623 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.11611,283,078 - 11,382,820 (+)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl1611,283,077 - 11,382,814 (+)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha1612,295,731 - 12,396,391 (+)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.01611,248,309 - 11,349,640 (+)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl1611,247,988 - 11,349,640 (+)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.11611,708,020 - 11,809,056 (+)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.01610,807,935 - 10,909,300 (+)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.01610,950,643 - 11,051,479 (+)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440511817,455,142 - 17,512,824 (+)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049365921,707,693 - 1,730,617 (-)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_0049365921,706,979 - 1,806,345 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl1812,219,787 - 12,309,044 (+)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.11812,219,708 - 12,309,045 (+)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.21812,892,250 - 12,981,603 (+)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.121105,911,171 - 106,027,108 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl21105,911,120 - 106,027,215 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_0236660722,777,500 - 2,887,026 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_00462476517,522,916 - 17,548,184 (-)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_00462476517,523,086 - 17,625,264 (-)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Ptn
444 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:87
Count of miRNA genes:63
Interacting mature miRNAs:78
Prediction methods:Miranda, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
1358352Srcrt3Stress Responsive Cort QTL 32.29blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)438465774146803430Rat
1549843Bw53Body weight QTL 530.0001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)461697658103194791Rat
61445Strs3Sensitivity to stroke QTL 33cerebrum integrity trait (VT:0010549)post-insult time to onset of cerebrovascular lesion (CMO:0002343)44043338885433388Rat
6893678Bw108Body weight QTL 1082.60.006body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)44345797688457976Rat
1358363Sradr3Stress Responsive Adrenal Weight QTL 36.19adrenal gland mass (VT:0010420)both adrenal glands wet weight (CMO:0000164)457486946102486946Rat
61336Bp21Blood pressure QTL 214.6arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)45711470578881294Rat
1549839Bw52Body weight QTL 520.0001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)461697658115089733Rat
6909128Pancm4Pancreatic morphology QTL 411.35pancreas mass (VT:0010144)pancreas wet weight (CMO:0000626)42690728575585128Rat
61475Aia2Adjuvant induced arthritis QTL 25.8joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)43950527573892441Rat
8694439Bw168Body weight QTL 1689.570.001retroperitoneal fat pad mass (VT:0010430)retroperitoneal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000635)44043341485433414Rat
8655906Rf60Renal function QTL 603.8blood creatinine amount (VT:0005328)creatinine clearance (CMO:0000765)42949419581006281Rat
6909122Insul22Insulin level QTL 224.63blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)plasma insulin level (CMO:0000342)42690728575585128Rat
1354660Salc1Saline consumption QTL 111.26drinking behavior trait (VT:0001422)saline drink intake rate (CMO:0001627)444463908148090542Rat
2300179Bmd50Bone mineral density QTL 505.90.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)460928534105928534Rat
1298082Stresp4Stress response QTL 4blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)450119848146803430Rat
70192BpQTLcluster5Blood pressure QTL cluster 54.183arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)absolute change in mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000533)462933508114921294Rat
1300139Hrtrt6Heart rate QTL 62.85heart pumping trait (VT:2000009)heart rate (CMO:0000002)439524264116179656Rat
70200Alc18Alcohol consumption QTL 189.2drinking behavior trait (VT:0001422)ethanol intake volume to total fluid intake volume ratio (CMO:0001591)456647873149491524Rat
1578657Bss12Bone structure and strength QTL 128.9femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)femoral neck cross-sectional area (CMO:0001697)460220938105220938Rat
1578658Bss13Bone structure and strength QTL 138femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femoral neck polar moment of inertia (CMO:0001670)460220938105220938Rat
4889969Bss96Bone structure and strength QTL 964.9tibia size trait (VT:0100001)tibia cortical bone volume (CMO:0001725)45664777678882945Rat
2316958Gluco58Glucose level QTL 5810blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)411320076180699135Rat
4889972Bss97Bone structure and strength QTL 975.6tibia size trait (VT:0100001)tibia total bone volume (CMO:0001724)45664777678882945Rat
6478684Anxrr30Anxiety related response QTL 300.00087defecation behavior trait (VT:0010462)defecation rate (CMO:0000998)462753847107753847Rat
5685012Bmd87Bone mineral density QTL 875.1tibia mineral mass (VT:1000283)bone mineral content (CMO:0001554)45664777678882945Rat
5685009Bmd86Bone mineral density QTL 863.7tibia mineral mass (VT:1000283)bone mineral density (CMO:0001226)45664777678882945Rat
1331807Rf31Renal function QTL 312.988urine potassium amount (VT:0010539)urine potassium level (CMO:0000128)43952426474726312Rat
8552782Vie1Viral induced encephalitis QTL 126.4brain integrity trait (VT:0010579)encephalitis incidence/prevalence measurement (CMO:0002361)43443048482490359Rat
634311Sach7Saccharin preference QTL 7taste sensitivity trait (VT:0001986)saccharin intake volume to total fluid intake volume ratio (CMO:0001601)45711443281266970Rat
738009Sach4Saccharine consumption QTL 44.90.000016consumption behavior trait (VT:0002069)saccharin intake volume to total fluid intake volume ratio (CMO:0001601)459948935154902892Rat
631261Tcas3Tongue tumor susceptibility QTL 36.88tongue integrity trait (VT:0010553)number of squamous cell tumors of the tongue with diameter greater than 3 mm (CMO:0001950)41081417091360527Rat
2312567Glom19Glomerulus QTL 191.90.006kidney glomerulus morphology trait (VT:0005325)index of glomerular damage (CMO:0001135)445456990146803430Rat
6478772Anxrr49Anxiety related response QTL 490.15488defecation behavior trait (VT:0010462)defecation rate (CMO:0000998)462753847107753847Rat
8655961Kidm43Kidney mass QTL 4318kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight (CMO:0000085)436303261103194984Rat
1354612Foco1Food consumption QTL 18.87eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)food intake rate (CMO:0000427)444463908148090542Rat
2303168Bp330Blood pressure QTL 3304.250.017arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)45214602146446691Rat
8552801Bw143Body weight QTL 1437.3body mass (VT:0001259)change in body weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0002216)43443048482490359Rat
738031Alc14Alcohol consumption QTL 147.60.00003consumption behavior trait (VT:0002069)ethanol drink intake rate to body weight ratio (CMO:0001616)459948935154902892Rat
8552807Vie4Viral induced encephalitis QTL 47.3brain integrity trait (VT:0010579)encephalitis incidence/prevalence measurement (CMO:0002361)46293350882490359Rat
619616Bp79Blood pressure QTL 790.0292arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)4521460278882945Rat
1576305Emca6Estrogen-induced mammary cancer QTL 65.8mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)mammary tumor number (CMO:0000343)444463720155883716Rat
61418Pia5Pristane induced arthritis QTL 54.5joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)462277855128289560Rat
631651Bp124Blood pressure QTL 1243arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)462879517107879517Rat
8552809Vie5Viral induced encephalitis QTL 525.3brain integrity trait (VT:0010579)encephalitis incidence/prevalence measurement (CMO:0002361)43443048482490359Rat
738016Alc16Alcohol consumption QTL 163.60.00015consumption behavior trait (VT:0002069)ethanol drink intake rate to body weight ratio (CMO:0001616)459948935154902892Rat
1558651Swd3Spike wave discharge measurement QTL 34.620.000024brain electrophysiology trait (VT:0010557)brain spike-and-wave discharge frequency (CMO:0001742)45843213392991462Rat
1358203Stl19Serum triglyceride level QTL 192.80.002blood triglyceride amount (VT:0002644)serum triglyceride level (CMO:0000360)4521829465958103Rat
1641833Alc21Alcohol consumption QTL 218.60.0001drinking behavior trait (VT:0001422)ethanol drink intake rate (CMO:0001407)456698790126192555Rat
631546Bp86Blood pressure QTL 863.2arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)45711443291360801Rat
631674Iddm14Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 14blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)plasma glucose level (CMO:0000042)464528739157573521Rat
6478743Anxrr40Anxiety related response QTL 400.83076defecation behavior trait (VT:0010462)defecation rate (CMO:0000998)462753847107753847Rat
7394826Bw126Body weight QTL 1260.002body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)46293326987483707Rat
12798520Anxrr55Anxiety related response QTL 554.450.01locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)number of rearing movements with lid-pushing in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0002715)432583980114627242Rat
631671Iddm11Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 113.60.0012blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)plasma glucose level (CMO:0000042)45863587778886137Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2465,293,810 - 65,293,963 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0464,239,235 - 64,239,387NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0464,064,031 - 64,064,183UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4464,078,834 - 64,078,986UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera460,334,008 - 60,334,160UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map4412.8UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map4q22UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2465,293,947 - 65,294,114 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0464,239,372 - 64,239,538NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0464,064,168 - 64,064,334UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4464,078,971 - 64,079,137UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera460,334,145 - 60,334,311UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map4415.8UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map4q22UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2465,294,084 - 65,294,233 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0464,239,509 - 64,239,657NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0464,064,305 - 64,064,453UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4464,079,108 - 64,079,256UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera460,334,282 - 60,334,430UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map4408.1UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map4q22UniSTS


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
High 21 2 17
Medium 3 38 43 27 19 27 4 4 53 33 24 9 4
Low 5 14 14 14 4 7 2 4
Below cutoff


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000016088   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000016088
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl465,293,734 - 65,375,456 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl464,239,158 - 64,330,996 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000095619   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000080308
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl465,293,734 - 65,351,785 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_017066   ⟹   NP_058762
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr8466,260,764 - 66,342,332 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.2465,293,732 - 65,375,306 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.0464,239,156 - 64,330,996 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.0464,063,952 - 64,156,123 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.4464,078,755 - 64,160,135 (-)RGD
Celera460,333,929 - 60,415,522 (-)RGD
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_017592475   ⟹   XP_017447964
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr8466,260,764 - 66,318,648 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.2465,293,731 - 65,351,620 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.0464,239,156 - 64,307,309 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039107077   ⟹   XP_038963005
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr8466,260,764 - 66,342,614 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.2465,293,731 - 65,375,572 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_063285568   ⟹   XP_063141638
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr8466,260,764 - 66,311,678 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_058762   ⟸   NM_017066
- Peptide Label: precursor
- UniProtKB: P20935 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P63090 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6IEP8 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A6IEQ1 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_017447964   ⟸   XM_017592475
- Peptide Label: isoform X2
- UniProtKB: A0A8I5ZQE2 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A6IEP7 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A6IEP9 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000016088   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000016088
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038963005   ⟸   XM_039107077
- Peptide Label: isoform X3
- UniProtKB: P63090 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P20935 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6IEP8 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A6IEQ1 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000080308   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000095619
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_063141638   ⟸   XM_063285568
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: A6IEP9 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P63090-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P63090 1-168 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:3444 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-45225 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000011946 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOG00055029802 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00060024368 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00065016642 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000016088 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000016088.7 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00000095619.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00055051649 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00060042263 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00065027733 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Gene3D-CATH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro Midkine_heparin-bd_GF UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTN/MK_C_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTN/MK_C_dom_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTN/MK_diS_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTN/MK_N_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTN/MK_N_dom_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTN_MK_heparin-bd_GF_CS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:24924 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTHR13850 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam PTN_MK_C UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTN_MK_N UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Ptn PhenoGen
PROSITE PTN_MK_1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTN_MK_2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000011946 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00055029802 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00060024368 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00065016642 RatGTEx
SMART PTN UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Superfamily-SCOP SSF57288 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  P63090 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
UniProt Secondary P20935 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2002-06-10 Ptn  Pleiotrophin (Heparine binding factor, Hbnf, in the mouse)      Symbol and Name status set to approved 70586 APPROVED