Atp1a2 (ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit alpha 2) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Atp1a2 (ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit alpha 2) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Atp1a2
Name: ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit alpha 2
RGD ID: 2168
Description: Enables several functions, including ATP binding activity; P-type sodium:potassium-exchanging transporter activity; and protein heterodimerization activity. Involved in several processes, including cellular response to mechanical stimulus; monoatomic cation transport; and regulation of cardiac muscle cell contraction. Located in several cellular components, including T-tubule; caveola; and intercalated disc. Part of sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase complex. Biomarker of hyperhomocysteinemia and hypertension. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in alternating hemiplegia of childhood; electroclinical syndrome (multiple); hypertension; and migraine with aura (multiple). Orthologous to human ATP1A2 (ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit alpha 2); PARTICIPATES IN acebutolol pharmacodynamics pathway; adrenergic beta receptor agonist and beta-blocker pharmacodynamics pathway; alfentanil pharmacodynamics pathway; INTERACTS WITH 1-naphthyl isothiocyanate; 17alpha-ethynylestradiol; 17beta-estradiol.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: ATPase Na+K+ transporting alpha 2 polypeptide; ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 2 polypeptide; ATPase, Na+K+ transporting, alpha 2; ATPase, Na+K+ transporting, alpha 2 polypeptide; na(+)/K(+) ATPase alpha(+) subunit; na(+)/K(+) ATPase alpha-2 subunit; Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha 2 subunit; RATATPA2; sodium pump subunit alpha-2; sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-2
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Is Marker For: QTLs:   Bp80  
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.21384,729,597 - 84,754,544 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1384,729,601 - 84,754,544 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1387,232,914 - 87,257,867 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01388,633,186 - 88,658,137 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01385,817,817 - 85,842,746 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01390,651,682 - 90,676,629 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1390,651,686 - 90,676,629 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01395,173,343 - 95,198,290 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41388,258,993 - 88,283,918 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11388,447,876 - 88,472,802 (-)NCBI
Celera1384,339,662 - 84,364,561 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map13q24NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(R)-lipoic acid  (ISO)
(S)-amphetamine  (ISO)
1-naphthyl isothiocyanate  (EXP)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (EXP)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran  (EXP)
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine  (ISO)
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine  (ISO)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (ISO)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
acrylamide  (ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (ISO)
amiodarone  (EXP)
ammonia  (ISO)
ammonium acetate  (EXP)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
atrazine  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
benzo[e]pyrene  (ISO)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol F  (ISO)
calcitriol  (ISO)
cantharidin  (ISO)
captan  (ISO)
carbamazepine  (ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
choline  (ISO)
cisplatin  (ISO)
clothianidin  (ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (EXP)
copper atom  (EXP)
copper(0)  (EXP)
copper(II) sulfate  (ISO)
daunorubicin  (ISO)
dexamethasone  (ISO)
dibenz[a,h]anthracene  (ISO)
dibutyl phthalate  (ISO)
dichloroacetic acid  (ISO)
digoxin  (EXP)
dimethyl sulfoxide  (EXP)
dioxygen  (ISO)
diuron  (EXP)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (ISO)
enalapril  (EXP)
endosulfan  (EXP)
ethanol  (ISO)
Ethylenethiourea  (ISO)
etoposide  (ISO)
folic acid  (ISO)
gamma-tocopherol  (ISO)
genistein  (ISO)
indometacin  (ISO)
ivermectin  (ISO)
ketamine  (EXP)
L-methionine  (ISO)
lipoic acid  (ISO)
lithium atom  (ISO)
lithium hydride  (ISO)
losartan  (EXP)
lycopene  (ISO)
mancozeb  (ISO)
mechlorethamine  (ISO)
metformin  (EXP)
methapyrilene  (ISO)
methimazole  (EXP)
methoxychlor  (EXP)
methylene blue  (ISO)
methylmercury chloride  (ISO)
mitoxantrone  (ISO)
N-methyl-D-aspartic acid  (ISO)
nickel atom  (ISO)
ouabain  (EXP,ISO)
ozone  (ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP,ISO)
paraquat  (EXP,ISO)
PCB138  (EXP)
perfluorohexanesulfonic acid  (ISO)
perfluorononanoic acid  (ISO)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (EXP,ISO)
perfluorooctanoic acid  (ISO)
phenobarbital  (ISO)
pioglitazone  (ISO)
propanal  (ISO)
propiconazole  (EXP)
rotenone  (EXP)
SB 431542  (ISO)
silicon atom  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (EXP)
sodium cyanide  (ISO)
sulfadimethoxine  (EXP)
sunitinib  (ISO)
tebuconazole  (EXP)
tebufenpyrad  (ISO)
testosterone  (ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (EXP)
tetradecane  (EXP)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
tocopherol  (ISO)
trichostatin A  (ISO)
triclosan  (ISO)
trimellitic anhydride  (ISO)
triptonide  (ISO)
tyrphostin AG 1478  (ISO)
undecane  (EXP)
valproic acid  (EXP,ISO)
vinclozolin  (EXP)
XL147  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
adult locomotory behavior  (ISO)
amygdala development  (ISO)
ATP metabolic process  (ISO)
behavioral fear response  (ISO)
blood circulation  (ISO)
cardiac muscle contraction  (IC)
cellular response to mechanical stimulus  (IDA,IEP)
cellular response to steroid hormone stimulus  (IMP,ISO)
energy coupled proton transmembrane transport, against electrochemical gradient  (TAS)
establishment or maintenance of transmembrane electrochemical gradient  (IEA)
fear response  (ISO)
intracellular potassium ion homeostasis  (IBA,IEA,ISO)
intracellular sodium ion homeostasis  (IBA,IEA,ISO)
L-ascorbic acid metabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
locomotion  (ISO)
locomotory exploration behavior  (ISO)
membrane depolarization  (IEA,ISO)
monoatomic cation transmembrane transport  (ISO)
negative regulation of calcium ion transmembrane transport  (IMP)
negative regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration  (ISO)
negative regulation of heart contraction  (ISO)
negative regulation of striated muscle contraction  (ISO)
neuronal action potential propagation  (IEA,ISO)
neurotransmitter uptake  (ISO)
olfactory cortex development  (ISO)
potassium ion import across plasma membrane  (IBA,IEA,ISO)
potassium ion transmembrane transport  (ISO)
potassium ion transport  (IDA)
proton transmembrane transport  (IBA,IEA,IMP)
regulation of blood pressure  (ISO)
regulation of cardiac muscle cell contraction  (IMP)
regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by calcium ion signaling  (IC)
regulation of muscle contraction  (ISO)
regulation of respiratory gaseous exchange by nervous system process  (ISO)
regulation of smooth muscle contraction  (ISO)
regulation of striated muscle contraction  (ISO)
regulation of the force of heart contraction  (ISO)
regulation of vasoconstriction  (ISO)
relaxation of cardiac muscle  (IC)
response to auditory stimulus  (ISO)
response to glycoside  (IMP,ISO)
response to nicotine  (IDA)
response to potassium ion  (IEA,ISO)
sodium ion export across plasma membrane  (IBA,IEA,ISO)
sodium ion transmembrane transport  (ISO)
sodium ion transport  (IDA)
visual learning  (ISO)

Cellular Component

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
acebutolol pharmacodynamics pathway   (ISO)
adrenergic beta receptor agonist and beta-blocker pharmacodynamics pathway   (ISO)
aldosterone signaling pathway  (IEA)
alfentanil pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
amiloride pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
amiodarone pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
amlodipine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
atenolol pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
bendroflumethiazide pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
betaxolol pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
bile acid transport pathway  (IEA)
bisoprolol pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
bumetanide pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
bupivacaine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
bupranolol drug pathway  (ISO)
bupranolol pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
buprenorphine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
carvedilol pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
chloroprocaine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
chlorothiazide pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
chlorthalidone pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
citalopram pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
cocaine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
codeine and morphine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
cystinuria pathway  (ISO)
desipramine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
diltiazem pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
diphenoxylate pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
disopyramide pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
dobutamine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
eplerenone pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
escitalopram pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
esmolol pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
etacrynic acid pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
ethylmorphine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
fentanyl pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
flecainde pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
fluoxetine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
fosphenytoin pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
furosemide pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
Hartnup disease pathway  (ISO)
heroin pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
hydrochlorothiazide pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
hydrocodone pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
hydroflumethiazide pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
hydromorphone pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
ibutilide pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
iminoglycinuria pathway  (ISO)
imipramine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
isoprenaline pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
isradipine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
lactose degradation pathway  (ISO)
levacetylmethadol pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
levobunolol pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
levobupivacaine phgarmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
levorphanol pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
lidocaine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
lysinuric protein intolerance pathway  (ISO)
mepivacaine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
methadone pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
metolazone pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
metoprolol pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
mexiletine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
nadolol pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
nalbuphine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
naloxone pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
naltrexone pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
nebivolol pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
nicotine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
nifedipine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
nimodipine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
nisoldipine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
nitrendipine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
oxybuprocaine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
oxycodone pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
oxymorphone pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
penbutolol pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
pentazocine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
phenytoin pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
pindolol pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
prilocaine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
procainamide pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
procaine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
propranolol pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
quinidine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
remifentanil pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
ropivacaine pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
sotalol pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
spironolactone pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
timolol pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
torasemide pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
tramadol pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
trehalose degradation pathway  (ISO)
triamterene pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
trichlormethiazide pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)
verapamil pharmacodynamics pathway  (ISO)


References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Overexpression of the Na-K-ATPase alpha2-subunit improves lung liquid clearance during ventilation-induced lung injury. Adir Y, etal., Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008 Jun;294(6):L1233-7. Epub 2008 Apr 18.
2. Down-regulation of Na+ pump alpha 2 isoform in isoprenaline-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rat: evidence for increased receptor binding affinity but reduced inotropic potency of digoxin. Baek M and Weiss M, J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 May;313(2):731-9. Epub 2005 Jan 11.
3. FXYD7 is a brain-specific regulator of Na,K-ATPase alpha 1-beta isozymes. Beguin P, etal., EMBO J 2002 Jul 1;21(13):3264-73.
4. Isozymes of the Na-K-ATPase: heterogeneity in structure, diversity in function. Blanco G and Mercer RW, Am J Physiol. 1998 Nov;275(5 Pt 2):F633-50.
5. Chronic nicotine modifies skeletal muscle Na,K-ATPase activity through its interaction with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and phospholemman. Chibalin AV, etal., PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e33719. Epub 2012 Mar 19.
6. Similar perisynaptic glial localization for the Na+,K+-ATPase alpha 2 subunit and the glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1 in the rat somatosensory cortex. Cholet N, etal., Cereb Cortex 2002 May;12(5):515-25.
7. The highly conserved cardiac glycoside binding site of Na,K-ATPase plays a role in blood pressure regulation. Dostanic-Larson I, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 1;102(44):15845-50. Epub 2005 Oct 21.
8. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
9. Relation of alleles of the sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase alpha 2 gene with blood pressure and lead exposure. Glenn BS, etal., Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Mar 15;153(6):537-45.
10. Training-induced changes in skeletal muscle Na+-K+ pump number and isoform expression in rats with chronic heart failure. Helwig B, etal., J Appl Physiol 2003 Jun;94(6):2225-36.
11. Hyperphagia and obesity in Na,K-ATPase alpha2 subunit-defective mice. Kawakami K, etal., Obes Res. 2005 Oct;13(10):1661-71.
12. Identification of differentially expressed genes in skeletal muscle of non-diabetic insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive Pima Indians by differential display PCR. Lee YH, etal., Diabetologia. 2003 Nov;46(11):1567-75. Epub 2003 Oct 24.
13. Beta-subunit of cardiac Na+-K+-ATPase dictates the concentration of the functional enzyme in caveolae. Liu L and Askari A, Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006 Oct;291(4):C569-78. Epub 2006 Apr 19.
14. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
15. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
16. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
17. Structure/function analysis of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase central isoform-specific region: involvement in PKC regulation. Pierre SV, etal., Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2002 Nov;283(5):F1066-74.
18. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
19. SMPDB Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import SMPDB annotations from SMPDB into RGD
20. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
21. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
22. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
23. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia reduces the activity and immunocontent, but does not alter the gene expression, of catalytic a subunits of cerebral Na+,K+-ATPase. Scherer EB, etal., Mol Cell Biochem. 2013 Jun;378(1-2):91-7. doi: 10.1007/s11010-013-1598-6. Epub 2013 Mar 7.
24. Structural basis for alpha1 versus alpha2 isoform-distinct behavior of the Na,K-ATPase. Segall L, etal., J Biol Chem 2003 Mar 14;278(11):9027-34. Epub 2003 Jan 14.
25. Molecular cloning of three distinct forms of the Na+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit from rat brain. Shull GE, etal., Biochemistry 1986 Dec 16;25(25):8125-32.
26. The α2β2 isoform combination dominates the astrocytic Na+ /K+ -ATPase activity and is rendered nonfunctional by the α2.G301R familial hemiplegic migraine type 2-associated mutation. Stoica A, etal., Glia. 2017 Nov;65(11):1777-1793. doi: 10.1002/glia.23194. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
27. The Na+/K+-ATPase alpha2-isoform regulates cardiac contractility in rat cardiomyocytes. Swift F, etal., Cardiovasc Res. 2007 Jul 1;75(1):109-17. Epub 2007 Mar 24.
28. The change and significance of the Na+-K+-ATPase alpha-subunit in ouabain-hypertensive rats. Tian G, etal., Hypertens Res. 2001 Nov;24(6):729-34.
29. Novel mutations in the Na+, K+-ATPase pump gene ATP1A2 associated with familial hemiplegic migraine and benign familial infantile convulsions. Vanmolkot KR, etal., Ann Neurol 2003 Sep;54(3):360-6.
30. Cyclic stretch translocates the alpha2-subunit of the Na pump to plasma membrane in skeletal muscle cells in vitro. Yuan X, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Sep 22;348(2):750-7. Epub 2006 Jul 31.
31. Effects of different magnitudes of cyclic stretch on Na+-K+-ATPase in skeletal muscle cells in vitro. Yuan X, etal., J Cell Physiol. 2007 Aug;212(2):509-18.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:2170235   PMID:8889548   PMID:9757068   PMID:10360172   PMID:10636900   PMID:11507009   PMID:12458206   PMID:12477932   PMID:12539047   PMID:12805306   PMID:14593108   PMID:14627611  
PMID:14742675   PMID:15253893   PMID:15327400   PMID:15485817   PMID:15489334   PMID:15528469   PMID:15564586   PMID:16037212   PMID:16292983   PMID:16524882   PMID:17008770   PMID:17234593  
PMID:17392375   PMID:17468335   PMID:17634366   PMID:18052210   PMID:18203708   PMID:18418421   PMID:18504258   PMID:18586859   PMID:18728015   PMID:19366873   PMID:19372756   PMID:19751721  
PMID:20100892   PMID:20595385   PMID:20936682   PMID:22871113   PMID:23045463   PMID:23954377   PMID:24218169   PMID:24356962   PMID:24769233   PMID:24903141   PMID:25002582   PMID:25274047  
PMID:25654120   PMID:25988879   PMID:26108663   PMID:26316108   PMID:26924456   PMID:29118027   PMID:29394489   PMID:29476059   PMID:29480968   PMID:30949686   PMID:32357304  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.21384,729,597 - 84,754,544 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1384,729,601 - 84,754,544 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1387,232,914 - 87,257,867 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01388,633,186 - 88,658,137 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01385,817,817 - 85,842,746 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01390,651,682 - 90,676,629 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1390,651,686 - 90,676,629 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01395,173,343 - 95,198,290 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41388,258,993 - 88,283,918 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11388,447,876 - 88,472,802 (-)NCBI
Celera1384,339,662 - 84,364,561 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map13q24NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh381160,115,759 - 160,143,591 (+)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl1160,115,759 - 160,143,591 (+)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh371160,085,549 - 160,113,381 (+)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 361158,352,172 - 158,380,005 (+)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 341156,898,620 - 156,926,445NCBI
Celera1133,154,306 - 133,182,156 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map1q23.2NCBI
HuRef1131,442,647 - 131,470,507 (+)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_11161,480,881 - 161,508,729 (+)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.01159,252,841 - 159,280,677 (+)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm391172,099,276 - 172,125,631 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl1172,099,276 - 172,125,631 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm381172,271,709 - 172,298,064 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl1172,271,709 - 172,298,064 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv371174,201,840 - 174,228,195 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv361174,108,384 - 174,134,739 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera1175,123,792 - 175,151,771 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map1H3NCBI
cM Map179.6NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_00495546811,898,915 - 11,922,400 (+)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_00495546811,898,786 - 11,924,341 (+)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1189,448,721 - 89,476,513 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v01135,469,495 - 135,497,303 (+)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.11139,390,549 - 139,418,311 (+)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl1139,390,549 - 139,418,303 (+)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_0244050586,240,258 - 6,264,320 (+)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_004936740488,154 - 514,308 (-)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_004936740489,357 - 514,235 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl490,341,322 - 90,370,996 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.1490,341,316 - 90,371,040 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.2498,282,712 - 98,312,416 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.1203,801,044 - 3,828,680 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl203,802,887 - 3,828,692 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_0236660382,858,128 - 2,886,182 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0


Variants in Atp1a2
118 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:254
Count of miRNA genes:169
Interacting mature miRNAs:208
Prediction methods:Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
1354666Bp244Blood pressure QTL 2444.9arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)131101056920Rat
1354666Bp244Blood pressure QTL 2444.9arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)131101056920Rat
1354666Bp244Blood pressure QTL 2444.9arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)131101056920Rat
1581570Eae17Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 174.1nervous system integrity trait (VT:0010566)experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis incidence/prevalence measurement (CMO:0001046)138897350101631289Rat
7207885Glom27Glomerulus QTL 273.9kidney glomerulus integrity trait (VT:0010546)kidney crescentic glomeruli count to kidney normal glomeruli count ratio (CMO:0002139)1320605871101339738Rat
1354621Rf47Renal function QTL 473.7kidney renin amount (VT:0010559)kidney renin level (CMO:0002166)1330395351101056920Rat
70181BpQTLcluster11Blood pressure QTL cluster 116.922arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)133124133193395974Rat
70181BpQTLcluster11Blood pressure QTL cluster 116.922arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)133124133193395974Rat
70181BpQTLcluster11Blood pressure QTL cluster 116.922arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)133124133193395974Rat
70181BpQTLcluster11Blood pressure QTL cluster 116.922arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)absolute change in mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000533)133124133193395974Rat
619615Bp80Blood pressure QTL 800.0354arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)133975454484754544Rat
12879444Bp397Blood pressure QTL 397arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)134504940490049404Rat
12879471Bp398Blood pressure QTL 398arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)134551471990514719Rat
12879441Bp396Blood pressure QTL 396arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)134569998390699983Rat
1298066Bp159Blood pressure QTL 1590.004arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)134608804691088046Rat
71119Thym2Thymus enlargement QTL 23.8thymus mass (VT:0004954)thymus weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000612)134619797684753113Rat
1641901Alcrsp6Alcohol response QTL 6response to alcohol trait (VT:0010489)duration of loss of righting reflex (CMO:0002289)135236217197362171Rat
1354655Bp241Blood pressure QTL 2413.9arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1356056920101056920Rat
738026Lnnr5Liver neoplastic nodule remodeling QTL 53.29liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver remodeling tumorous lesion number (CMO:0001461)135987440885581182Rat
12879475Bp400Blood pressure QTL 400arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)1361825626106807694Rat
2293702Bss34Bone structure and strength QTL 344.610.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femur midshaft polar moment of inertia (CMO:0001669)1365103704106807694Rat
2293687Bss26Bone structure and strength QTL 264.60.0001femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)femur cross-sectional area (CMO:0001661)1365103704106807694Rat
8655945Rf61Renal function QTL 613.6blood creatinine amount (VT:0005328)creatinine clearance (CMO:0000765)136906051986800898Rat
1331783Bp221Blood pressure QTL 2213.72886arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)136906051986800898Rat
1300166Kidm6Kidney mass QTL 63.93kidney mass (VT:0002707)single kidney wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000622)136906051986800898Rat
8655959Pur32Proteinuria QTL 328.4urine total protein amount (VT:0000032)urine total protein excretion rate (CMO:0000756)137402391897213863Rat
738027Lnnr6Liver neoplastic nodule remodeling QTL 63.3liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver remodeling tumorous lesion number (CMO:0001461)137486211785581182Rat
2293341Glom15Glomerulus QTL 159.1kidney glomerulus integrity trait (VT:0010546)kidney sclerotic glomeruli count to total glomeruli count ratio (CMO:0001269)1374862117101339893Rat
4889606Gluco63Glucose level QTL 632.860.003blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level area under curve (AUC) (CMO:0000350)1380753256106807694Rat
1302791Stl29Serum triglyceride level QTL 293.30.0011blood triglyceride amount (VT:0002644)plasma triglyceride level (CMO:0000548)138473078886800898Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21384,753,277 - 84,753,511 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01390,675,363 - 90,675,596NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01395,197,024 - 95,197,257UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41388,282,666 - 88,282,900RGDRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.41388,282,667 - 88,282,900UniSTSRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11388,471,550 - 88,471,784RGD
Celera1384,363,343 - 84,363,576UniSTS
FHH x ACI Map1341.61UniSTS
FHH x ACI Map1341.61RGD
Cytogenetic Map13q24-q26UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21384,753,113 - 84,753,510 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01390,675,199 - 90,675,595NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01395,196,860 - 95,197,256UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41388,282,502 - 88,282,899RGDRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.41388,282,503 - 88,282,899UniSTSRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11388,471,386 - 88,471,783RGD
Celera1384,363,179 - 84,363,575UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map13557.0UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map13557.0RGD
RH 2.0 Map13609.7RGD
Cytogenetic Map13q24-q26UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21384,755,318 - 84,755,556 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01390,677,404 - 90,677,641NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01395,199,065 - 95,199,302UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41388,284,707 - 88,284,945RGDRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.41388,284,708 - 88,284,945UniSTSRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11388,473,591 - 88,473,829RGD
Celera1384,365,336 - 84,365,573UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map13556.9UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map13556.9RGD
RH 2.0 Map13609.6RGD
Cytogenetic Map13q24-q26UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21384,731,066 - 84,731,198 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01390,653,152 - 90,653,283NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01395,174,813 - 95,174,944UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41388,260,454 - 88,260,586RGDRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.41388,260,455 - 88,260,586UniSTSRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11388,449,338 - 88,449,470RGD
Celera1384,341,132 - 84,341,263UniSTS
FHH x ACI Map1340.5UniSTS
FHH x ACI Map1340.5RGD
Cytogenetic Map13q24-q26UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21384,730,788 - 84,730,899 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01390,652,874 - 90,652,984NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01395,174,535 - 95,174,645UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41388,260,176 - 88,260,287RGDRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.41388,260,177 - 88,260,287UniSTSRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11388,449,060 - 88,449,171RGD
Celera1384,340,854 - 84,340,964UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map13554.6UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map13554.6RGD
RH 2.0 Map13607.5RGD
Cytogenetic Map13q24-q26UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21384,737,529 - 84,737,783 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01390,659,615 - 90,659,868NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01395,181,276 - 95,181,529UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41388,266,917 - 88,267,171RGDRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.41388,266,918 - 88,267,171UniSTSRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11388,455,802 - 88,456,055RGD
Celera1384,347,595 - 84,347,848UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map13553.4UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map13553.4RGD
RH 2.0 Map13609.0RGD
Cytogenetic Map13q24-q26UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21384,729,733 - 84,729,941 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01390,651,819 - 90,652,026NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01395,173,480 - 95,173,687UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41388,259,122 - 88,259,329UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera1384,339,799 - 84,340,006UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map13553.5UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map13q24-q26UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21384,732,714 - 84,732,985 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01390,654,800 - 90,655,070NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01395,176,461 - 95,176,731UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41388,262,103 - 88,262,373UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera1384,342,780 - 84,343,050UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map13q24-q26UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21384,731,418 - 84,732,703 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01390,653,504 - 90,654,788NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01395,175,165 - 95,176,449UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41388,260,807 - 88,262,091UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera1384,341,484 - 84,342,768UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map18713.9UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map13q24-q26UniSTS


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
High 1
Medium 2 37 15 8 8 10 64 11 29 11 8
Low 1 6 22 21 11 21 10 24 12
Below cutoff 18 18 18


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000058143   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000054947
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1384,729,601 - 84,754,544 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1390,651,686 - 90,676,629 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000108846   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000091263
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1384,732,626 - 84,748,927 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000118040   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000091453
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1384,732,626 - 84,748,356 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_012505   ⟹   NP_036637
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.21384,729,597 - 84,754,544 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.01390,651,682 - 90,676,629 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.01395,173,343 - 95,198,290 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.41388,258,993 - 88,283,918 (-)RGD
Celera1384,339,662 - 84,364,561 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_036637   ⟸   NM_012505
- Peptide Label: precursor
- UniProtKB: P06686 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6JG42 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8I6GJ01 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000054947   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000058143
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000091453   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000118040
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000091263   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000108846
Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P06686-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P06686 1-1020 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13699024
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R9549
Type:single initiation site
Description:ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit alpha 2
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.01390,676,623 - 90,676,683EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:2168 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-17326 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000007290 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOG00055021772 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00060021783 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00065026140 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000058143 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000058143.3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00000108846.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000118040.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00055037412 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00060039034 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00065045622 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Gene3D-CATH 3.40.1110.10 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Calcium-transporting ATPase, cytoplasmic transduction domain A UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Calcium-transporting ATPase, transmembrane domain UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro ATPase_P-typ_cation-transptr_C UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ATPase_P-typ_cation-transptr_N UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ATPase_P-typ_cyto_dom_N UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ATPase_P-typ_P_site UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ATPase_P-typ_TM_dom_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ATPase_P-typ_transduc_dom_A_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  HAD-like_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  HAD_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  P-type_ATPase_IIC UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  P_typ_ATPase UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  P_typ_ATPase_HD_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:24212 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam Cation_ATPase UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Cation_ATPase_C UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Cation_ATPase_N UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  E1-E2_ATPase UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Hydrolase UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Atp1a2 PhenoGen
  NAKATPASE UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000007290 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00055021772 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00060021783 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00065026140 RatGTEx
SMART Cation_ATPase_N UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Superfamily-SCOP SSF56784 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF81653 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF81660 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF81665 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
UniProt A0A8I6AF91_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  AT1A2_RAT UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, ENTREZGENE

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2016-02-17 Atp1a2  ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit alpha 2  Atp1a2  ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 2 polypeptide  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2004-12-14 Atp1a2  ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 2 polypeptide    ATPase, Na+K+ transporting, alpha 2  Name updated 1299863 APPROVED
2002-06-10 Atp1a2  ATPase, Na+K+ transporting, alpha 2      Name updated 70585 PROVISIONAL

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_domains central isoform-specific region (ISR) mediates PKC response but not K+ deocclusion 628463
gene_domains contains an ATP binding domain 1299865
gene_expression predominant in neural and muscle tissues  
gene_expression expressed in brain and kidney 1298554
gene_function catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na+ & K+ ions across the plasma membrane 628463
gene_process required for Na+ and K+ gradient maintenance across plasma membrane 628463
gene_process creates the electrochemical gradient of Na+ & K+, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients 628463
gene_process mediates the ionic gradients across the plasma membrane 628463
gene_protein contains the binding sites for ions and substrates 628463