Hk1 (hexokinase 1) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Hk1 (hexokinase 1) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Hk1
Name: hexokinase 1
RGD ID: 2796
Description: Enables several functions, including ATP binding activity; glucose binding activity; and hexokinase activity. Involved in several processes, including carbohydrate phosphorylation; response to ischemia; and response to ketamine. Located in caveola and mitochondrion. Part of protein-containing complex. Used to study obesity and urinary bladder cancer. Biomarker of colorectal cancer and pulmonary hypertension. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4G; anemia (multiple); hematologic cancer (multiple); obesity; and retinitis pigmentosa. Orthologous to human HK1 (hexokinase 1); PARTICIPATES IN glycolysis pathway; amino sugar metabolic pathway; french type sialuria pathway; INTERACTS WITH 17beta-estradiol; 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine; 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: brain form hexokinase; hexokin; hexokinase type I; hexokinase-1; hexokinase-A; HK I; HKI; rathexokin
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr82030,773,222 - 30,874,814 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.22030,230,488 - 30,332,099 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl2030,230,486 - 30,332,131 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx2031,241,422 - 31,343,013 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.02030,632,326 - 30,733,917 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.02031,368,974 - 31,470,744 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.02031,911,460 - 31,979,780 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl2031,912,262 - 31,956,649 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.02033,703,472 - 33,770,598 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
Celera2031,652,769 - 31,721,279 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map20q11NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
1,10-phenanthroline  (ISO)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose  (EXP,ISO)
2-ethoxyethanol  (EXP)
2-methoxyethanol  (EXP)
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine  (ISO)
3-bromopyruvic acid  (EXP)
3-chloropropane-1,2-diol  (EXP)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
acetamide  (EXP)
aconitine  (EXP)
acrylamide  (ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucosamine  (EXP,ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (ISO)
alpha-naphthoflavone  (ISO)
aluminium atom  (EXP)
aluminium(0)  (EXP)
amitrole  (EXP)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
aristolochic acid A  (ISO)
arsane  (ISO)
arsenic atom  (ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
arsenous acid  (ISO)
azathioprine  (ISO)
azoxystrobin  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
beta-D-glucosamine  (EXP,ISO)
bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide  (EXP)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
Bisphenol B  (ISO)
Brodifacoum  (EXP)
Butylbenzyl phthalate  (ISO)
C60 fullerene  (EXP)
cadmium atom  (EXP)
carbamazepine  (ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
CGP 52608  (ISO)
choline  (ISO)
cisplatin  (ISO)
copper(II) chloride  (EXP)
copper(II) sulfate  (ISO)
crocidolite asbestos  (ISO)
curcumin  (ISO)
cyclosporin A  (ISO)
D-glucose  (ISO)
decabromodiphenyl ether  (ISO)
dextran sulfate  (ISO)
Di-n-octyl phthalate  (ISO)
diarsenic trioxide  (ISO)
dibenz[a,h]anthracene  (ISO)
dibutyl phthalate  (ISO)
dichlorvos  (EXP)
diclofenac  (ISO)
diethyl phthalate  (ISO)
Diisodecyl phthalate  (ISO)
diisononyl phthalate  (ISO)
dinophysistoxin 1  (ISO)
dioxygen  (ISO)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
entinostat  (ISO)
ethanol  (ISO)
flutamide  (ISO)
folic acid  (ISO)
FR900359  (ISO)
gentamycin  (EXP)
glucose  (ISO)
graphite  (EXP)
hydralazine  (ISO)
hydroxysafflor yellow A  (ISO)
hypochlorous acid  (ISO)
ivermectin  (ISO)
L-ascorbic acid  (ISO)
L-methionine  (ISO)
maneb  (ISO)
mebendazole  (ISO)
Meclofenoxate  (EXP)
meldonium  (ISO)
mesalamine  (ISO)
methamphetamine  (ISO)
methapyrilene  (EXP)
methimazole  (EXP)
methoxychlor  (EXP)
N-nitrosomorpholine  (EXP)
nickel dichloride  (ISO)
nitrofen  (EXP)
oxaliplatin  (EXP)
ozone  (EXP)
panobinostat  (ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP,ISO)
paraquat  (ISO)
phenylpropanolamine  (ISO)
pirinixic acid  (ISO)
plumbagin  (EXP)
puerarin  (EXP)
raloxifene  (ISO)
resveratrol  (ISO)
rotenone  (ISO)
SB 431542  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (ISO)
silver atom  (ISO)
silver(0)  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (ISO)
sodium fluoride  (ISO)
streptozocin  (EXP)
sulfadimethoxine  (EXP)
tamoxifen  (ISO)
tert-butyl hydroperoxide  (ISO)
tetrahydropalmatine  (ISO)
thapsigargin  (ISO)
thimerosal  (ISO)
thioacetamide  (EXP)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
tolbutamide  (ISO)
topotecan  (EXP)
triazines  (ISO)
trichostatin A  (ISO)
triclosan  (ISO)
tungsten  (ISO)
valproic acid  (EXP,ISO)
vinclozolin  (EXP)
Yessotoxin  (ISO)
zinc atom  (EXP)
zinc sulfate  (EXP)
zinc(0)  (EXP)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Cellular Component

Molecular Function


References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Protein kinase activity of rat brain hexokinase. Adams V, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991 Jun 28;177(3):1101-6.
2. Hexokinase autophosphorylation: identification of a new dual specificity protein kinase. Adams V, etal., Biochem Med Metab Biol. 1994 Oct;53(1):80-6.
3. In self-defence: hexokinase promotes voltage-dependent anion channel closure and prevents mitochondria-mediated apoptotic cell death. Azoulay-Zohar H, etal., Biochem J. 2004 Jan 15;377(Pt 2):347-55.
4. Enzymes related to lipogenesis in the adipose tissue of obese subjects. Belfiore F, etal., Metabolism. 1976 May;25(5):483-93.
5. Complexes between porin, hexokinase, mitochondrial creatine kinase and adenylate translocator display properties of the permeability transition pore. Implication for regulation of permeability transition by the kinases. Beutner G, etal., Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998 Jan 5;1368(1):7-18.
6. Hexokinase mutations that produce nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. Bianchi M and Magnani M, Blood Cells Mol Dis. 1995;21(1):2-8.
7. Genetic variant in HK1 is associated with a proanemic state and A1C but not other glycemic control-related traits. Bonnefond A, etal., Diabetes. 2009 Nov;58(11):2687-97. doi: 10.2337/db09-0652. Epub 2009 Aug 3.
8. Evolution and regulatory role of the hexokinases. Cardenas ML, etal., Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998 Mar 5;1401(3):242-64.
9. Iron homeostasis and pulmonary hypertension: iron deficiency leads to pulmonary vascular remodeling in the rat. Cotroneo E, etal., Circ Res. 2015 May 8;116(10):1680-90. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.305265. Epub 2015 Mar 12.
10. Defect in glucokinase translocation in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Fujimoto Y, etal., Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Sep;287(3):E414-23. Epub 2004 May 11.
11. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
12. Targeting of hexokinase 1 to liver and hepatoma mitochondria. Gelb BD, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jan 1;89(1):202-6.
13. Multiple molecular forms of ATP:hexose 6-phosphotransferase from rat liver. González C, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1964 Jul 1;16(4):347-52. doi: 10.1016/0006-291x(64)90038-5.
14. The expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism is affected by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonism: a putative link between metabolism and an animal model of psychosis. Iasevoli F, etal., J Neurosci Res. 2012 Sep;90(9):1756-67. doi: 10.1002/jnr.23071. Epub 2012 May 17.
15. Proteomic analysis of bladder cancer by iTRAQ after Bifidobacterium infantis-mediated HSV-TK/GCV suicide gene treatment. Jiang L, etal., Biol Chem. 2013 Oct;394(10):1333-42. doi: 10.1515/hsz-2013-0201.
16. KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes KEGG
17. Mitochondrial boundary membrane contact sites in brain: points of hexokinase and creatine kinase location, and control of Ca2+ transport. Kottke M, etal., Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988 Aug 17;935(1):87-102.
18. Hexokinase-mitochondria interaction mediated by Akt is required to inhibit apoptosis in the presence or absence of Bax and Bak. Majewski N, etal., Mol Cell 2004 Dec 3;16(5):819-30.
19. Erythrocyte hexokinase isoenzyme patterns in hereditary hemoglobinopathies. Malone JI, etal., N Engl J Med. 1968 Nov 14;279(20):1071-7.
20. Combined effect of EPO and radiotherapy on the expression of endogenous molecular markers of tumor metabolism and metastasis. Mees G, etal., Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2009 Oct;24(5):565-72. doi: 10.1089/cbr.2009.0621.
21. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
22. The structure of mammalian hexokinase-1. Mulichak AM, etal., Nat Struct Biol. 1998 Jul;5(7):555-60.
23. Induction of hexokinase I expression in normal and diabetic rats by a brassinosteroid isoform. Muthuraman P and Srikumar K, Eur J Pharm Sci. 2010 Sep 11;41(1):1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2010.05.008. Epub 2010 May 16.
24. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
25. Mitochondrial genome modulates myocardial Akt/Glut/HK salvage pathway in spontaneously hypertensive rats adapted to chronic hypoxia. Nedvedova I, etal., Physiol Genomics. 2018 Jul 1;50(7):532-541. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00040.2017. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
26. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
27. Homophilic anchorage of brain-hexokinase to mitochondria-porins revealed by specific-peptide antibody cross recognition. Oudard S, etal., Bull Cancer. 2004 Jun;91(6):E184-200.
28. The role of oxidized cytochrome c in regulating mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and its perturbation in ischaemia. Pasdois P, etal., Biochem J. 2011 Jun 1;436(2):493-505. doi: 10.1042/BJ20101957.
29. Downeast anemia (dea), a new mouse model of severe nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia caused by hexokinase (HK(1)) deficiency. Peters LL, etal., Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2001 Sep-Oct;27(5):850-60.
30. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
31. PID Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import Pathway Interaction Database annotations from NCI into RGD
32. SMPDB Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import SMPDB annotations from SMPDB into RGD
33. Response of rat cerebral glycolytic enzymes to hyperammonemic states. Ratnakumari L and Murthy CR, Neurosci Lett. 1993 Oct 14;161(1):37-40.
34. Hexose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3 are colocalized with hexokinase I in caveolae microdomains of rat spermatogenic cells. Rauch MC, etal., J Cell Physiol. 2006 May;207(2):397-406.
35. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
36. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
37. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
38. The complete amino acid sequence of the catalytic domain of rat brain hexokinase, deduced from the cloned cDNA. Schwab DA and Wilson JE, J Biol Chem 1988 Mar 5;263(7):3220-4.
39. Complete amino acid sequence of rat brain hexokinase, deduced from the cloned cDNA, and proposed structure of a mammalian hexokinase. Schwab DA and Wilson JE, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1989 Apr;86(8):2563-7.
40. Platelet enzyme abnormalities in leukemias. Sharma S, etal., Indian J Cancer. 2011 Jul-Sep;48(3):323-7. doi: 10.4103/0019-509X.84943.
41. Substrate specificity of brain hexokinase. SOLS A and CRANE RK, J Biol Chem. 1954 Oct;210(2):581-95.
42. Neonatal nutrition: metabolic programming of pancreatic islets and obesity. Srinivasan M, etal., Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2003 Jan;228(1):15-23.
43. A dominant mutation in hexokinase 1 (HK1) causes retinitis pigmentosa. Sullivan LS, etal., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Sep 4;55(11):7147-58. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-15419.
44. Kinome-wide RNAi studies in human multiple myeloma identify vulnerable kinase targets, including a lymphoid-restricted kinase, GRK6. Tiedemann RE, etal., Blood. 2010 Feb 25;115(8):1594-604. doi: 10.1182/blood-2009-09-243980. Epub 2009 Dec 7.
45. Chronic hypoxia enhances expression and activity of mitochondrial creatine kinase and hexokinase in the rat ventricular myocardium. Waskova-Arnostova P, etal., Cell Physiol Biochem. 2014;33(2):310-20. doi: 10.1159/000356671. Epub 2014 Jan 31.
46. Induction and suppression of the key enzymes of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in isolated perfused rat liver in response to glucose, fructose and lactate. Wimhurst JM and Manchester KL, Biochem J. 1973 May;134(1):143-56.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:3579310   PMID:3631958   PMID:12420306   PMID:12477932   PMID:12660493   PMID:14651853   PMID:15155459   PMID:15756812   PMID:16687649   PMID:16951044   PMID:17069463   PMID:17803972  
PMID:18165236   PMID:18308470   PMID:18509164   PMID:18614015   PMID:19144954   PMID:19228992   PMID:19889946   PMID:20060179   PMID:20833797   PMID:21179577   PMID:21408025   PMID:21700703  
PMID:22420779   PMID:22871113   PMID:23962723   PMID:25287584   PMID:26316108   PMID:27374331   PMID:28054552   PMID:28275929   PMID:29119535   PMID:29476059   PMID:29568061   PMID:32113849  
PMID:32283307   PMID:32357304   PMID:34948127   PMID:36755387  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr82030,773,222 - 30,874,814 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.22030,230,488 - 30,332,099 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl2030,230,486 - 30,332,131 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx2031,241,422 - 31,343,013 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.02030,632,326 - 30,733,917 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.02031,368,974 - 31,470,744 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.02031,911,460 - 31,979,780 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl2031,912,262 - 31,956,649 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.02033,703,472 - 33,770,598 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
Celera2031,652,769 - 31,721,279 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map20q11NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh381069,270,000 - 69,401,882 (+)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl1069,269,984 - 69,401,884 (+)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh371071,029,756 - 71,161,638 (+)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 361070,699,762 - 70,831,641 (+)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 341070,748,628 - 70,831,641NCBI
Celera1064,305,609 - 64,438,051 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map10q22.1NCBI
HuRef1065,029,590 - 65,161,554 (+)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_11071,311,204 - 71,443,383 (+)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.01070,138,041 - 70,269,925 (+)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm391062,104,634 - 62,215,699 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl1062,104,634 - 62,215,687 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm381062,268,855 - 62,379,920 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl1062,268,855 - 62,379,908 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv371061,731,603 - 61,842,656 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv361061,665,219 - 61,775,240 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera1063,372,104 - 63,483,135 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map10B4NCBI
cM Map1032.37NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_00495543721,731,584 - 21,816,324 (-)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_00495543721,733,314 - 21,824,303 (-)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1-v2881,415,804 - 81,549,666 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1-v2
NHGRI_mPanPan11081,421,126 - 81,554,987 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v01065,786,940 - 65,870,204 (+)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.11068,289,288 - 68,401,045 (+)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl1068,289,288 - 68,401,045 (+)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.1420,396,761 - 20,516,889 (+)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl420,421,526 - 20,518,211 (+)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha420,527,050 - 20,646,926 (+)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.0420,668,689 - 20,788,765 (+)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl420,668,656 - 20,789,520 (+)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.1420,569,179 - 20,688,937 (+)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.0420,773,025 - 20,892,822 (+)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.0421,116,100 - 21,236,182 (+)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440721360,574,470 - 60,681,207 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049365219,066,999 - 9,159,793 (-)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_0049365219,067,062 - 9,139,112 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl1472,351,246 - 72,460,924 (+)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.11472,383,328 - 72,460,927 (+)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.21478,486,933 - 78,521,251 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.1961,917,501 - 62,029,737 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl961,917,440 - 62,001,843 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_02366604822,657,626 - 22,744,799 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_0046247543,591,090 - 3,659,760 (+)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_0046247543,594,478 - 3,656,231 (+)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Hk1
522 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:131
Count of miRNA genes:95
Interacting mature miRNAs:114
Prediction methods:Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
6893685Bw111Body weight QTL 1112.70.004body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)20132578807Rat
7411668Foco32Food consumption QTL 3280.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)20136600972Rat
9590252Scort12Serum corticosterone level QTL 1220.460.001blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)20136600972Rat
2305926Iddm37Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 376blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)plasma glucose level (CMO:0000042)20152784246527842Rat
1641915Colcr9Colorectal carcinoma resistance QTL 92.970.0024intestine integrity trait (VT:0010554)benign colorectal tumor number (CMO:0001795)20153065546530655Rat
1598816Memor12Memory QTL 122.4exploratory behavior trait (VT:0010471)average horizontal distance between subject and target during voluntary locomotion in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0002674)20260683647606836Rat
7411652Foco24Food consumption QTL 240.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)201175751554435887Rat
9590092Insglur9Insulin/glucose ratio QTL 918.380.001blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)calculated plasma insulin level (CMO:0002170)201175751554435887Rat
4889610Pancm3Pancreatic morphology QTL 33.750.001pancreas mass (VT:0010144)pancreas wet weight (CMO:0000626)201761783247606836Rat
2317880Alcrsp25Alcohol response QTL 252.3response to alcohol trait (VT:0010489)duration of loss of righting reflex (CMO:0002289)201769755054435887Rat
2303626Vencon10Ventilatory control QTL 100.001respiration trait (VT:0001943)respiration rate (CMO:0000289)201919072154435887Rat
2303578Gluco50Glucose level QTL 502blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)202510672254435887Rat
2303587Bw93Body weight QTL 9313body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)202510672254435887Rat
2300188Bmd68Bone mineral density QTL 686.40.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)202510672254435887Rat
1331747Hrtrt16Heart rate QTL 163.163heart pumping trait (VT:2000009)heart rate (CMO:0000002)202520973454435887Rat
1598869Memor6Memory QTL 63.1exploratory behavior trait (VT:0010471)total horizontal distance resulting from voluntary locomotion in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0001443)202924438854435887Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.22030,245,001 - 30,245,143 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.02031,925,975 - 31,926,116NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.02033,717,506 - 33,717,647UniSTSRnor5.0
Celera2031,667,256 - 31,667,397UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map20q11UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.22030,230,678 - 30,230,947 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.02031,911,649 - 31,911,917NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.02033,703,661 - 33,703,929UniSTSRnor5.0
Celera2031,652,958 - 31,653,226UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map20q11UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.22030,294,387 - 30,294,517 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.02031,974,815 - 31,974,944NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.02033,766,363 - 33,766,492UniSTSRnor5.0
Celera2031,716,632 - 31,716,761UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map20q11UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.22030,236,811 - 30,236,981 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.02031,917,782 - 31,917,951NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.02033,709,794 - 33,709,963UniSTSRnor5.0
Celera2031,659,093 - 31,659,262UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map20q11UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.22030,230,529 - 30,230,724 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.02031,911,500 - 31,911,694NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.02033,703,512 - 33,703,706UniSTSRnor5.0
Celera2031,652,809 - 31,653,003UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map20308.49UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map20q11UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.22030,236,508 - 30,236,702 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.02031,917,479 - 31,917,672NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.02033,709,491 - 33,709,684UniSTSRnor5.0
Celera2031,658,790 - 31,658,983UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map20309.09UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map20q11UniSTS


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
High 5
Medium 3 43 38 22 19 22 1 1 74 35 36 11 1
Low 19 19 19 7 10 7
Below cutoff


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000072429   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000066611
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl2030,230,486 - 30,276,277 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl2031,912,262 - 31,956,649 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000097506   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000097537
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl2030,230,486 - 30,276,277 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000099595   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000077266
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl2030,230,486 - 30,332,131 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000105408   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000097394
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl2030,230,486 - 30,302,158 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000112632   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000097442
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl2030,230,486 - 30,318,882 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000115199   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000093592
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl2030,230,517 - 30,299,715 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_001393711   ⟹   NP_001380640
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr82030,773,224 - 30,874,814 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.22030,230,490 - 30,332,099 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_012734   ⟹   NP_036866
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr82030,773,224 - 30,842,072 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.22030,230,490 - 30,299,351 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.02031,911,460 - 31,979,780 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.02033,703,472 - 33,770,598 (-)NCBI
Celera2031,652,769 - 31,721,279 (-)RGD
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039098432   ⟹   XP_038954360
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr82030,773,222 - 30,860,103 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.22030,230,488 - 30,317,270 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039098434   ⟹   XP_038954362
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr82030,773,222 - 30,860,010 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.22030,230,511 - 30,317,273 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039098435   ⟹   XP_038954363
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr82030,773,222 - 30,844,606 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.22030,230,511 - 30,301,816 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_063278971   ⟹   XP_063135041
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr82030,773,222 - 30,830,096 (-)NCBI
Protein Sequences
Protein RefSeqs NP_001380640 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  NP_036866 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  XP_038954360 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  XP_038954362 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  XP_038954363 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  XP_063135041 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
GenBank Protein AAB71373 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAB71374 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAB71375 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAB71376 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAC20075 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAC52945 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL92980 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL92981 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL92982 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL92983 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL92984 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL92985 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL92986 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL92987 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL92988 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL92989 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL92990 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
Ensembl Protein ENSRNOP00000066611.3
GenBank Protein P05708 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_036866   ⟸   NM_012734
- Peptide Label: isoform 2
- UniProtKB: P05708 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A0A8I6AJ28 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000066611   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000072429
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038954360   ⟸   XM_039098432
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038954362   ⟸   XM_039098434
- Peptide Label: isoform X2
- UniProtKB: A0A8I5YBQ4 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038954363   ⟸   XM_039098435
- Peptide Label: isoform X3
- UniProtKB: P05708 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A0A8I6ARQ9 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000097537   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000097506
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000097442   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000112632
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000093592   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000115199
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000097394   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000105408
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000077266   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000099595
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_001380640   ⟸   NM_001393711
- Peptide Label: isoform 1
- UniProtKB: A0A8I5YBQ4 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_063135041   ⟸   XM_063278971
- Peptide Label: isoform X4
Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P05708-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P05708 1-918 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:2796 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-3696 BioCyc
BioCyc Pathway ANAGLYCOLYSIS-PWY [glycolysis III (from glucose)] BioCyc
  PWY-3861 [mannitol degradation II] BioCyc
  PWY-5941 [glycogen degradation II] BioCyc
  PWY3O-1743 [D-mannose degradation II] BioCyc
  UDPNACETYLGALSYN-PWY [UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine biosynthesis II] BioCyc
BioCyc Pathway Image ANAGLYCOLYSIS-PWY BioCyc
  PWY-3861 BioCyc
  PWY-5941 BioCyc
  PWY3O-1743 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000046891 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000072429.3 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000097506.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000099595.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000105408.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000112632.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000115199.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Gene3D-CATH 3.30.420.40 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  3.40.367.20 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro ATPase_NBD UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Hexokinase UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Hexokinase_BS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Hexokinase_C UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Hexokinase_N UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:25058 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  PTHR19443 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam Hexokinase_1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Hexokinase_2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Hk1 PhenoGen
  HEXOKINASE_2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000046891 RatGTEx
Superfamily-SCOP SSF53067 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A6K432_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A6K433_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A6K434_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A6K435_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A6K436_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A6K437_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A6K438_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A6K439_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A6K440_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A6K441_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A6K442_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  HXK1_RAT UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  O35917_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  O35918_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2002-06-10 Hk1  Hexokinase 1      Symbol and Name status set to approved 70586 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_domains contains both a glucose and an ATP binding site 632916