RGD Reference Report - Long-Term Loss of Response in Proton Pump Inhibitor-Responsive Esophageal Eosinophilia Is Uncommon and Influenced by CYP2C19 Genotype and Rhinoconjunctivitis. - Rat Genome Database
OBJECTIVES: Proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE) is diagnosed in at least one-third of patients with suspected eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). We aimed to evaluate the durability and factors influencing long-term efficacy of PPI therapy. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter cohort study of patients with PPI-REE who had at least 12 months of follow-up. PPI therapy was tapered to the lowest dose, which maintained clinical remission. Primary outcomes were the proportion of patients with loss of histological response (<15 eos/HPF) and predictors of loss of response. CYP2C19 polymorphisms were determined from blood samples in a subset of patients. RESULTS: Seventy-five PPI-REE patients were included (mean follow-up 26 months (12-85)), of whom fifty-five (73%) had sustained histological remission on low-dose PPI therapy. Loss of response was significantly higher in those patients with a CYP2C19 rapid metabolizer genotype (36% vs. 6%, P = 0.01) and with rhinoconjunctivitis (40% vs. 13%, P = 0.007). On the multivariate analysis, a CYP2C19 rapid metabolizer genotype (odds ratio (OR) 12.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-115.9) and rhinoconjunctivitis (OR 8.6; 95% CI: 1.5-48.7) were independent predictors of loss of response. Among relapsing patients, eosinophilia was limited to the distal esophagus in 14/20 (70%). Nine of ten relapsers, with distal eosinophilia, all showing a CYP2C19 rapid metabolizer genotype, regained histological remission after PPI dose intensification. CONCLUSIONS: Most PPI-REE patients remain in long-term remission on low-dose PPI therapy. CYP2C19 rapid metabolizer genotypes and rhinoconjunctivitis were independent predictors of loss of response to PPI, but patients frequently responded to PPI dose escalation.