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Strain: F344/NRrrc

Symbol: F344/NRrrc
Strain: F344
Substrain: NRrrc
RGD ID: 70509
Citation ID: RRID:RRRC_00158
Ontology ID: RS:0000313
Alleles: Cdkn2a;   Tnfrsf1a;   Gfap
Previously known as: F344
Type: inbred
Source: NIH Autoimmune Rat Model Repository and Development Center, Rat Resource and Research Center
Origin: Curtiss and Dunning 1920 at Columbia University Institute for Cancer Research,To Heston 1949 (Billingham and Silvers 1959). To National Institutes of Health in 1951 (Hansen et al 1982). Subsequent sublines from Dunning or NIH.
Genetic Markers: c
Coat Color: Albino
Inbred Generations: F155
Last Known Status: Cryopreserved Sperm





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Mammalian Phenotype

Phenotype Values via PhenoMiner     Click to see Annotation Detail View
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Clinical Measurement
systolic blood pressure
body weight
red blood cell count
blood hemoglobin level
white blood cell count
platelet count
blood neutrophil count
blood monocyte count
hematocrit
mean corpuscular volume
plasma glucose level
blood glucose level
heart weight to body weight ratio
both adrenal glands wet weight
serum triglyceride level
serum total cholesterol level
blood CD4 cell count
blood CD8 cell count
blood CD4 cell count to CD8 cell count ratio
blood CD25 cell count to CD4 cell count ratio
blood CD25 cell count to CD8 cell count ratio
both adrenal glands weight to body weight ratio
serum leptin level
liver tumorous lesion number
area of individual liver tumorous lesion
area of liver occupied by tumorous lesions as percentage of total liver area
volume of liver occupied by tumorous lesions as percentage of total liver volume
liver ornithine decarboxylase activity
intramuscular fat area to body weight ratio
intramuscular fat area
liver tumorous lesion number to liver area ratio
serum alpha-fetoprotein level
percentage of study population developing liver tumors during a period of time
liver remodeling tumorous lesion number to liver total tumorous lesion number ratio
benign liver tumor number
malignant liver tumor number
percentage of study population developing benign liver tumors during a period of time
percentage of study population developing malignant liver tumors during a period of time
total surface area of liver occupied by tumorous lesions
ratio of apoptotic bodies to intact tumor cells in remodelling liver tumorous lesions
ratio of apoptotic bodies to intact tumor cells in nonremodelling liver tumorous lesions

References

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. X-linked and lineage-dependent inheritance of coping responses to stress. Ahmadiyeh N, etal., Mamm Genome 2003 Nov;14(11):748-57.
2. Eighteen-month-old Fischer 344 rats fed a spinach-enriched diet show improved delay classical eyeblink conditioning and reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha ) and TNFbeta in the cerebellum. Cartford MC, etal., J Neurosci 2002 Jul 15;22(14):5813-6.
3. Spontaneous diabetes mellitus syndrome in the rat. I. Association with the major histocompatibility complex. Colle E, etal., J Exp Med 1981 Oct 1;154(4):1237-42
4. Identification of genetic loci controlling hepatocarcinogenesis on rat chromosomes 7 and 10. De Miglio MR, et al., Cancer Res 1999 Sep 15;59(18):4651-7.
5. Phenotypic reversion of rat neoplastic liver nodules is under genetic control. De Miglio MR, etal., Int J Cancer 2003 May 20;105(1):70-5.
6. Polygenic control of hepatocarcinogenesis in Copenhagen xF344 rats De Miglio MR, etal., Int J Cancer 2004 Aug 10;111(1):9-16.
7. A rat genetic linkage map including 67 new microsatellite markers. Fakhrai-Rad H, etal., Mamm Genome 1999 Nov;10(11):1102-5
8. Inbred Strains Festing, MFW, Inbred Strains, The Laboratory Rat, 1979, Baker HK, Lindsey JR, Weisbroth SH, 55-72, Academic Press
9. Update to previous Strain Data Festing, MFW, Personal Communication Update, Feb-2000
10. Genetic dissection of a rat model for rheumatoid arthritis: significant gender influences on autosomal modifier loci Furuya T, etal., Hum Mol Genet 2000 Sep 22;9(15):2241-50
11. Genetic analysis of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in the GK rat Galli J, etal., Nat Genet 1996 Jan;12(1):31-7
12. Identification of four new quantitative trait loci regulating arthritis severity and one new quantitative trait locus regulating autoantibody production in rats with collagen-induced arthritis. Griffiths MM, etal., Arthritis Rheum 2000 Jun;43(6):1278-89
13. Genetic dissection of autoimmune type I diabetes in the BB rat Jacob HJ, etal., Nat Genet 1992 Sep;2(1):56-60
14. Genetic dissection of "OLETF", a rat model for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Kanemoto N, etal., Mamm Genome 1998 Jun;9(6):419-25
15. A genetic linkage map of rat chromosome 20 derived from five F2 crosses. Kawahito Y, etal., Immunogenetics 1998 Oct;48(5):335-8
16. Localization of quantitative trait loci regulating adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats: evidence for genetic factors common to multiple autoimmune diseases. Kawahito Y, etal., J Immunol 1998 Oct 15;161(8):4411-9
17. BB rat diabetes susceptibility and body weight regulation genes colocalize on chromosome 2. Klaff LS, etal., Mamm Genome 1999 Sep;10(9):883-7
18. Identification of a novel inflammation-protective locus in the Fischer rat. Listwak S, etal., Mamm Genome 1999 Apr;10(4):362-5.
19. Propylnitrosourea-induced T-lymphomas in LEXF RI strains of rats: genetic analysis. Lu LM, etal., Br J Cancer 1999 May;80(5-6):855-61.
20. Identification of a quantitative trait locus influencing plasma insulin levels after 70% pancreatectomy using the OLETF rat. Moralejo DH, etal., J Vet Med Sci 1998 Oct;60(10):1157-60.
21. Mining the quantitative trait loci associated with oral glucose tolerance in the OLETF rat. Nakaya A, etal., Pac Symp Biocomput 2000;:367-79.
22. NIH Rat Strain Data NIH Rat Strain Data
23. Identification of possible quantitative trait loci responsible for hyperglycaemia after 70% pancreatectomy using a spontaneously diabetogenic rat. Ogino T, etal., Genet Res 1999 Feb;73(1):29-36.
24. Genetic evidence for obesity loci involved in the regulation of body fat distribution in obese type 2 diabetes rat, OLETF. Ogino T, etal., Genomics 2000 Nov 15;70(1):19-25.
25. Serum leptin concentration is linked to chromosomes 2 and 6 in the OLETF rat, an animal model of type 2 diabetes with mild obesity. Ogino T, etal., Mamm Genome 2003 Dec;14(12):839-44.
26. A genome scan localizes five non-MHC loci controlling collagen-induced arthritis in rats. Remmers EF, etal., Nat Genet 1996 Sep;14(1):82-5
27. RGD Strain RSO annotation pipeline RGD Automated Pipelines
28. Identification of genomic regions controlling experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis in rats. Sun SH, etal., Int Immunol 1999 Apr;11(4):529-34
29. Detection of a quantitative trait locus for intramuscular fat accumulation using the OLETF rat. Tanomura H, etal., J Vet Med Sci 2002 Jan;64(1):45-50.
30. Localization in rats of genetic loci regulating susceptibility to experimental erosive arthritis and related autoimmune diseases. Wilder RL, etal., Transplant Proc 1999 May;31(3):1585-8
31. Resistance of DRH strain rats to chemical carcinogenesis of liver: genetic analysis of later progression stage. Yan Y, etal., Carcinogenesis 2002 Jan;23(1):189-96.
32. Genetic resistance to chemical carcinogen-induced preneoplastic hepatic lesions in DRH strain rats. Zeng ZZ, etal., Cancer Res 2000 Jun 1;60(11):2876-81.

Region

Strain QTL Data
Symbol Name Trait
Aia1 Adjuvant induced arthritis QTL 1 joint integrity trait   (VT:0010548)    
Aia2 Adjuvant induced arthritis QTL 2 joint integrity trait   (VT:0010548)    
Aia3 Adjuvant induced arthritis QTL 3 joint integrity trait   (VT:0010548)    
Aia4 Adjuvant induced arthritis QTL 4 joint integrity trait   (VT:0010548)    
Bw1 Body weight QTL1 mesenteric fat pad mass   (VT:0010427)    
Bw19 Body weight QTL 19 body mass   (VT:0001259)    
Bw2 Body weight QTL2 retroperitoneal fat pad mass   (VT:0010430)    
Bw3 Body weight QTL3 mesenteric fat pad mass   (VT:0010427)    
Bw4 Body weight QTL4 retroperitoneal fat pad mass   (VT:0010430)    
Bw5 Body weight QTL5 retroperitoneal fat pad mass   (VT:0010430)    
Bw60 Body weight QTL60 retroperitoneal fat pad mass   (VT:0010430)    
Bw61 Body weight QTL61 intramuscular adipose amount   (VT:0010044)    
Cari1 Carrageenan-induced inflammation QTL 1 hypodermis integrity trait   (VT:0010550)    
Cari2 Carrageenan-induced inflammation QTL 2 hypodermis integrity trait   (VT:0010550)    
Ciaa2 CIA Autoantibody QTL 2 blood autoantibody amount   (VT:0003725)    
Eau1 Experimental allergic uveoretinitis QTL 1 uvea integrity trait   (VT:0010551)    
Eau2 Experimental allergic uveoretinitis QTL 2 uvea integrity trait   (VT:0010551)    
Eau3 Experimental allergic uveoretinitis QTL 3 uvea integrity trait   (VT:0010551)    
Hcar13 Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 13 liver integrity trait   (VT:0010547)    
Hcar14 Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 14 liver integrity trait   (VT:0010547)    
Hcar4 Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 4 liver integrity trait   (VT:0010547)    
Hcar5 Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 5 liver integrity trait   (VT:0010547)    
Hcar6 Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 6 liver integrity trait   (VT:0010547)    
Hcar7 Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 7 liver integrity trait   (VT:0010547)    
Hcar8 Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 8 liver integrity trait   (VT:0010547)    
Hcas5 Hepatocarcinoma susceptibility QTL 5 liver integrity trait   (VT:0010547)    
Hcas6 Hepatocarcinoma susceptibility QTL 6 liver integrity trait   (VT:0010547)    
Hcas7 Hepatocarcinoma susceptibility QTL 7 liver integrity trait   (VT:0010547)    
Iddm3 Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 3 blood glucose amount   (VT:0000188)    
Insul2 Insulin level QTL 2 blood insulin amount   (VT:0001560)    
Lnnr1 Liver neoplastic nodule remodeling QTL 1 liver integrity trait   (VT:0010547)    
Lnnr2 Liver neoplastic nodule remodeling QTL 2 liver integrity trait   (VT:0010547)    
Lnnr3 Liver neoplastic nodule remodeling QTL 3 liver integrity trait   (VT:0010547)    
Lnnr4 Liver neoplastic nodule remodeling QTL 4 liver integrity trait   (VT:0010547)    
Lnnr5 Liver neoplastic nodule remodeling QTL 5 liver integrity trait   (VT:0010547)    
Lnnr6 Liver neoplastic nodule remodeling QTL 6 liver integrity trait   (VT:0010547)    
Niddm1 Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 1 blood glucose amount   (VT:0000188)    
Niddm14 Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 14 blood glucose amount   (VT:0000188)    
Niddm15 Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 15 blood glucose amount   (VT:0000188)    
Niddm2 Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 2 blood glucose amount   (VT:0000188)    
Niddm3 Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 3 blood glucose amount   (VT:0000188)    
Niddm37 Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 37 blood glucose amount   (VT:0000188)    
Niddm38 Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 38 blood glucose amount   (VT:0000188)    
Niddm39 Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 39 blood glucose amount   (VT:0000188)    
Niddm40 Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 40 blood glucose amount   (VT:0000188)    
Niddm41 Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 41 blood glucose amount   (VT:0000188)    
Scl29 Serum cholesterol level QTL 29 blood cholesterol amount   (VT:0000180)    
Scwia1 Streptococcal cell wall induced arthritis QTL 1 joint integrity trait   (VT:0010548)    
Slep1 Serum leptin concentration QTL 1 blood leptin amount   (VT:0005667)    
Slep2 Serum leptin concentration QTL 2 blood leptin amount   (VT:0005667)    
Stl10 Serum triglyceride level QTL 10 blood triglyceride amount   (VT:0002644)    
Stl11 Serum triglyceride level QTL 11 blood triglyceride amount   (VT:0002644)    
Stl12 Serum triglyceride level QTL 12 blood triglyceride amount   (VT:0002644)    
Stresp1 Stress response QTL 1 stress-related behavior trait   (VT:0010451)    
Stresp2 Stress response QTL 2 stress-related behavior trait   (VT:0010451)    
Stresp3 Stress response QTL 3 stress-related behavior trait   (VT:0010451)    
Tls1 T-lymphoma susceptibility QTL 1 thymus integrity trait   (VT:0010555)    
Tls2 T-lymphoma susceptibility QTL 2 thymus integrity trait   (VT:0010555)    
Tls3 T-lymphoma susceptibility QTL 3 thymus integrity trait   (VT:0010555)    
Damaging Variants
Number of Damaging Variants
SamplemRatBN7.2Rnor_6.0Rnor_5.0RGSC_v3.4
F344/NRrrc (KNAW) 572
F344/NRrrc (Illumina) (KNAW) 825
F344/NRrrc (SOLiD) (KNAW) 657
F344/NRrrc (MCW) 1428


Additional Information

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
strain_anatomy Unlike seven other strains it does not develop brownish skin scales on the dorsum of the body, the perineum and the tail (Tayama and Shisa 1994). Low relative heart weight in 10-week old males (2/23) (Tanase et al 1982). 1004
strain_anatomy Unlike seven other strains it does not develop brownish skin scales on the dorsum of the body, the perineum and the tail (Tayama and Shisa 1994). Low relative heart weight in 10-week old males (2/23) (Tanase et al 1982). 634612
strain_behavior Low open field defaecation (10/12) in males (Harrington 1972). Low wheel activity (11/12 females, 8/12 females) (Harringtom 1971b). Moderately easy to handle. 1004
strain_behavior Low open field defaecation (10/12) in males (Harrington 1972). Low wheel activity (11/12 females, 8/12 females) (Harringtom 1971b). Moderately easy to handle. 634612
strain_drgs_chems When fed with 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'-Me-DAB)for 8 weeks the size and number of glutathione S--transferase placental form (GST-P) lesions was larger than DRH rats. After 20 weeks all the rats developed macroscopically evident liver tumors. 625382
strain_immunology Resistant to spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (Hajdu and Rona 1969), but susceptible to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (Gasser et al 1975), experimental allergic neuritis (Levine and Wenk 1968), and autologous immune complex nephritis (Watson and Dixon 1966). Relatively insensitive to the induction of experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis (4/4, cf WKY)(Sado et al 1986). Susceptible to the development of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (8/9) (Biesecker and Koffler 1988). Resistant to the induction of thyroiditis by 3-methylcholanthrene (Glover et al 1969). Resistant to group A Streptococcus pyogenes and Lactobacillus casei-induced chronic polyarthritis (Lehman et al 1984). Epitope specificities of collagen-induced arthritis studied by Cremer et al (1992). Normally resistant to the development of adjuvent arthritis, but germ-free F344 rats are susceptible, and the use of paraffin oil rather than mineral oil also induces susceptibility (Vandelangerijt et al, 1993). Low antibody response to streptococcal group A carbohydrate, not linked to the MHC (Stankus and Leslie 1976). Neonatal pancreatic islets derived by non-enzymic (in vitro) isolation procedures can be transplanted across MHC barriers without any immune suppression, in contrast with other strains such as ACI (Ketchum et al, 1992). Tachykinins cause bronchoconstriction in susceptible F344 mainly by an indirect mechanism that involves stimulation of NK1 receptors and mast cell activation, in contrast with the less sensitive strain BDE where they cause bronchoconstriction by a direct effect on the airway smooth muscle via activation of NK2 receptors (Joos et al, 1994).Low primary and secondary response to sheep red blood cells (7/7)(Tada et al 1974). Poor producers of reaginic antibody in response to ovalbumin in aluminium hydroxide (Murphy et al 1974). Bouleter and Sell (1985) have described the alphafetoprotein and albumin genes and compared these with ACI andf BUF. Haematology; high RBC (7/7), Hb (6/7), PCV (6/7), and monocytes (6/7), but low MCV (1/7), MCH (1/7), MCHC (2/7) (Lovell et al 1981). See also Festing et al (1984). 1004
strain_immunology Resistant to spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (Hajdu and Rona 1969), but susceptible to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (Gasser et al 1975), experimental allergic neuritis (Levine and Wenk 1968), and autologous immune complex nephritis (Watson and Dixon 1966). Relatively insensitive to the induction of experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis (4/4, cf WKY)(Sado et al 1986). Susceptible to the development of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (8/9) (Biesecker and Koffler 1988). Resistant to the induction of thyroiditis by 3-methylcholanthrene (Glover et al 1969). Resistant to group A Streptococcus pyogenes and Lactobacillus casei-induced chronic polyarthritis (Lehman et al 1984). Epitope specificities of collagen-induced arthritis studied by Cremer et al (1992). Normally resistant to the development of adjuvent arthritis, but germ-free F344 rats are susceptible, and the use of paraffin oil rather than mineral oil also induces susceptibility (Vandelangerijt et al, 1993). Low antibody response to streptococcal group A carbohydrate, not linked to the MHC (Stankus and Leslie 1976). Neonatal pancreatic islets derived by non-enzymic (in vitro) isolation procedures can be transplanted across MHC barriers without any immune suppression, in contrast with other strains such as ACI (Ketchum et al, 1992). Tachykinins cause bronchoconstriction in susceptible F344 mainly by an indirect mechanism that involves stimulation of NK1 receptors and mast cell activation, in contrast with the less sensitive strain BDE where they cause bronchoconstriction by a direct effect on the airway smooth muscle via activation of NK2 receptors (Joos et al, 1994).Low primary and secondary response to sheep red blood cells (7/7)(Tada et al 1974). Poor producers of reaginic antibody in response to ovalbumin in aluminium hydroxide (Murphy et al 1974). Bouleter and Sell (1985) have described the alphafetoprotein and albumin genes and compared these with ACI andf BUF. Haematology; high RBC (7/7), Hb (6/7), PCV (6/7), and monocytes (6/7), but low MCV (1/7), MCH (1/7), MCHC (2/7) (Lovell et al 1981). See also Festing et al (1984). 634612
strain_infection Infection with Hymenolepsis diminuata cysticercoids results in no worm loss and no mastocytosis in contrast with DA where there was significant mastocytosis six weeks post infection and low persistance of worms (Ishih, 1992, 1994). 1004
strain_infection Infection with Hymenolepsis diminuata cysticercoids results in no worm loss and no mastocytosis in contrast with DA where there was significant mastocytosis six weeks post infection and low persistance of worms (Ishih, 1992, 1994). 61077
strain_infection Infection with Hymenolepsis diminuata cysticercoids results in no worm loss and no mastocytosis in contrast with DA where there was significant mastocytosis six weeks post infection and low persistance of worms (Ishih, 1992, 1994). 634612
strain_life_disease Life-span and tumour incidence depend both on strain characteristics and the environment. The following has been reported: Median lifespan about 31 months in males and 29 months in femaleswith about 87% survival to 24 months in both sexes. (Sass et al 1975). Cameron et al (1985) found a 75% survival at 26 months of age, and Cameron et al (1982) reported a median life-spanof 31.5 months in males. Mean lifespan 24 months in both sexes in presence of severe pulmonary infection (Davey and Moloney 1970). Median life-span 23-31 months in barrier-reared males and26-29 months in barrier-reared females (Sass et al 1975, Coleman et al 1977, Jacobs and Huseby 1967, Hoffman 1979, Yu et al 1982). Food restriction to 60% of ad-libitum prolongs median life-span to more than 34 months in males (Yu et al 1982), but food restriction limited to early life and protein restriction caused only a small increase in longevity (Yu et al 1985). Other studies of life-span and neoplasia include Soleveld et al (1984) and Maekawa et al (1983). Mostanimals older than 2 years exhibit small local areas of nephritis; less than 25% show severe nephritis (Snell 1967).Tumours: Mammary tumours 41% in females and 23% in males, pituitary adenomas 36% in females and 24% in males, testicular interstitial cell tumours 85% in males. Other tumour typesl ess common (Sass et al 1975). Thyroid carcinoma 22% (Lindsey et al 1968). Interstitial cell testicular tumours 65%, mononuclear cell leukaemia 24%, subcutaneous fibroadenoma 9% infemales. Both sexes have a 5% incidence of nodular hyperplasia of the liver. (Davey and Moloney1970). In various studies incidence of leukaemias 23-26% and of testicular intersticial tumours65-90% (Jacobs and Huseby 1967, Davey and Moloney 1970, Moloney et al 1970, Sass et al1975, Cockrell and Garer 1976). Uterine polyploid tumours of endometrial origin 21% (Jacobs and Huseby 1967). In germ-free conditions leukaemia 26% in males, 36% in females, mammary tumours 12% in males 20% in females, all other tumours 9% in males, 5% in females (Sacksteder 1976). Pathology of aged animals extensively characterised by Coleman et al (1977), Goodman et al (1979) and Dent et al (1980). Aged rats exhibit peripheral retinal degeneration which isexacerbated by fluorescent light of moderate intensity (32 foot-candles). They also develop cardiomyopathy with myocardial degeneration, fibrosis and chronic intersticial myocarditis (males33%, females 18%) and nephropathy (67% in males, 39% in females) (Lai et al 1979). Retinas of both sexes show a steady decline with age in the thickness of the outer nuclear layer and photoreceptor layer, with a drastically accelerated rate of peripheral retinal degeneration seen only in males after 12 months of age (Diloreto et al, 1994, see also Faktorovich et al, 1992). 1004
strain_life_disease Life-span and tumour incidence depend both on strain characteristics and the environment. The following has been reported: Median lifespan about 31 months in males and 29 months in femaleswith about 87% survival to 24 months in both sexes. (Sass et al 1975). Cameron et al (1985) found a 75% survival at 26 months of age, and Cameron et al (1982) reported a median life-spanof 31.5 months in males. Mean lifespan 24 months in both sexes in presence of severe pulmonary infection (Davey and Moloney 1970). Median life-span 23-31 months in barrier-reared males and26-29 months in barrier-reared females (Sass et al 1975, Coleman et al 1977, Jacobs and Huseby 1967, Hoffman 1979, Yu et al 1982). Food restriction to 60% of ad-libitum prolongs median life-span to more than 34 months in males (Yu et al 1982), but food restriction limited to early life and protein restriction caused only a small increase in longevity (Yu et al 1985). Other studies of life-span and neoplasia include Soleveld et al (1984) and Maekawa et al (1983). Mostanimals older than 2 years exhibit small local areas of nephritis; less than 25% show severe nephritis (Snell 1967).Tumours: Mammary tumours 41% in females and 23% in males, pituitary adenomas 36% in females and 24% in males, testicular interstitial cell tumours 85% in males. Other tumour typesl ess common (Sass et al 1975). Thyroid carcinoma 22% (Lindsey et al 1968). Interstitial cell testicular tumours 65%, mononuclear cell leukaemia 24%, subcutaneous fibroadenoma 9% infemales. Both sexes have a 5% incidence of nodular hyperplasia of the liver. (Davey and Moloney1970). In various studies incidence of leukaemias 23-26% and of testicular intersticial tumours65-90% (Jacobs and Huseby 1967, Davey and Moloney 1970, Moloney et al 1970, Sass et al1975, Cockrell and Garer 1976). Uterine polyploid tumours of endometrial origin 21% (Jacobs and Huseby 1967). In germ-free conditions leukaemia 26% in males, 36% in females, mammary tumours 12% in males 20% in females, all other tumours 9% in males, 5% in females (Sacksteder 1976). Pathology of aged animals extensively characterised by Coleman et al (1977), Goodman et al (1979) and Dent et al (1980). Aged rats exhibit peripheral retinal degeneration which isexacerbated by fluorescent light of moderate intensity (32 foot-candles). They also develop cardiomyopathy with myocardial degeneration, fibrosis and chronic intersticial myocarditis (males33%, females 18%) and nephropathy (67% in males, 39% in females) (Lai et al 1979). Retinas of both sexes show a steady decline with age in the thickness of the outer nuclear layer and photoreceptor layer, with a drastically accelerated rate of peripheral retinal degeneration seen only in males after 12 months of age (Diloreto et al, 1994, see also Faktorovich et al, 1992). 634612
strain_life_disease Rats display genetic susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma 619598
strain_phys_biochem Growth described by Cameron et al (1985). Resistant to the development of salt-induced hypertension (Hall et al 1976). High specific activity but low inducibility of NADP cytochrome C reductase compared with outbred Sprague-Dawley rats (Gold and Widnell 1975). Hepatic microsomal activity before and after induction by phenobarbitone well characterised (Page and Vesell 1969, Gold and Widnell 1975, Dent et al 1980). Large pituitaries, susceptible to Cysticercus in infection and rapid absorption of diethylstilboestrol leading to death (Dunning et al 1947). Low LD50 of pentobarbital sodium (5/7=70mg/kg) (Shearer et al 1975). Have substantially higher levels of diurnal and stress related corticosterone levels with higher levels of corticosteroid-binding globulin in plasma, spleen and thymus than LEW or Sprague-Dawley rats (Dhabhar et al, 1993). Higher concentrations of cortical and hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors compared with LEW rats (Burnet et al, 1994). Hippocampal neurones are more vulnerable to ishemic insult than those of other strains (1/3) (Iwasaki et al, 1995). 1004
strain_phys_biochem Growth described by Cameron et al (1985). Resistant to the development of salt-induced hypertension (Hall et al 1976). High specific activity but low inducibility of NADP cytochrome C reductase compared with outbred Sprague-Dawley rats (Gold and Widnell 1975). Hepatic microsomal activity before and after induction by phenobarbitone well characterised (Page and Vesell 1969, Gold and Widnell 1975, Dent et al 1980). Large pituitaries, susceptible to Cysticercus in infection and rapid absorption of diethylstilboestrol leading to death (Dunning et al 1947). Low LD50 of pentobarbital sodium (5/7=70mg/kg) (Shearer et al 1975). Have substantially higher levels of diurnal and stress related corticosterone levels with higher levels of corticosteroid-binding globulin in plasma, spleen and thymus than LEW or Sprague-Dawley rats (Dhabhar et al, 1993). Higher concentrations of cortical and hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors compared with LEW rats (Burnet et al, 1994). Hippocampal neurones are more vulnerable to ishemic insult than those of other strains (1/3) (Iwasaki et al, 1995). 634612
strain_phys_biochem Old animals treated with 6 weeks of a spinach-enriched diet displays the delay eyeblink conditioning significantly faster than old animals on the regular diet 619609
strain_phys_biochem Cerebelli from older animals on the spinach-enriched diet expresses less TNFa and TNFb than cerebelli from older animals on the control diet 628312
strain_reproduction Good breeding performance (1/12) and large litter size (1/12) (Hansen et al 1973). 1004
strain_reproduction Good breeding performance (1/12) and large litter size (1/12) (Hansen et al 1973). 634612

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2012-08-23 F344/NRrrc    F344/N    Name updated 68913 APPROVED
2012-08-23 F344/NRrrc    F344/N    Symbol updated 68687 APPROVED
2012-08-23 F344/NRrrc    F344/N    Name updated 68913 APPROVED
2012-08-23 F344/NRrrc    F344/N    Symbol updated 68687 APPROVED
2004-12-13 F344/N  Fischer  F344  Fischer  Data merged from RGD:60994 737654 APPROVED

Database Acc Id Source(s)
RRRC RRRC:00158 RGD