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Strain: DA

Symbol: DA
Strain: DA
Full Name: DA
RGD ID: 60997
Citation ID: RRID:RGD_60997
Ontology ID: RS:0000014
Alleles: Tnfrsf1a;   Ednrb
Type: inbred
Source: Not Available
Origin: Developed from stock of unstated origin by Dr. T.T. Odell, Jr. at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee to F11, then by Dr. Darcy Wilson at the Wistar Institute, who named it DA because it expressed the 'd' blood group allele of Joy Palm, and it is 'a' agouti in colour (Wilson 1965). Inbreeding was completed in about 1965. Although Palm and Black (1971) suggest it may be related to COP, there is no real evidence that this is the case.
Genetic Markers: A,C,H.
Coat Color: Agouti .
Inbred Generations: F77 (Han1989)
Last Known Status: Unknown





References

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Mapping and functional characterization of rat chromosome 4 regions that regulate arthritis models and phenotypes in congenic strains. Backdahl L, etal., Arthritis Rheum 2003 Feb;48(2):551-9.
2. Two genes in the rat homologous to human NKG2. Berg SF, etal., Eur J Immunol 1998 Feb;28(2):444-50
3. Evidence for common autoimmune disease genes controlling onset, severity, and chronicity based on experimental models for multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Bergsteinsdottir K, etal., J Immunol 2000 Feb 1;164(3):1564-8
4. Induction of arthritis in DA rats by incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Cannon GW, etal., J Rheumatol 1993 Jan;20(1):7-11
5. Quantitative trait loci disposing for both experimental arthritis and encephalomyelitis in the DA rat; impact on severity of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and antibody isotype pattern. Dahlman I, etal., Eur J Immunol 1998 Jul;28(7):2188-96
6. An autosomal dominant locus, Nka, mapping to the Ly-49 region of a rat natural killer (NK) gene complex, controls NK cell lysis of allogeneic lymphocytes. Dissen E, etal., J Exp Med 1996 May 1;183(5):2197-207
7. Inbred Strains Festing, MFW, Inbred Strains, The Laboratory Rat, 1979, Baker HK, Lindsey JR, Weisbroth SH, 55-72, Academic Press
8. Update to previous Strain Data Festing, MFW, Personal Communication Update, Feb-2000
9. Genetic dissection of a rat model for rheumatoid arthritis: significant gender influences on autosomal modifier loci Furuya T, etal., Hum Mol Genet 2000 Sep 22;9(15):2241-50
10. Identification of four new quantitative trait loci regulating arthritis severity and one new quantitative trait locus regulating autoantibody production in rats with collagen-induced arthritis. Griffiths MM, etal., Arthritis Rheum 2000 Jun;43(6):1278-89
11. Rats made congenic for Oia3 on chromosome 10 become susceptible to squalene-induced arthritis. Holm BC, etal., Hum Mol Genet 2001 Mar 15;10(6):565-72.
12. Positioning of a polymorphic quantitative trait nucleotide in the Ncf1 gene controlling oxidative burst response and arthritis severity in rats. Hultqvist M, etal., Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011 Jun 15;14(12):2373-83. doi: 10.1089/ars.2010.3440. Epub 2011 Mar 31.
13. Genetic dissection of autoimmune type I diabetes in the BB rat Jacob HJ, etal., Nat Genet 1992 Sep;2(1):56-60
14. An advanced intercross line resolves Eae18 into two narrow quantitative trait loci syntenic to multiple sclerosis candidate loci. Jagodic M, etal., J Immunol 2004 Jul 15;173(2):1366-73.
15. Susceptibility to oil-induced arthritis is linked to Oia2 on chromosome 4 in a DA(DA x PVG.1AV1) backcross. Jansson AM, etal., Transplant Proc 1999 May;31(3):1597-9.
16. A genetic linkage map of rat chromosome 20 derived from five F2 crosses. Kawahito Y, etal., Immunogenetics 1998 Oct;48(5):335-8
17. Localization of quantitative trait loci regulating adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats: evidence for genetic factors common to multiple autoimmune diseases. Kawahito Y, etal., J Immunol 1998 Oct 15;161(8):4411-9
18. Mapping of novel genes predisposing or protecting diabetes development in the BB/OK rat. Kloting I, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998 Apr 17;245(2):483-6
19. Susceptibility of DA rats to arthritis induced with adjuvant oil or rat collagen is determined by genes both within and outside the major histocompatibility complex. Lorentzen JC and Klareskog L, Scand J Immunol 1996 Dec;44(6):592-8.
20. Identification of arthritogenic adjuvants of self and foreign origin. Lorentzen JC Scand J Immunol 1999 Jan;49(1):45-50.
21. Identification of rat susceptibility loci for adjuvant-oil-induced arthritis. Lorentzen JC, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998 May 26;95(11):6383-7
22. Ocular infection with herpes simplex virus in several strains of rat. Nicholls SM, etal., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994 Jul;35(8):3260-7.
23. Positional identification of Ncf1 as a gene that regulates arthritis severity in rats. Olofsson P, etal., Nat Genet 2003 Jan;33(1):25-32.
24. A genome scan localizes five non-MHC loci controlling collagen-induced arthritis in rats. Remmers EF, etal., Nat Genet 1996 Sep;14(1):82-5
25. RGD Strain RSO annotation pipeline RGD Automated Pipelines
26. Quantitative trait loci affecting 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced tongue carcinogenesis in the rat. Tanuma J, etal., Cancer Res 1998 Apr 15;58(8):1660-4
27. Carcinogenesis modifier loci in rat tongue are subject to frequent loss of heterozygosity. Tanuma J, etal., Int J Cancer 2002 Dec 20;102(6):638-42.
28. Pristane-induced arthritis in rats: a new model for rheumatoid arthritis with a chronic disease course influenced by both major histocompatibility complex and non-major histocompatibility complex genes. Vingsbo C, etal., Am J Pathol 1996 Nov;149(5):1675-83
29. Genetic control of arthritis onset, severity and chronicity in a model for rheumatoid arthritis in rats. Vingsbo-Lundberg C, etal., Nat Genet 1998 Dec;20(4):401-4
30. Identification of rat quantitative trait loci that regulate LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine responses. Xu H, etal., Scand J Immunol 2002 Sep;56(3):248-53.

Region

Strain QTL Data
Symbol Name Trait
Aia1 Adjuvant induced arthritis QTL 1 joint integrity trait   (VT:0010548)    
Aia2 Adjuvant induced arthritis QTL 2 joint integrity trait   (VT:0010548)    
Aia3 Adjuvant induced arthritis QTL 3 joint integrity trait   (VT:0010548)    
Aia4 Adjuvant induced arthritis QTL 4 joint integrity trait   (VT:0010548)    
Apr1 Acute phase response QTL 1 orosomucoid 1 amount   (VT:0010541)    
Apr2 Acute phase response QTL 2 blood murinoglobulin 1 amount   (VT:0010597)    
Apr3 Acute phase response QTL 3 blood interleukin-6 amount   (VT:0008595)    
Apr4 Acute phase response QTL 4 orosomucoid 1 amount   (VT:0010541)    
Apr5 Acute phase response QTL 5 blood interleukin-6 amount   (VT:0008595)    
Apr6 Acute phase response QTL 6 blood interleukin-6 amount   (VT:0008595)    
Ciaa1 CIA Autoantibody QTL 1 blood autoantibody amount   (VT:0003725)    
Ciaa2 CIA Autoantibody QTL 2 blood autoantibody amount   (VT:0003725)    
Ciaa3 CIA Autoantibody QTL 3 blood autoantibody amount   (VT:0003725)    
Eae1 Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 1 nervous system integrity trait   (VT:0010566)    
Eae10 Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 10 nervous system integrity trait   (VT:0010566)    
Eae11 Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 11 nervous system integrity trait   (VT:0010566)    
Eae12 Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 12 nervous system integrity trait   (VT:0010566)    
Eae13 Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 13 nervous system integrity trait   (VT:0010566)    
Eae14 Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 14 nervous system integrity trait   (VT:0010566)    
Eae15 Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 15 nervous system integrity trait   (VT:0010566)    
Eae19 Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 19 nervous system integrity trait   (VT:0010566)    
Eae20 Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 20 nervous system integrity trait   (VT:0010566)    
Eae21 Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 21 body mass   (VT:0001259)    
Eae22 Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 22 nervous system integrity trait   (VT:0010566)    
Eae4 Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 4 nervous system integrity trait   (VT:0010566)    
Eae5 Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 5 nervous system integrity trait   (VT:0010566)    
Eae6 Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 6 body mass   (VT:0001259)    
Eae7 Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 7 body mass   (VT:0001259)    
Eae8 Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 8 nervous system integrity trait   (VT:0010566)    
Eae9 Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 9 body mass   (VT:0001259)    
Eaex Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL x nervous system integrity trait   (VT:0010566)    
Eaey Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL y nervous system integrity trait   (VT:0010566)    
Eaez Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL z nervous system integrity trait   (VT:0010566)    
Iddm16 Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 16 blood glucose amount   (VT:0000188)    
Iddm4 Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 4 blood glucose amount   (VT:0000188)    
Iddm5 Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 5 blood glucose amount   (VT:0000188)    
Iddm6 Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 6 blood glucose amount   (VT:0000188)    
Nka1 Natural killer alloreactivity QTL 1 natural killer cell cytolysis trait   (VT:0005070)    
Oia2 Oil induced arthritis QTL 2 joint integrity trait   (VT:0010548)    
Pia1 Pristane induced arthritis QTL 1 joint integrity trait   (VT:0010548)    
Pia2 Pristane induced arthritis QTL 2 joint integrity trait   (VT:0010548)    
Pia3 Pristane induced arthritis QTL 3 joint integrity trait   (VT:0010548)    
Pia4 Pristane induced arthritis QTL 4 joint integrity trait   (VT:0010548)    
Pia5 Pristane induced arthritis QTL 5 joint integrity trait   (VT:0010548)    
Pia6 Pristane induced arthritis QTL 6 joint integrity trait   (VT:0010548)    
Tcas10 Tongue tumor susceptibility QTL 10 tongue integrity trait   (VT:0010553)    
Tcas11 Tongue tumor susceptibility QTL 11 tongue integrity trait   (VT:0010553)    
Tcas2 Tongue tumor susceptibility QTL 2 tongue integrity trait   (VT:0010553)    
Tcas3 Tongue tumor susceptibility QTL 3 tongue integrity trait   (VT:0010553)    
Tcas4 Tongue tumor susceptibility QTL 4 tongue integrity trait   (VT:0010553)    
Tcas5 Tongue tumor susceptibility QTL 5 tongue integrity trait   (VT:0010553)    
Tcas6 Tongue tumor susceptibility QTL 6 tongue integrity trait   (VT:0010553)    
Tcas8 Tongue tumor susceptibility QTL 8 tongue integrity trait   (VT:0010553)    
Tcas9 Tongue tumor susceptibility QTL 9 tongue integrity trait   (VT:0010553)    

Additional Information

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
strain_drgs_chems Susceptible (1/7) to the development of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide induced squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue, with high proliferative response of the tongue epithelium (contrast WF)(Kitano et al, 1992). 1004
strain_drgs_chems Susceptible (1/7) to the development of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide induced squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue, with high proliferative response of the tongue epithelium (contrast WF)(Kitano et al, 1992). 61077
strain_drgs_chems Susceptible (1/7) to the development of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide induced squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue, with high proliferative response of the tongue epithelium (contrast WF)(Kitano et al, 1992). 634612
strain_drgs_chems Rats developed mild arthritis after injected with IFA emulsified with water but when arthritogenic adjuvants like pristane, mycobacteria, MDP, avridine were added arthritis incidence was increased from 50% to 100% and severity from 4-7 to 10-12. Beta glucan solution was able to induce arthritis when injected without IFA. 737660
strain_immunology Susceptible to the induction of autoimmune thyroiditis (Rose 1975). Develop severe collagen-induced arthritis following immunisation with bovine, chick or rat type II collagens. This is exacerbated by infection with rat cytomegalovirus. However, the congenic strain DA.1N(BN) is much more resistant (Griffiths et al, 1994). Develops arthritis after injection of Freunds incomplete adjuvent alone (oil-induced arthritis, OIA). This is a self-limiting acute disease whereas collagen-induced arthritis follows a chronic course (Holmdahl and Kvick, 1992, 1994). DA is sensitive whereas LEW are relatively resistant (Holmdahl et al, 1992). A strong local expression of TNF-alpha, induced by arthritogenic stimuli may be important for the induction of arthritis (Mussener et al, 1995). Susceptible to the development of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis upon treatment with a myelin basic protein-specific T cell line derived from an F1 hybrid between resistant AO and susceptible DA strain rats (Mostaricastrojkovic et al, 1992). Although DA andLEW are both highly susceptible to the development of EAE, there are marked differences in the array of myelin epitopes capable of inducing the disease as well as MHC restriction of these epitopes between the two strains (Stepaniak et al, 1995). Resistant to the development of experimental glomerulonephritis following injection of nephritogenic antigen from bovine renal basement membrane (10/10) (Naito et al, 1991).Met-enkephalin increased H2O2 production by macrophages (contrast AO) (Radulovic et al,1995). 1004
strain_immunology Susceptible to the induction of autoimmune thyroiditis (Rose 1975). Develop severe collagen-induced arthritis following immunisation with bovine, chick or rat type II collagens. This is exacerbated by infection with rat cytomegalovirus. However, the congenic strain DA.1N(BN) is much more resistant (Griffiths et al, 1994). Develops arthritis after injection of Freunds incomplete adjuvent alone (oil-induced arthritis, OIA). This is a self-limiting acute disease whereas collagen-induced arthritis follows a chronic course (Holmdahl and Kvick, 1992, 1994). DA is sensitive whereas LEW are relatively resistant (Holmdahl et al, 1992). A strong local expression of TNF-alpha, induced by arthritogenic stimuli may be important for the induction of arthritis (Mussener et al, 1995). Susceptible to the development of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis upon treatment with a myelin basic protein-specific T cell line derived from an F1 hybrid between resistant AO and susceptible DA strain rats (Mostaricastrojkovic et al, 1992). Although DA andLEW are both highly susceptible to the development of EAE, there are marked differences in the array of myelin epitopes capable of inducing the disease as well as MHC restriction of these epitopes between the two strains (Stepaniak et al, 1995). Resistant to the development of experimental glomerulonephritis following injection of nephritogenic antigen from bovine renal basement membrane (10/10) (Naito et al, 1991).Met-enkephalin increased H2O2 production by macrophages (contrast AO) (Radulovic et al,1995). 61077
strain_immunology Susceptible to the induction of autoimmune thyroiditis (Rose 1975). Develop severe collagen-induced arthritis following immunisation with bovine, chick or rat type II collagens. This is exacerbated by infection with rat cytomegalovirus. However, the congenic strain DA.1N(BN) is much more resistant (Griffiths et al, 1994). Develops arthritis after injection of Freunds incomplete adjuvent alone (oil-induced arthritis, OIA). This is a self-limiting acute disease whereas collagen-induced arthritis follows a chronic course (Holmdahl and Kvick, 1992, 1994). DA is sensitive whereas LEW are relatively resistant (Holmdahl et al, 1992). A strong local expression of TNF-alpha, induced by arthritogenic stimuli may be important for the induction of arthritis (Mussener et al, 1995). Susceptible to the development of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis upon treatment with a myelin basic protein-specific T cell line derived from an F1 hybrid between resistant AO and susceptible DA strain rats (Mostaricastrojkovic et al, 1992). Although DA andLEW are both highly susceptible to the development of EAE, there are marked differences in the array of myelin epitopes capable of inducing the disease as well as MHC restriction of these epitopes between the two strains (Stepaniak et al, 1995). Resistant to the development of experimental glomerulonephritis following injection of nephritogenic antigen from bovine renal basement membrane (10/10) (Naito et al, 1991).Met-enkephalin increased H2O2 production by macrophages (contrast AO) (Radulovic et al,1995). 634612
strain_infection Infection with Hymenolepsis diminuata cysticercoids results in significant mastocytosis six weeks post infection and low persistance of worms, in contrast with F344, where there was no worm loss and no mastocytosis (Ishih, 1992, 1994).Dahl R and Dahl S (Mollegard) Origin: see SR and SS and also DSS/1 to DSS/3 1004
strain_infection Infection with Hymenolepsis diminuata cysticercoids results in significant mastocytosis six weeks post infection and low persistance of worms, in contrast with F344, where there was no worm loss and no mastocytosis (Ishih, 1992, 1994).Dahl R and Dahl S (Mollegard) Origin: see SR and SS and also DSS/1 to DSS/3 61077
strain_infection Infection with Hymenolepsis diminuata cysticercoids results in significant mastocytosis six weeks post infection and low persistance of worms, in contrast with F344, where there was no worm loss and no mastocytosis (Ishih, 1992, 1994).Dahl R and Dahl S (Mollegard) Origin: see SR and SS and also DSS/1 to DSS/3 634612
strain_life_disease Urinary bladder tumours 54% in males and 14% in females, with a peak incidence at 25-30 months of age (Deerberg et al 1985). High incidence of hormone-dependent endometrial adenocarcinoma. A transplantable cell line (RUCA-I) derived from such a tumour in DA rats can produce these tumours in ectopic sites. The rate of proliferation is reduced by tamoxifen, and this cell line appears to be a suitable model for the study of molecular aspects of estrogen and tamoxifen-dependent gene expression. See also strain BDII/Han (Schutze et al, 1992).Urolithiasis found in 2/78 female rats at an average age of 118 days (Kunstyr et al 1982). 1004
strain_life_disease Urinary bladder tumours 54% in males and 14% in females, with a peak incidence at 25-30 months of age (Deerberg et al 1985). High incidence of hormone-dependent endometrial adenocarcinoma. A transplantable cell line (RUCA-I) derived from such a tumour in DA rats can produce these tumours in ectopic sites. The rate of proliferation is reduced by tamoxifen, and this cell line appears to be a suitable model for the study of molecular aspects of estrogen and tamoxifen-dependent gene expression. See also strain BDII/Han (Schutze et al, 1992).Urolithiasis found in 2/78 female rats at an average age of 118 days (Kunstyr et al 1982). 61077
strain_life_disease Urinary bladder tumours 54% in males and 14% in females, with a peak incidence at 25-30 months of age (Deerberg et al 1985). High incidence of hormone-dependent endometrial adenocarcinoma. A transplantable cell line (RUCA-I) derived from such a tumour in DA rats can produce these tumours in ectopic sites. The rate of proliferation is reduced by tamoxifen, and this cell line appears to be a suitable model for the study of molecular aspects of estrogen and tamoxifen-dependent gene expression. See also strain BDII/Han (Schutze et al, 1992).Urolithiasis found in 2/78 female rats at an average age of 118 days (Kunstyr et al 1982). 634612
strain_life_disease All DA rats which were injected with IFA (incomplete Freund's adjuvant) developed arthritis whereas only 17% of (DA x LEW.1AV1)F1 , 46% of (DA x LEW.1AV1)F2 and 75% of DA x F1 developed arthritis. 61087
strain_life_disease Animals developed severe arthritis with a sudden onset 2 to 3 weeks after being injected with pristane. This started in interphalangeal joints and spread to the ankles. 61088
strain_life_disease These animals are susceptible to arthritis induced by non-immunogenic mineral oil (Oia) and by rat collagen II and mineral oil (rOia). 737659
strain_life_disease Displays genetic susceptibility to induction of arthritis in experimental models of rheumatoid arthritis. 629560
strain_life_disease The F1 progeny when crossed with PVG.1AV1 were resistant to arthritis whereas 4% of F2 and 46%of DA(DA x PVG.1AV1) backcross had signs of arthritis. 737700
strain_other The F7 generation from a DA x PVG.1AV1 intercross were used for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL mapping. 1302437
strain_phys_biochem Possible model for deficiency of debrisoquine hydroxylation due to a lack of Cyp2D1 activity,which is equivalent to human Cyp2D6 (Al-Dabbagh et al 1981), with the defect being due to a structurally altered db1 protein (Gonzalez et al 1987). At least one other isoform of P450 of the Cyp2C or Cyp3A families may also be missing. Although DA rats may be used as a preliminary screen to identify Cyp2D6 substrates, interspecies differences in metabolism means that this strain could not be used to provide quantitative information regarding the contribution of Cyp2D6 to anoxidation in humans (Barham et al, 1994) Defective bile acid transport found in females, which may be related to deficient debrisoquine hydroxylation (Reichen et al 1986). Hackbarth et al (1981) have described the glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow in DA and other strains, and haematological parameters and their relation to diet have been described by Hackbarth et al (1983). In studies of food intake andbody weight gain, DA rats ingested mainly proteins and fats, in contrast with outbred Wistar rats which ate about equal quantities of fat, protein and carbohydrate (Larueachagiotis et al, 1994). 1004
strain_phys_biochem Possible model for deficiency of debrisoquine hydroxylation due to a lack of Cyp2D1 activity,which is equivalent to human Cyp2D6 (Al-Dabbagh et al 1981), with the defect being due to a structurally altered db1 protein (Gonzalez et al 1987). At least one other isoform of P450 of the Cyp2C or Cyp3A families may also be missing. Although DA rats may be used as a preliminary screen to identify Cyp2D6 substrates, interspecies differences in metabolism means that this strain could not be used to provide quantitative information regarding the contribution of Cyp2D6 to anoxidation in humans (Barham et al, 1994) Defective bile acid transport found in females, which may be related to deficient debrisoquine hydroxylation (Reichen et al 1986). Hackbarth et al (1981) have described the glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow in DA and other strains, and haematological parameters and their relation to diet have been described by Hackbarth et al (1983). In studies of food intake andbody weight gain, DA rats ingested mainly proteins and fats, in contrast with outbred Wistar rats which ate about equal quantities of fat, protein and carbohydrate (Larueachagiotis et al, 1994). 61077
strain_phys_biochem Possible model for deficiency of debrisoquine hydroxylation due to a lack of Cyp2D1 activity,which is equivalent to human Cyp2D6 (Al-Dabbagh et al 1981), with the defect being due to a structurally altered db1 protein (Gonzalez et al 1987). At least one other isoform of P450 of the Cyp2C or Cyp3A families may also be missing. Although DA rats may be used as a preliminary screen to identify Cyp2D6 substrates, interspecies differences in metabolism means that this strain could not be used to provide quantitative information regarding the contribution of Cyp2D6 to anoxidation in humans (Barham et al, 1994) Defective bile acid transport found in females, which may be related to deficient debrisoquine hydroxylation (Reichen et al 1986). Hackbarth et al (1981) have described the glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow in DA and other strains, and haematological parameters and their relation to diet have been described by Hackbarth et al (1983). In studies of food intake andbody weight gain, DA rats ingested mainly proteins and fats, in contrast with outbred Wistar rats which ate about equal quantities of fat, protein and carbohydrate (Larueachagiotis et al, 1994). 634612
strain_phys_biochem Animals in which arthritis has been induced by immunization with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) show swelling in the ankles and in few peripheral interphalangeal joints. Animals suffering from rat-collagen induced arthritis (rCia) have their peripheral interphalangeal joints effected first and then all joints in the paws become inflamed. 737659
strain_reproduction Short gestation period (1/8) (Peters 1986). 1004
strain_reproduction Short gestation period (1/8) (Peters 1986). 634612