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Age-related decline in melatonin and its MT1 receptor are associated with decreased sensitivity to melatonin and enhanced mammary tumor growth.

Authors: Hill, SM  Cheng, C  Yuan, L  Mao, L  Jockers, R  Dauchy, B  Blask, DE 
Citation: Hill SM, etal., Curr Aging Sci. 2013 Feb;6(1):125-33.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:23895529

The pineal hormone melatonin (MLT) has potent anti-breast cancer activity, its actions are heavily mediated via the MT1 receptor and subsequent modulation of downstream signaling pathways including cAMP/PKA, Erk/MAPK, p38, and Ca2+/calmodulin. Also, via the MT1 pathway, MLT can repress the transcriptional activity of some mitogenic nuclear receptors including ERalpha, GR, and RORalpha, while potentiating the activity of other receptors (RARalpha and RXRalpha) involved in differentiation, anti-proliferation, and apoptosis. A review of the literature supports the view that MLT, via its MT1 receptor, can suppress all phases of breast cancer including initiation, promotion, and progression. During the fifth and sixth decades of life, the production of MLT diminishes, concurrently with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer. Inasmuch as MLT has been demonstrated to have anti-cancer activity, we hypothesized that there may be a causal link between the reduction in MLT production in the pineal gland and the incidence of breast cancer which increases with age. We designed this study to establish whether a truly inverse relationship exists between tissue-isolated mammary tumor growth in young (2 months), adult (12 months), and old (20 months) female Buffalo rats and the decrease in both MLT and the MT1 receptor with age, such that a causal link could be found. Serum MLT levels were measured in both the light and dark phases. A significant 29% decrease in serum MLT levels, measured at the nocturnal peak, was found in the adult and senescent rats (75% decrease) in comparison to that in young rats. In young rats, the nocturnal pineal gland MLT content exceeded daytime levels by 19-fold compared to a sevenfold increase in old mice. Also, the MT1 receptor was found to be significantly lower in the nighttime and early morning in the senescent rat uterus as compared to uteri from young and adult rats. Analysis of the rate of growth in transplanted, tissue-isolated, mammary tumors induced by N-nitroso-n-methyl-urea (NMU) showed a significant increase in the senescent rats, but not in the young or adult rats Additionally, diminished response to the inhibitory action on tumor growth of exogenous MLT was noted in senescent rats such that tumor growth was suppressed by only 33% compared to 48% and 66% in adult and young rats, respectively. The diminution of the response of tumors to exogenous MLT was found to correlate with reduced MT1 receptor expression in senescent compared to young and adult rats. These data suggest that the observed age-associated enhanced growth of tumors is related to the much reduced levels of MLT and its receptor in aged animals which reduce the sensitivity of tumors to inhibition by exogenous MLT.


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RGD Object Information
RGD ID: 9686056
Created: 2015-01-28
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2015-01-28
Status: ACTIVE


RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.