RGD Reference Report - All-trans-retinoid acid (ATRA) may have inhibited chondrogenesis of primary hind limb bud mesenchymal cells by downregulating Pitx1 expression. - Rat Genome Database
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All-trans-retinoid acid (ATRA) may have inhibited chondrogenesis of primary hind limb bud mesenchymal cells by downregulating Pitx1 expression.

Authors: Wang, YG  Li, XD  Liu, ZY  Zhang, TG  Chen, B  Hou, GQ  Hong, Q  Xie, P  Du, SX 
Citation: Wang YG, etal., Toxicol Lett. 2014 Jan 13;224(2):282-9. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.06.220. Epub 2013 Jun 27.
RGD ID: 8661241
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:23810783
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.06.220

Despite frequently well-established role of all-trans-retinoid acid (ATRA) in congenital limb deformities, its mechanism of action, thus far, is still ambiguous. Pitx1, which is expressed in the hindlimb bud mesenchyme, or its pathways may be etiologically responsible for the increased incidence of clubfoot. Here, we sought to investigate the mechanisms whereby Pitx1 regulated chondrogenesis of hindlimb bud mesenchymal cells in vitro. E12.5 embryonic rat hind limb bud mesenchymal cells were treated with ATRA at appropriate concentrations. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was performed to evaluate cell proliferation. Hematoxylin-safranin-O-fast-green staining assays were used to observe cartilage nodules, and Pitx1 expression was examined by immunofluorescent microscopy. Real-time quantitative PCR and immunoblotting assays were applied to determine the mRNA expressions of Pitx1, Sox9 and type II collagen (Col2al), respectively. The results showed that ATRA inhibited the proliferation of hind limb bud cells dose-dependently. ATRA also induced a dose-dependent reduction in the number of cartilage nodules and the area of cartilage nodules compared with controls. Our real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays revealed that the mRNA expression of Pitx1, Sox9 and Col2al were significantly downregulated by ATRA. Furthermore, our immunofluorescent microscopy and Western blotting assays indicated that Pitx1 was mainly expressed in the cartilage nodules and the levels of Pitx1, Sox9 and Col2al were also downregulated by ATRA dose-dependently. The results indicated that ATRA may decrease chondrogenesis of hind limb bud mesenchymal cells by inhibiting cartilage-specific molecules, such as Sox9 and Col2al, via downregulating Pitx1 expression.

Annotation

Gene Ontology Annotations    

Biological Process

Objects Annotated

Genes (Rattus norvegicus)
Col2a1  (collagen type II alpha 1 chain)


Additional Information