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Titanium dioxide induces apoptotic cell death through reactive oxygen species-mediated Fas upregulation and Bax activation.

Authors: Yoo, KC  Yoon, CH  Kwon, D  Hyun, KH  Woo, SJ  Kim, RK  Lim, EJ  Suh, Y  Kim, MJ  Yoon, TH  Lee, SJ 
Citation: Yoo KC, etal., Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:1203-14. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S28647. Epub 2012 Mar 5.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:22419868
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.2147/IJN.S28647

BACKGROUND: Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) has been widely used in many areas, including biomedicine, cosmetics, and environmental engineering. Recently, it has become evident that some TiO(2) particles have a considerable cytotoxic effect in normal human cells. However, the molecular basis for the cytotoxicity of TiO(2) has yet to be defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrated that combined treatment with TiO(2) nanoparticles sized less than 100 nm and ultraviolet A irradiation induces apoptotic cell death through reactive oxygen species-dependent upregulation of Fas and conformational activation of Bax in normal human cells. Treatment with P25 TiO(2) nanoparticles with a hydrodynamic size distribution centered around 70 nm (TiO(2) (P25-70)) together with ultraviolet A irradiation-induced caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death, accompanied by transcriptional upregulation of the death receptor, Fas, and conformational activation of Bax. In line with these results, knockdown of either Fas or Bax with specific siRNA significantly inhibited TiO(2)-induced apoptotic cell death. Moreover, inhibition of reactive oxygen species with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, clearly suppressed upregulation of Fas, conformational activation of Bax, and subsequent apoptotic cell death in response to combination treatment using TiO(2) (P25-70) and ultraviolet A irradiation. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that sub-100 nm sized TiO(2) treatment under ultraviolet A irradiation induces apoptotic cell death through reactive oxygen species-mediated upregulation of the death receptor, Fas, and activation of the preapoptotic protein, Bax. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which nanosized particles induce activation of cell death signaling pathways would be critical for the development of prevention strategies to minimize the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials.


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RGD Object Information
RGD ID: 7248688
Created: 2013-08-15
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2013-08-15
Status: ACTIVE


RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.