Prothrombin haplotype associated with kidney stone disease in Northeastern Thai patients.
Rungroj, N Sritippayawan, S Thongnoppakhun, W Paemanee, A Sawasdee, N Nettuwakul, C Sudtachat, N Ungsupravate, D Praihirunkit, P Chuawattana, D Akkarapatumwong, V Borvornpadungkitti, S Susaengrat, W Vasuvattakul, S Malasit, P Yenchitsomanus, PT
Rungroj N, etal., Urology. 2011 Jan;77(1):249.e17-23. Epub 2010 Nov 10.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate genetic variations associated with kidney stone disease in Northeastern Thai patients. METHODS: Altogether, 67 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) distributed within 8 candidate genes, namely TFF1, S100A8, S100A9, S100A12, AMBP, SPP1, UMOD, and F2, which encode stone inhibitor proteins, including trefoil factor 1, calgranulin (A, B, and C), bikunin, osteopontin, tamm-Horsfall protein, and prothrombin, respectively, were initially genotyped in 112 individuals each and in additional subjects to consist of 164 patients and 216 control subjects in total. RESULTS: We found that minor allele and homozygous genotype frequencies of 8 of 10 SNPs distributed within the F2 gene were significantly higher in the control group than in the patient group. Two F2 haplotypes were found to be dually associated with kidney stone risk, one (TGCCGCCGCG) with increased disease risk and the other (CGTTCCGCTA) with decreased disease risk. However, these 2 haplotypes were associated with the disease risks in only the female, not the male, group. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study indicate that genetic variation of F2 is associated with kidney stone risk in Northeastern Thai female patients.