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Mitochondrial superoxide plays a crucial role in the development of mitochondrial dysfunction during high glucose exposure in rat renal proximal tubular cells.

Authors: Munusamy, S  Macmillan-Crow, LA 
Citation: Munusamy S and MacMillan-Crow LA, Free Radic Biol Med. 2009 Apr 15;46(8):1149-57. Epub 2009 Feb 3.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:19439219
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.01.022

Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the United States. Despite several studies indicating a role for mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of diabetic complications, the precise mechanisms underlying renal mitochondrial dysfunction and renal cell injury remain unclear. The hypothesis of the current study was that high-glucose-mediated generation of mitochondrial superoxide is a key early event that leads to mitochondrial injury in renal proximal tubular cells. To ascertain the role of mitochondrial superoxide we have tested whether overexpression of the primary mitochondrial antioxidant, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), protects against hyperglycemia-induced renal injury using normal rat renal proximal tubular cells (NRK). NRK cells were exposed to high glucose (25 mM) and the changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP levels, and superoxide generation and the loss of cell viability were measured at 24 and 48 h after high glucose exposure. Our results indicate that high glucose first induced superoxide generation and hyperpolarization in the mitochondria, followed by a secondary event, which involved a decline in ATP levels, partial Complex III inactivation, and loss of cell viability. These high-glucose-induced changes were completely prevented by overexpression of MnSOD in NRK cells. However, MnSOD activity was not changed after high glucose exposure in vitro or during the early stages of diabetes using the streptozotocin rat model. These findings show for the first time that hyperglycemic induction of superoxide production within the mitochondria initiates specific mitochondrial injury (i.e., Complex III) via a mechanism independent of MnSOD inactivation.


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RGD Object Information
RGD ID: 2317387
Created: 2010-04-01
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2010-04-01
Status: ACTIVE


RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.