Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) has high affinity for heparin and heparin-like compounds. In vivo the enzyme is attached to heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the endothelium of capillaries and larger blood vessels. The enzyme is released from these sites after intravenous injection of heparin. One has here investigated the effects of RG-13577 on LPL, both after intravenous injection to rats and under cell culture conditions. RG-13577 is a heparin-mimicking compound known to prevent angiogenesis by interference with binding of growth factors to cells. It has therefore been considered for use in cancer therapy as well as for prevention of atherosclerosis and restenosis. It was found that intravenously injected RG-13577 released both LPL and hepatic lipase (HL) to the blood. Binding of LPL in extrahepatic tissues was prevented and clearance of radiolabeled LPL from the circulation was delayed. Furthermore, RG-13577 released LPL from extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by endothelial cells and from THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. Lipase-mediated binding and uptake of human LDL in these cells was also prevented by RG-13577. Thus, in the test systems RG-13577 had the same effects as heparin, but on a molar basis RG-13577 was in all cases less effective.