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Diurnal variation of the adenylyl cyclase type 1 in the rat pineal gland.

Authors: Tzavara, ET  Pouille, Y  Defer, N  Hanoune, J 
Citation: Tzavara ET, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Oct 1;93(20):11208-12.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:8855334

Nocturnal melatonin production in the pineal gland is under the control of norepinephrine released from superior cervical ganglia afferents in a rhythmic manner, and of cyclic AMP. Cyclic AMP increases the expression of serotonin N-acetyltransferase and of inducible cAMP early repressor that undergo circadian oscillations crucial for the maintenance and regulation of the biological clock. In the present study, we demonstrate a circadian pattern of expression of the calcium/calmodulin activated adenylyl cyclase type 1 (AC1) mRNA in the rat pineal gland. In situ hybridization revealed that maximal AC1 mRNA expression occurred at midday (12:00-15:00), with a very low signal at night (0:00-3:00). We established that this rhythmic pattern was controlled by the noradrenergic innervation of the pineal gland and by the environmental light conditions. Finally, we observed a circadian responsiveness of the pineal AC activity to calcium/calmodulin, with a lag due to the processing of the protein. At midday, AC activity was inhibited by calcium (40%) either in the presence or absence of calmodulin, while at night the enzyme was markedly (3-fold) activated by the calcium-calmodulin complex. These findings suggest (i) the involvement of AC1 acting as the center of a gating mechanism, between cyclic AMP and calcium signals, important for the fine tuning of the pineal circadian rhythm; and (ii) a possible regulation of cyclic AMP on the expression of AC1 in the rat pineal gland.


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RGD Object Information
RGD ID: 1625750
Created: 2007-06-28
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2007-06-28
Status: ACTIVE


RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.