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Functional analysis of the rat N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A promoter: multiple transcription starts points, positive regulation by Sp factors, and translational regulation.

Authors: Liu, A  Zhuang, Z  Hoffman, PW  Bai, G 
Citation: Liu A, etal., J Biol Chem. 2003 Jul 18;278(29):26423-34. Epub 2003 May 13.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:12746457
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.1074/jbc.M211165200

N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 2A (NR2A) is an important modulatory component of the NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors. To investigate the transcription mechanism of the NR2A gene, we cloned the 5'-flanking sequence from a rat genomic library. RNA mapping with rat brain RNA revealed two sets of major and several minor transcription start points in a single exon of 1140 bp. Reporter gene and mutation studies indicated that core promoter activity resided in exon 1, whereas the 5'-flanking sequence up to 1.5 kb showed no significant impact on promoter activity. Fragments containing minor transcription start points were able to drive a reporter gene in transfected cells and produce nascent RNAs in an in vitro transcription system. All fragments tested showed more promoter activity in dissociated neurons of the rat embryonic cerebrocortex and cell lines expressing NR2A mRNA than that in glial cultures and non-neuronal cells. Within exon 1 there are three GC-box elements that displayed distinct binding affinity to both Sp1- and Sp4-like factors. Overexpression of Sp1 or Sp4, but not Sp3, significantly increased the activity of the promoter containing these elements. Inclusion of exon 2 and 3 sequences, which contain five short open-reading frames, attenuated promoter-driven reporter activity more than 3-fold but attenuated the level of reporter mRNA less than 1.4-fold. Our results suggest that the core promoter of the rat NR2A gene requires exon 1, that Sp factors positively regulate this core promoter, and that a post-transcriptional mechanism may negatively regulate expression of the gene.


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RGD Object Information
RGD ID: 1581117
Created: 2006-09-16
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2006-09-16
Status: ACTIVE


RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.