The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) each encompasses a large number of molecules, with several participating in both systems. The RAS generates a family of bioactive angiotensin peptides with varying biological activities. These include angiotensin-(1-8) (Ang II), angiotensin-(2-8) (Ang III), angiotensin-(3-8) (Ang IV), and angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]. Ang II and Ang III act on type 1 (AT(1)) and type 2 (AT(2)) angiotensin receptors, whereas, Ang IV and Ang-(1-7) act on their own receptors. The KKS also generates a family of bioactive peptides with varying biological activities. These include hydroxylated and non-hydroxylated bradykinin and kallidin peptides and their carboxypeptidase metabolites des-Arg(9)-bradykinin and des-Arg(10)-kallidin. Whereas bradykinin and kallidin act mainly via the type 2 bradykinin (B(2)) receptor, des-Arg(9)-bradykinin and des-Arg(10)-kallidin act mainly via the type 1 bradykinin (B(1)) receptor. The AT(1) receptor forms heterodimers with the AT(2) and B(2) receptors and there is cross talk between the AT(1) and epidermal growth factor receptors. The B(2) receptor also interacts with angiotensin converting enzyme and nitric oxide synthase. Both angiotensin and kinin peptides are metabolised by many different peptidases that are important determinants of the activities of the RAS and KKS, and several of which participate in both systems.