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Cystatin m: a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene for breast cancer.

Authors: Zhang, J  Shridhar, R  Dai, Q  Song, J  Barlow, SC  Yin, L  Sloane, BF  Miller, FR  Meschonat, C  Li, BD  Abreo, F  Keppler, D 
Citation: Zhang J, etal., Cancer Res 2004 Oct 1;64(19):6957-64.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:15466187
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-0819

The contribution of pericellular proteolysis to tumor progression is well documented. To better understand protease biology and facilitate clinical translation, specific proteolytic systems need to be better defined. In particular, the precise role of endogenous protease inhibitors still needs to be deciphered. We reported previously that cystatin M, a potent endogenous inhibitor of lysosomal cysteine proteases, significantly suppressed in vitro cell proliferation, migration, and Matrigel invasion. Here, we show that scid mice orthotopically implanted with breast cancer cells expressing cystatin M show significantly delayed primary tumor growth and lower metastatic burden in the lungs and liver when compared with mice implanted with mock controls. The incidence of metastasis, however, appeared to be unaltered between the cystatin M group and the control group. Experimental metastasis assays suggest that cystatin M suppressed tumor cell proliferation at the secondary site. By using laser capture microdissection and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we found consistent expression of cystatin M in normal human breast epithelial cells, whereas expression was decreased by 86% in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cells of stage I to IV patients. Complete loss of expression of cystatin M was observed in two of three IDCs from stage IV patients. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed that expression of cystatin M in IDCs was partially or completely lost. We propose cystatin M as a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene for breast cancer.

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RGD ID: 1547885
Created: 2005-08-24
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2005-08-24
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