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Effects of ketamine/xylazine on expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclo-oxygenase-2 in rat gastric mucosa during endotoxemia.

Authors: Helmer, Kenneth S  Cui, Yan  Chang, Lily  Dewan, Ashvin  Mercer, David W 
Citation: Helmer KS, etal., Shock. 2003 Jul;20(1):63-9. doi: 10.1097/
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:12813371
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.1097/

Some anesthetics attenuate expression of endotoxin-induced production of proinflammatory genes. The anesthetic combination of ketamine/xylazine (K/X) decreases lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in rats. However, the effects of K/X on gut function and gene expression are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of K/X on LPS-induced gastric fluid accumulation, and gastric tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 expression, as well as serum TNF-alpha protein levels over time. We hypothesized that K/X would attenuate these LPS-induced endpoints. Rats were given either intraperitoneal saline or K (70 mg/kg) and X (6 mg/kg) 1 h before saline or LPS (20 mg/kg i.p.) treatment of 1, 3, or 5 h. Serum and gastric fluid and mucosa were collected and TNF-alpha, iNOS, and COX-2 expression were determined. LPS caused a significant increase in early serum and gastric mucosal TNF-alpha protein expression at 1 h, an effect that was significantly attenuated by K/X pretreatment. LPS caused significant gastric stasis and increased iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression and iNOS protein expression in the stomach when compared with controls. K/X attenuated LPS-induced gastric fluid accumulation and upregulation of iNOS mRNA and protein, but not COX-2. These data indicate that K/X inhibits some proinflammatory genes and pathophysiologic responses in the serum and stomach during endotoxemia. The effects of K/X appear to inhibit transcriptional events in iNOS expression, which may be dependent on K/X-induced inhibition of early TNF-alpha expression. Furthermore, in rat models of endotoxemia, especially those evaluating the stomach, careful consideration needs to be given if anesthetic combinations with ketamine and/or xylazine are used, as they alter LPS-induced responses.


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RGD Object Information
RGD ID: 14995427
Created: 2019-10-23
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2019-10-23
Status: ACTIVE


RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.