RGD Reference Report - Comprehensive analysis of keratin gene clusters in humans and rodents. - Rat Genome Database
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Comprehensive analysis of keratin gene clusters in humans and rodents.

Authors: Hesse, M  Zimek, A  Weber, K  Magin, TM 
Citation: Hesse M, etal., Eur J Cell Biol 2004 Feb;83(1):19-26.
RGD ID: 1303986
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:15085952
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.1078/0171-9335-00354

Here, we present the comparative analysis of the two keratin (K) gene clusters in the genomes of man, mouse and rat. Overall, there is a remarkable but not perfect synteny among the clusters of the three mammalian species. The human type I keratin gene cluster consists of 27 genes and 4 pseudogenes, all in the same orientation. It is interrupted by a domain of multiple genes encoding keratin-associated proteins (KAPs). Cytokeratin, hair and inner root sheath keratin genes are grouped together in small subclusters, indicating that evolution occurred by duplication events. At the end of the rodent type I gene cluster, a novel gene related to K14 and K17 was identified, which is converted to a pseudogene in humans. The human type II cluster consists of 27 genes and 5 pseudogenes, most of which are arranged in the same orientation. Of the 26 type II murine keratin genes now known, the expression of two new genes was identified by RT-PCR. Kb20, the first gene in the cluster, was detected in lung tissue. Kb39, a new ortholog of K1, is expressed in certain stratified epithelia. It represents a candidate gene for those hyperkeratotic skin syndromes in which no K1 mutations were identified so far. Most remarkably, the human K3 gene which causes Meesmann's corneal dystrophy when mutated, lacks a counterpart in the mouse genome. While the human genome has 138 pseudogenes related to K8 and K18, the mouse and rat genomes contain only 4 and 6 such pseudogenes. Our results also provide the basis for a unified keratin nomenclature and for future functional studies.


Gene Ontology Annotations    

Biological Process

Cellular Component

Molecular Function

Objects Annotated

Genes (Rattus norvegicus)
Kb23  (type II keratin 23)
Krt15  (keratin 15)
Krt17  (keratin 17)
Krt24  (keratin 24)
Krt39  (keratin 39)
Krt76  (keratin 76)

Objects referenced in this article
0 Ka11 type I keratin KA11 All species
0 Kb15 type II keratin Kb15 All species
0 Krt1 keratin 1 All species
0 Krt10 keratin 10 All species
0 Krt25 keratin 25 All species
0 Krt26 keratin 26 All species
0 Krt27 keratin 27 All species
0 Krt31 keratin 31 All species
0 Krt32 keratin 32 All species
0 Krt33b keratin 33B All species
0 Krt4 keratin 4 All species
0 Krt40 keratin 40 All species
0 Krt42 keratin 42 All species
0 Krt73 keratin 73 All species
0 Krt75 keratin 75 All species
0 Krt77 keratin 77 All species
0 Krt80 keratin 80 All species
0 Krt81 keratin 81 All species
0 Krt82 keratin 82 All species
0 Krt84 keratin 84 All species
0 Krt85 keratin 85 All species
0 Krt86 keratin 86 All species

Additional Information