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Site-specific arylation of rat glutathione s-transferase A1 and A2 by bromobenzene metabolites in vivo.

Authors: Koen, Yakov M  Yue, Weimin  Galeva, Nadezhda A  Williams, Todd D  Hanzlik, Robert P 
Citation: Koen YM, etal., Chem Res Toxicol. 2006 Nov;19(11):1426-34.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:17112229
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.1021/tx060142s

The hepatotoxicity of bromobenzene (BB) derives from its reactive metabolites (epoxides and quinones), which arylate cellular proteins. Application of proteomic methods to liver proteins from rats treated with a hepatotoxic dose of [14C]-BB has identified more than 40 target proteins, but no adducted peptides have yet been observed. Because such proteins are known to contain bromophenyl- and bromodihydroxyphenyl derivatives of cysteine, histidine, and lysine, the failure to observe modified peptides has been attributed to the low level of total covalent binding and to the "dilution" effect of multiple metabolites reacting at multiple sites on multiple proteins. In this work glutathione S-transferase (GST), a well-known and abundant BB-target protein, was isolated from liver cytosol of rats treated with 14C-BB by use of a glutathione (GSH)-agarose affinity column and further resolved by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into subunits M1, M2, A1, A2 and A3. The subunits were identified by a combination of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), whole-molecule mass spectrometry, and peptide mass mapping and found to contain radioactivity corresponding to 0.01-0.05 adduct per molecule of protein. Examination of tryptic digests of these subunits by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) failed to reveal any apparent adducted peptides despite observed sequence coverages up to 87%. However, use of HPLC-linear ion-trap quadrupole Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LTQ-FTMS) to search for predicted modified tryptic peptides revealed peaks corresponding, with a high degree of mass accuracy, to a bromobenzoquinone adduct of peptide 89-119 in both GSTA1 and A2. The identity of these adducts and their location at Cys-111 was confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). No evidence for the presence of any putative BB-adducts in GST M1, M2, or A3 was obtained. This work highlights the challenges involved in the unambiguous identification of reactive metabolite adducts formed in vivo.


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RGD Object Information
RGD ID: 12793043
Created: 2017-03-18
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2017-03-18
Status: ACTIVE


RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.