The NLRP3 inflammasome functions as a crucial component of the innate immune system in recognizing viral infection, but the mechanism by which viruses activate this inflammasome remains unclear. Here we found that inhibition of the serine-threonine kinases RIP1 (RIPK1) or RIP3 (RIPK3) suppressed RNA virus-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Infection with an RNA virus initiated assembly of the RIP1-RIP3 complex, which promoted activation of the GTPase DRP1 and its translocation to mitochondria to drive mitochondrial damage and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Notably, the RIP1-RIP3 complex drove the NLRP3 inflammasome independently of MLKL, an essential downstream effector of RIP1-RIP3-dependent necrosis. Together our results reveal a specific role for the RIP1-RIP3-DRP1 pathway in RNA virus-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and establish a direct link between inflammation and cell-death signaling pathways.