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Activated protein C reduces the ischemia/reperfusion-induced spinal cord injury in rats by inhibiting neutrophil activation.

Authors: Hirose, K  Okajima, K  Taoka, Y  Uchiba, M  Tagami, H  Nakano, K  Utoh, J  Okabe, H  Kitamura, N 
Citation: Hirose K, etal., Ann Surg. 2000 Aug;232(2):272-80.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:10903607

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether activated protein C (APC) reduces spinal cord injury in rats by inhibiting neutrophil activation after the transient ischemia. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Ischemic spinal cord injury is an important pathologic mechanism leading to the paraplegia observed after surgery to repair aortic aneurysms. Activated neutrophils play a pivotal role in the development of ischemia/reperfusion-induced tissue injury. Recently, the authors have reported that APC, a physiologic anticoagulant, prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary vascular injury by inhibiting neutrophil activation. These observations strongly suggest that APC reduces ischemia/reperfusion-induced spinal cord injury by inhibiting neutrophil activation. METHODS: In rats, spinal cord ischemia was induced by using a balloon catheter placed into the aorta. After the transient ischemia, survival and motor function were evaluated, and histologic examination of the spinal cord was performed by using both hematoxylin-and-eosin staining and 2,3,5, -triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining 24 hours after the ischemia. Tissue levels of myeloperoxidase and cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and rat interleukin-8, were measured in six experimental groups: sham-operated, control, APC (100 microg/kg, intravenous), dansyl glutamyl-glycyl-arginyl chloromethyl ketone-treated activated factor X (DEGR-F.Xa), a selective inhibitor of thrombin generation (1 mg/kg, intravenous), nitrogen mustard-induced leukocytopenia, and diisopropyl fluorophosphate-treated APC (DIP-APC), active site-blocked APC (100 microg/kg, intravenous). APC, DEGR-F.Xa, and DIP-APC were administered intravenously 30 minutes before aortic occlusion. Control and leukocytopenic rats received saline instead of other drugs. RESULTS: Pretreatment with APC significantly reduced motor disturbances compared with those in control animals. In contrast, neither DEGR-F.Xa nor DIP-APC had any effect. Microinfarctions, evidenced by the absence of TTC staining and histologic change, were markedly reduced in animals given APC. The increases in the tissue levels of TNF-alpha, rat interleukin-8, and myeloperoxidase in the ischemic part of the spinal cord were significantly reduced in animals that received APC. These levels were not reduced in rats given DEGR-F.Xa or DIP-APC. Leukocytopenia produced effects similar to those of APC. CONCLUSIONS: APC reduced the ischemia/reperfusion-induced spinal cord injury by inhibiting neutrophil activation. The therapeutic mechanisms of APC might depend on its inhibitory effect on the production of TNF-alpha, which is a potent activator of neutrophils. Although the anticoagulant effects of APC might not be related to its ability to inhibit TNF-alpha production, its serine protease activity appears to be essential in the therapeutic mechanism. APC appears to have potential as a therapeutic agent for prevention of spinal cord injury in patients undergoing aortic aneurysm repair.

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RGD Object Information
RGD ID: 11100044
Created: 2016-06-14
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2016-06-14
Status: ACTIVE



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RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.