RGD Reference Report - Interferon-Regulatory Factor 5-Dependent Signaling Restricts Orthobunyavirus Dissemination to the Central Nervous System. - Rat Genome Database

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Interferon-Regulatory Factor 5-Dependent Signaling Restricts Orthobunyavirus Dissemination to the Central Nervous System.

Authors: Proenca-Modena, JL  Hyde, JL  Sesti-Costa, R  Lucas, T  Pinto, AK  Richner, JM  Gorman, MJ  Lazear, HM  Diamond, MS 
Citation: Proenca-Modena JL, etal., J Virol. 2015 Oct 14;90(1):189-205. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02276-15.
RGD ID: 11075056
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:26468541
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.1128/JVI.02276-15

Interferon (IFN)-regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5) is a transcription factor that induces inflammatory responses after engagement and signaling by pattern recognition receptors. To define the role of IRF-5 during bunyavirus infection, we evaluated Oropouche virus (OROV) and La Crosse virus (LACV) pathogenesis and immune responses in primary cells and in mice with gene deletions in Irf3, Irf5, and Irf7 or in Irf5 alone. Deletion of Irf3, Irf5, and Irf7 together resulted in uncontrolled viral replication in the liver and spleen, hypercytokinemia, extensive liver injury, and an early-death phenotype. Remarkably, deletion of Irf5 alone resulted in meningoencephalitis and death on a more protracted timeline, 1 to 2 weeks after initial OROV or LACV infection. The clinical signs in OROV-infected Irf5(-/-) mice were associated with abundant viral antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in several regions of the brain. Circulating dendritic cell (DC) subsets in Irf5(-/-) mice had higher levels of OROV RNA in vivo yet produced lower levels of type I IFN than wild-type (WT) cells. This result was supported by data obtained in vitro, since a deficiency of IRF-5 resulted in enhanced OROV infection and diminished type I IFN production in bone marrow-derived DCs. Collectively, these results indicate a key role for IRF-5 in modulating the host antiviral response in peripheral organs that controls bunyavirus neuroinvasion in mice. IMPORTANCE: Oropouche virus (OROV) and La Crosse virus (LACV) are orthobunyaviruses that are transmitted by insects and cause meningitis and encephalitis in subsets of individuals in the Americas. Recently, we demonstrated that components of the type I interferon (IFN) induction pathway, particularly the regulatory transcription factors IRF-3 and IRF-7, have key protective roles during OROV infection. However, the lethality in Irf3(-/-) Irf7(-/-) (DKO) mice infected with OROV was not as rapid or complete as observed in Ifnar(-/-) mice, indicating that other transcriptional factors associated with an IFN response contribute to antiviral immunity against OROV. Here, we evaluated bunyavirus replication, tissue tropism, and cytokine production in primary cells and mice lacking IRF-5. We demonstrate an important role for IRF-5 in preventing neuroinvasion and the ensuing encephalitis caused by OROV and LACV.

Annotation

Disease Annotations    
Oropouche fever  (IMP,ISO)

Objects Annotated

Genes (Rattus norvegicus)
Irf5  (interferon regulatory factor 5)

Genes (Mus musculus)
Irf5  (interferon regulatory factor 5)

Genes (Homo sapiens)
IRF5  (interferon regulatory factor 5)


Additional Information