In the present study, we evaluated the effect of neutrophil elastase inhibitor, sivelestat sodium hydrate on ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat bladder. Rat abdominal aorta was clamping with a small clip to induce ischemia-reperfusion injury in the bladder. Eight-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups; sham-operated control rats, 30 min ischemia-60 min reperfusion (IR) rats, and IR rats treated with 15 or 60 mg/kg of sivelestat sodium hydrate. Sixty minutes prior to induction of ischemia, sivelestat sodium hydrate was administrated intraperitoneally. Real-time monitoring of blood flow and nitric oxide (NO) release were measured simultaneously with a laser Doppler flowmeter and an NO-selective electrode, respectively. The NO2-NO3 and malonaldehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured in the experimental urinary bladders. Clamping of the abdominal aorta, blood flow was rapidly decreased and NO release was gradually increased. After removing the clip, blood flow was rapidly increased and NO release was gradually returned to the basal level. These movements of blood flow and NO release were inhibited by treatment with sivelestat sodium hydrate in a dose-dependent manner. Both NO2-NO3 and MDA concentrations in the bladder were increased by induction of IR, and NO2-NO3 and MDA concentrations were decreased by treatment with high dose of sivelestat sodium hydrate significantly. Our data indicated that sivelestat sodium hydrate could inhibit increasing NO2-NO3 and MDA concentrations by IR, and it has potentiality protective effects on IR injury in the rat urinary bladder.