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Retromer and sorting nexins in endosomal sorting.

Authors: Gallon, M  Cullen, PJ 
Citation: Gallon M and Cullen PJ, Biochem Soc Trans. 2015 Feb;43(1):33-47. doi: 10.1042/BST20140290.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:25619244
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.1042/BST20140290

The evolutionarily conserved endosomal retromer complex rescues transmembrane proteins from the lysosomal degradative pathway and facilitates their recycling to other cellular compartments. Retromer functions in conjunction with numerous associated proteins, including select members of the sorting nexin (SNX) family. In the present article, we review the molecular architecture and cellular roles of retromer and its various functional partners. The endosomal network is a crucial hub in the trafficking of proteins through the cellular endomembrane system. Transmembrane proteins, here termed cargos, enter endosomes by endocytosis from the plasma membrane or by trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Endosomal cargo proteins face one of the two fates: retention in the endosome, leading ultimately to lysosomal degradation or export from the endosome for reuse ('recycling'). The balance of protein degradation and recycling is crucial to cellular homoeostasis; inappropriate sorting of proteins to either fate leads to cellular dysfunction. Retromer is an endosome-membrane-associated protein complex central to the recycling of many cargo proteins from endosomes, both to the TGN and the plasma membrane (and other specialized compartments, e.g. lysosome-related organelles). Retromer function is reliant on a number of proteins from the SNX family. In the present article, we discuss this inter-relationship and how defects in retromer function are increasingly being linked with human disease.


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RGD Object Information
RGD ID: 10450542
Created: 2016-01-18
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2016-01-18
Status: ACTIVE


RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.