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Congenital hypothyroidism alters the oxidative status, enzyme activities and morphological parameters in the hippocampus of developing rats.

Authors: Cattani, D  Goulart, PB  Cavalli, VL  Winkelmann-Duarte, E  Dos Santos, AQ  Pierozan, P  De Souza, DF  Woehl, VM  Fernandes, MC  Silva, FR  Goncalves, CA  Pessoa-Pureur, R  Zamoner, A 
Citation: Cattani D, etal., Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013 Aug 15;375(1-2):14-26. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2013.05.001. Epub 2013 May 18.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:23693027
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2013.05.001

Congenital hypothyroidism is associated with delay in cell migration and proliferation in brain tissue, impairment of synapse formation, misregulation of neurotransmitters, hypomyelination and mental retardation. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropsychological deficits observed in congenital hypothyroidism are not completely understood. In the present study we proposed a mechanism by which hypothyroidism leads to hippocampal neurotoxicity. Congenital hypothyroidism induces c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway activation leading to hyperphosphorylation of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin and neurofilament subunits from hippocampal astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Moreover, hyperphosphorylation of the cytoskeletal proteins was not reversed by T3 and poorly reversed by T4. In addition, congenital hypothyroidism is associated with downregulation of astrocyte glutamate transporters (GLAST and GLT-1) leading to decreased glutamate uptake and subsequent influx of Ca(2+) through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The Na(+)-coupled (14)C-alpha-methyl-amino-isobutyric acid ((14)C-MeAIB) accumulation into hippocampal cells also might cause an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration by opening voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC). The excessive influx of Ca(2+) through NMDA receptors and VDCCs might lead to an overload of Ca(2+) within the cells, which set off glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. The inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity might also induce Ca(2+) influx. The inhibited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities, associated with altered glutamate and neutral amino acids uptake could somehow affect the GSH turnover, the antioxidant defense system, as well as the glutamate-glutamine cycle. Reduced levels of S100B and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) take part of the hypothyroid condition, suggesting a compromised astroglial/neuronal neurometabolic coupling which is probably related to the neurotoxic damage in hypothyroid brain.

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RGD ID: 10449124
Created: 2015-12-18
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2015-12-18
Status: ACTIVE



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RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.