Iddm55 QTL Report (Rattus norvegicus) - Rat Genome Database

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QTL: Iddm55 (Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 55) Rattus norvegicus

Symbol: Iddm55
Name: Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 55
RGD ID: 10043139
Previously known as: Iddm26.2
Trait: blood glucose amount   (VT:0000188)    
Measurement Type: age at onset/diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus   (CMO:0001140)    
LOD Score: 3.1
P Value: 1.0E-4
Variance: Not Available
Position
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.22190,602,746 - 192,625,452RGD_MAPPER_PIPELINEmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.02205,572,952 - 207,612,467RGD_MAPPER_PIPELINERnor6.0
Rnor_5.02225,003,539 - 227,035,367RGD_MAPPER_PIPELINERnor5.0
RGSC_v3.42198,312,439 - 200,390,471RGD_MAPPER_PIPELINERGSC3.4
Cross Type: intercross
Strains Crossed: BBDP.ACI-(D2Arb16-D2Rat63)/Sunn 
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)
Model



Candidate Gene Status
Ptpn22 is a candidate Gene for Iddm55

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Phenotype Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Mammalian Phenotype
Experimental Data Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Experimental Condition

Measurement Method

Vertebrate Trait

Rat Strain

References

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Genetic dissection of Iddm26 in the spontaneously diabetic BBDP rat. Sarmiento J, etal., Genes Immun. 2014 Sep;15(6):378-91. doi: 10.1038/gene.2014.29. Epub 2014 Jun 12.

Region

Genes in Region
The following Genes overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Analysis Tools
RGD IDSymbolNameChrStartStopSpecies
69346Wnt2bWnt family member 2B2192454226192468599Rat
2109Ampd1adenosine monophosphate deaminase 12190598707190619938Rat
62012Syt6synaptotagmin 62191093009191152283Rat
621362Magi3membrane associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain containing 32191514726191717048Rat
620426Phtf1putative homeodomain transcription factor 12191470849191537399Rat
1307339Trim33tripartite motif-containing 332190812329190892663Rat
1304941Hipk1homeodomain interacting protein kinase 12191248817191299787Rat
1307231Rsbn1round spermatid basic protein 12191416631191470711Rat
3690Slc16a1solute carrier family 16 member 12192123755192144617Rat
1304965Rhocras homolog family member C2192287065192293292Rat
1311106Olfml3olfactomedin-like 32191244221191247050Rat
1309554Lrig2leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 22191947322192012996Rat
1310822Cttnbp2nlCTTNBP2 N-terminal like2192507963192554548Rat
1310343Dclre1bDNA cross-link repair 1B2191309909191318399Rat
1310529Ap4b1adaptor related protein complex 4 subunit beta 12191318485191330531Rat
1306485Bcas2BCAS2, pre-mRNA processing factor2190692503190700386Rat
1308197Dennd2cDENN domain containing 2C2190622357190690489Rat
1307992Ptpn22protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 222191366761191414782Rat
1562344Bcl2l15Bcl2-like 152191338959191344078Rat
1564469Rplp0l1ribosomal protein lateral stalk subunit P0 like 12191921503191922661Rat
1359104Ppm1jprotein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1J2192278597192283883Rat
1359336St7lsuppression of tumorigenicity 7-like2192364594192434414Rat
1588671LOC691020similar to Carboxy-terminal domain RNA polymerase II polypeptide A small phosphatase 1 (Nuclear LIM interactor-interacting factor 3) (NLI-interacting factor 3) (Golli-interacting protein) (GIP)2190711966190719433Rat
1592010Rps6-ps6ribosomal protein S6, pseudogene 62192486313192487020Rat
1587462Tafa3TAFA chemokine like family member 32192264153192280356Rat
1587438Capza1capping actin protein of muscle Z-line subunit alpha 12192319696192364755Rat
1598327Mov10Mov10 RISC complex RNA helicase2192292041192315142Rat
2324347LOC100362611Uncharacterized protein C8orf59 homolog2190988658190988944Rat
7497089LOC102547265uncharacterized LOC1025472652191241201191248106Rat
7587027LOC102547750uncharacterized LOC1025477502192156539192163141Rat
7574026LOC102548297uncharacterized LOC1025482972192594348192608842Rat
7606083LOC102546891uncharacterized LOC1025468912191168486191178791Rat
7738059Rpl17-ps14ribosomal protein L17, pseudogene 142191880794191882997Rat
7728955LOC102548357uncharacterized LOC1025483572192590940192616687Rat
9142237LOC103691660uncharacterized LOC1036916602192190947192208024Rat
9075725LOC103691658uncharacterized LOC1036916582191890350191916437Rat
9254022LOC103690210carboxy-terminal domain RNA polymerase II polypeptide A small phosphatase 1 pseudogene2190727117190729545Rat
9343708Rpl36a-ps15ribosomal protein L36A, pseudogene 152191373394191373907Rat
11466902LOC108350079uncharacterized LOC1083500792191769033191780344Rat
11417770LOC108350077uncharacterized LOC1083500772191280702191294884Rat
11408202LOC108350080uncharacterized LOC1083500802192216401192226586Rat
41325535Rps23-ps7ribosomal protein S23, pseudogene 72192589133192590428Rat
41175319LOC120100607glutamic acid-rich protein-like2190744085190744945Rat
41153941LOC120101182U6 spliceosomal RNA2192089415192089519Rat
41372517LOC120100905uncharacterized LOC1201009052192577785192578931Rat
41273284LOC120100901uncharacterized LOC1201009012191121282191145830Rat
41199385LOC120101328small nucleolar RNA SNORA172190921004190921108Rat
41014042NEWGENE_40940579transfer RNA leucine (anticodon AAG)2192111460192111540Rat
40927573LOC120100902uncharacterized LOC1201009022191307229191309662Rat
40938652LOC120101331small nucleolar RNA SNORA172191704272191704412Rat
40967472LOC120101371small nucleolar RNA U132191176448191176545Rat
41074779LOC120101048translation initiation factor IF-2-like2192286701192290095Rat
41051527LOC120100903uncharacterized LOC1201009032191537601191555585Rat
41223454Rnu6-406RNA, U6 small nuclear 4062192187388192187488Rat

Markers in Region
The following Markers overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolExpected SizeChrStartStopSpeciesMatch
10153D2Wox371512190613715190613866Ratregion
11298D2Wox362182192143218192143436Ratregion
36773D2Rat501472192625307192625452Ratregion
38668D2Rat1862022191762155191762347Ratregion
42110D2Arb162102190602746190602963Ratregion
42616D2Rat3542392191987426191987650Ratregion
41852D2Rat2872052192147642192147855Ratregion
43572D2Got1302372191224884191225124Ratregion
43573D2Got1311662190677232190677398Ratregion
43574D2Got1321532190680851190681004Ratregion
43575D2Wox341052191624814191624907Ratregion
60658D9Got192472192261793192263017Ratregion
60797D2Wox71002192245536192245657Ratregion
7193092AI0082621392192144759192144898Ratregion
5034033RH1411022032192292458192292661Ratregion
5026466RH1323182182192143478192143696Ratregion
5026844RH1337471502191309976191310126Ratregion
5035108SHGC-167381472191248825191248972Ratregion
5035426AI0077401982192426636192426834Ratregion
5027255AW049785892191503972191504061Ratregion
5029897BF3941341942191949880191950074Ratregion
5030555BI2951112042191923661191923865Ratregion
5033651RH1396042092191249331191249540Ratregion
5028424RH1182651452191247527191247672Ratregion
5051156RH1344722142191330180191330393Ratregion
5056207RH1442451632191344112191344275Ratregion
5057378AA8513862312190699228190700103Ratregion
5054815RH1434412462191249105191249355Ratregion
5056721RH1445411782191299282191299460Ratregion
5052317U167402322192319951192320181Ratregion
5053307RH1425731772191807661191807838Ratregion
5053527RH1427001722191119471191119643Ratregion
5059320BG3773181522192295015192295167Ratregion
5052432AU0186242892192508119192508408Ratregion
5052613Slc16a16922192139990192140682Ratregion
5053951RH1429441262192509954192510080Ratregion
5041772RH1290502022192120094192120296Ratregion
5044234RH1304861892190892224190892413Ratregion
5041870RH12910602192144398192144579Ratregion
5046616RH1318561892192143959192144148Ratregion
5039656RH1278312112191947495191947706Ratregion
5042632RH1295511992190889013190889212Ratregion
5076856RH1394182152192265222192265437Ratregion
5078892RH1406122002190690172190690372Ratregion
5071764RH1352712172192451993192452214Ratregion
5072406RH1368311452191249515191249660Ratregion
5070348AI5535201132190619248190619361Ratregion
5062102BF3974462142192395755192395969Ratregion
5065332AA9571412482191311825191312073Ratregion
5060480BE0982261522191718454191718606Ratregion
5064384BF399184972192379867192379964Ratregion
5061888BI2940191512192123401192123552Ratregion
5086859AI4548061512191950467191950618Ratregion
5086197AA8593391902191555197191555387Ratregion
5087028AA8507951712192292095192292266Ratregion
5087126BM3885341852191237064191237249Ratregion
5089769AU0493532202191011622191011892Ratregion
5089769AU0493532202191011672191011892Ratregion
5083303BF4175091202192595242192595362Ratregion
5089473AU0491762622191513025191513287Ratregion
5084722AI0082622092192144625192144834Ratregion
5086677BE1152591672191528530191528697Ratregion
5083549BI2761041892192452553192452742Ratregion
5499807UniSTS:2347892092192434174192434383Ratregion
5500543RH1359001012191519111191519212Ratregion
5501496D3S14966482192194035192194683Ratregion
5506809G459511922192236475192236667Ratregion
5502351RH1245731072191520236191520343Ratregion
Position Markers

Flank 1: (D2Arb16)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.22190,602,746 - 190,602,963 (+)MAPPER
Rnor_6.02205,572,952 - 205,573,168NCBI
Rnor_5.02225,003,539 - 225,003,755UniSTS
RGSC_v3.42198,312,439 - 198,312,656RGD
RGSC_v3.42198,312,440 - 198,312,656UniSTS
RGSC_v3.12198,275,193 - 198,275,410RGD
Celera2183,076,093 - 183,076,309UniSTS
SHRSP x BN Map272.7698UniSTS
SHRSP x BN Map272.7698RGD
Cytogenetic Map2q34UniSTS
Flank 2: (D2Rat50)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.22192,625,307 - 192,625,452 (+)MAPPER
Rnor_6.02207,612,323 - 207,612,467NCBI
Rnor_5.02227,035,223 - 227,035,367UniSTS
RGSC_v3.42200,390,326 - 200,390,471RGD
RGSC_v3.42200,390,327 - 200,390,471UniSTS
RGSC_v3.12200,352,887 - 200,353,226RGD
Celera2185,090,977 - 185,091,121UniSTS
SHRSP x BN Map274.0098UniSTS
SHRSP x BN Map274.0098RGD


QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
1358913Cm41Cardiac mass QTL 412.73heart mass (VT:0007028)heart weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000074)225413423203928301Rat
1358917Cm42Cardiac mass QTL 422.82heart mass (VT:0007028)heart weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000074)225413423203928301Rat
1298074Bp164Blood pressure QTL 1640.003arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)242804607202447032Rat
1298085Bp165Blood pressure QTL 1650.0006arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)242804607202447032Rat
61467Bp14Blood pressure QTL 142.2arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)243154682202446871Rat
61467Bp14Blood pressure QTL 142.2arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)243154682202446871Rat
631266Bp132Blood pressure QTL 1320.0005arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)246123260202447032Rat
1331760Bp206Blood pressure QTL 2063.62454arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)256043031202447032Rat
1298080Bp163Blood pressure QTL 1630.02arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)266118275202447032Rat
1354648Bp239Blood pressure QTL 2390.001arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)266118463226797303Rat
1354605Rf48Renal function QTL 482.9blood creatinine amount (VT:0005328)plasma creatinine level (CMO:0000537)274786664206665859Rat
61374Edpm2Estrogen-dependent pituitary mass QTL 24.420.86pituitary gland mass (VT:0010496)pituitary gland wet weight (CMO:0000853)276539322202447032Rat
1581569Uae32Urinary albumin excretion QTL 320.0001urine protein amount (VT:0005160)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)278665619219826953Rat
724534Uae6Urinary albumin excretion QTL 610urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin level (CMO:0000130)278665619249053267Rat
8662832Vetf7Vascular elastic tissue fragility QTL 73.5aorta elastin amount (VT:0003905)aorta wall extracellular elastin dry weight to aorta wall dry weight ratio (CMO:0002002)281689826221035911Rat
1354622Kidm16Kidney mass QTL 163kidney mass (VT:0002707)left kidney wet weight (CMO:0000083)281754530222436696Rat
1354649Kidm17Kidney mass QTL 172.9kidney mass (VT:0002707)calculated kidney weight (CMO:0000160)281754530227146641Rat
631507Bp105Blood pressure QTL 1050.001arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)2112456140212696837Rat
634308Sach6Saccharin preference QTL 64.9taste sensitivity trait (VT:0001986)saccharin intake volume to total fluid intake volume ratio (CMO:0001601)2112456140212696837Rat
1578648Bss11Bone structure and strength QTL 114.7femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)femoral neck cortical cross-sectional area (CMO:0001702)2114837527211674221Rat
1554319Bmd2Bone mineral density QTL 213.40.0001lumbar vertebra area (VT:0010570)lumbar vertebra cross-sectional area (CMO:0001689)2114837675212549332Rat
1300165Rf9Renal function QTL 93.28kidney glomerulus integrity trait (VT:0010546)index of glomerular damage (CMO:0001135)2133914684202447032Rat
70175BpQTLCluster3Blood pressure QTL cluster 34.128arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)2135552573202446871Rat
70175BpQTLCluster3Blood pressure QTL cluster 34.128arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)2135552573202446871Rat
70175BpQTLCluster3Blood pressure QTL cluster 34.128arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)2135552573202446871Rat
70175BpQTLCluster3Blood pressure QTL cluster 34.128arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)pulse pressure (CMO:0000292)2135552573202446871Rat
70175BpQTLCluster3Blood pressure QTL cluster 34.128arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)absolute change in systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000607)2135552573202446871Rat
1298076Bp166Blood pressure QTL 1660.0009arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)2136445150202447032Rat
1359022Ppulsi1Prepulse inhibition QTL 13.63prepulse inhibition trait (VT:0003088)acoustic startle response measurement (CMO:0001519)2136916935213594495Rat
1331794Bp202Blood pressure QTL 2023.66819arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)2141194931223265385Rat
1331805Cm29Cardiac mass QTL 293.50746heart mass (VT:0007028)heart wet weight (CMO:0000069)2141194931223265385Rat
71113Cari2Carrageenan-induced inflammation QTL 22.70.009hypodermis integrity trait (VT:0010550)inflammatory exudate volume (CMO:0001429)2141596551202447032Rat
724568Uae13Urinary albumin excretion QTL 134.4urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)2143157029210020885Rat
10043136Iddm54Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 543.40.0001blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)2143657411190602963Rat
10043136Iddm54Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 543.40.0001blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)age at onset/diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (CMO:0001140)2143657411190602963Rat
1598833Bp295Blood pressure QTL 2953.5arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)2147798556192798556Rat
1641925Alcrsp2Alcohol response QTL 2response to alcohol trait (VT:0010489)duration of loss of righting reflex (CMO:0002289)2149559561221167075Rat
1641891Alcrsp17Alcohol response QTL 17response to alcohol trait (VT:0010489)duration of loss of righting reflex (CMO:0002289)2149559561249053267Rat
631501Bp101Blood pressure QTL 1012.4arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)2150341684202446871Rat
2301966Bp322Blood pressure QTL 3223.58arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)2150540301202447032Rat
1354609Niddm62Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 624.720.000006insulin secretion trait (VT:0003564)plasma insulin level (CMO:0000342)2150540301202447032Rat
1359032Hrtrt18Heart rate QTL 18heart pumping trait (VT:2000009)heart rate (CMO:0000002)2157142078192625452Rat
1358900Bw48Body weight QTL 484.88body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)2157142078211086598Rat
8662843Vetf9Vascular elastic tissue fragility QTL 92.05thoracic aorta molecular composition trait (VT:0010568)aorta wall extracellular elastin dry weight to aorta wall extracellular collagen weight ratio (CMO:0002003)2157142078226277316Rat
1302793Bw16Body weight QTL 1650.0001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)2157142209202446871Rat
7488925Bp364Blood pressure QTL 3640.001arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)2160564068205564068Rat
1358356Srcrt1Stress Responsive Cort QTL13.66blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)2161699179222436696Rat
7488927Bp365Blood pressure QTL 3650.008arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)2162765032207765032Rat
2306901Bp337Blood pressure QTL 3370.01arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)2164073756227146641Rat
1598838Bp290Blood pressure QTL 2901.9arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)2166539266211539266Rat
1331734Bp204Blood pressure QTL 2043.61192arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)2168358098223265385Rat
2307174Activ3Activity QTL 34.830.000058locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)number of entries into a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000960)2168594495213594495Rat
61469Bp16Blood pressure QTL 165.64arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)blood pressure measurement (CMO:0000003)2169745596214745596Rat
70162Bp63Blood pressure QTL 635.64arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)blood pressure measurement (CMO:0000003)2169745596214745596Rat
2293084Iddm26Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 262.9blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)2174930955213594495Rat
2300189Bmd48Bone mineral density QTL 485.80.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)2179335906224335906Rat
61417Cia10Collagen induced arthritis QTL 103.4joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)experimental arthritis severity measurement (CMO:0001459)2179946951224946951Rat
8694435Bw166Body weight QTL 16614.080.001retroperitoneal fat pad mass (VT:0010430)retroperitoneal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000635)2182171407227171407Rat
9589044Scfw1Subcutaneous fat weight QTL 15.80.001subcutaneous adipose mass (VT:1000472)abdominal subcutaneous fat pad weight (CMO:0002069)2182171407227171407Rat
8694383Bw158Body weight QTL 1587.690.001body lean mass (VT:0010483)lean tissue morphological measurement (CMO:0002184)2182171407227171407Rat
8694194Abfw1Abdominal fat weight QTL 111.70.001visceral adipose mass (VT:0010063)abdominal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000095)2182171407227171407Rat
4889834Pur24Proteinuria QTL 245.80.014total urine protein amount (VT:0000032)urine total protein excretion rate (CMO:0000756)2184114274202447032Rat
738013Alc15Alcohol consumption QTL 154.10.00022consumption behavior trait (VT:0002069)ethanol drink intake rate to body weight ratio (CMO:0001616)2184165752229165752Rat
7488929Bp366Blood pressure QTL 3660.001arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)2184974550193094998Rat
1359031Bp275Blood pressure QTL 275arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)2185876309219753474Rat
1359031Bp275Blood pressure QTL 275arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)2185876309219753474Rat
61458Bp10Blood pressure QTL 103.42arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)2189020722215287351Rat
1298083Bp158Blood pressure QTL 1582.62arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)2189020722215287351Rat
1331745Bp203Blood pressure QTL 2034.377arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)2189599258218414891Rat
1581499Esta2Estrogen-induced thymic atrophy QTL 2thymus mass (VT:0004954)thymus wet weight (CMO:0000855)2189599258226936289Rat
61366Iddm3Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 34.7blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)2189599258234599258Rat
61398Bp50Blood pressure QTL 504.4arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)2189599258234599258Rat
10043139Iddm55Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 553.10.0001blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)2190602746192625452Rat
10043139Iddm55Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 553.10.0001blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)age at onset/diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (CMO:0001140)2190602746192625452Rat
2301408Kidm36Kidney mass QTL 360.002kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)2190613715226808892Rat


Additional Information

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
qtl_general region spans 56 Mb of the telomeric locus; contains 23 protein-coding genes 10043114
qtl_general measurement method: Rats were tested three times a week for the presence of glycosuria and ketonuria. Once the animals became glycosuric, the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was made on the basis of hyperglycemia (blood glucose: 16.7 mmol/l) for two consecutive days. 10043114