ACE (angiotensin I converting enzyme) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: ACE (angiotensin I converting enzyme) Homo sapiens
Symbol: ACE
Name: angiotensin I converting enzyme
RGD ID: 737323
HGNC Page HGNC:2707
Description: Enables several functions, including chloride ion binding activity; peptidase activity; and protein kinase binding activity. Involved in several processes, including angiotensin maturation; arachidonic acid secretion; and peptide catabolic process. Located in several cellular components, including external side of plasma membrane; extracellular exosome; and lysosome. Is active in extracellular space. Implicated in several diseases, including artery disease (multiple); autoimmune disease (multiple); gastrointestinal system cancer (multiple); heart valve disease (multiple); and lung disease (multiple). Biomarker of several diseases, including chronic myeloid leukemia; intermediate coronary syndrome; lung disease (multiple); pancreatic ductal carcinoma; and renal fibrosis.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: REVIEWED
Previously known as: ACE1; angiotensin 1 converting enzyme 1; angiotensin converting enzyme, somatic isoform; angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 1; angiotensin I converting enzyme peptidyl-dipeptidase A 1 transcript; angiotensin-converting enzyme; carboxycathepsin; CD143; CD143 antigen; DCP; DCP1; dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase 1; dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase I; ICH; kininase II; MGC26566; MVCD3; peptidase P; testicular ECA
RGD Orthologs
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Related Pseudogenes: ACE3P  
Allele / Splice: See ClinVar data
Latest Assembly: GRCh38 - Human Genome Assembly GRCh38
NCBI Annotation Information: Note: This gene has been reviewed for its involvement in coronavirus biology, and is relevant for disease process.
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh381763,477,061 - 63,498,373 (+)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl1763,477,061 - 63,498,380 (+)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh371761,554,422 - 61,575,734 (+)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 361758,908,166 - 58,928,711 (+)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 341758,915,908 - 58,952,935NCBI
Celera1755,942,475 - 55,963,778 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map17q23.3NCBI
HuRef1756,922,781 - 56,944,100 (+)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_11761,618,550 - 61,639,869 (+)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.01764,347,269 - 64,368,872 (+)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
abdominal aortic aneurysm  (ISO)
Acute Hepatitis  (ISO)
acute kidney failure  (ISO)
Acute Lung Injury  (ISO)
adenocarcinoma  (EXP)
adult respiratory distress syndrome  (EXP,IEA)
Albuminuria  (EXP,IEP,ISO)
alcoholic cardiomyopathy  (IEA)
Alcoholic Liver Diseases  (IEP,IMP)
allergic disease  (IAGP)
allergic rhinitis  (IAGP)
Alzheimer's disease  (EXP,IEA,ISO)
anemia  (IAGP,IMP)
Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme, Benign Serum Increase  (IAGP)
ankylosing spondylitis  (IAGP)
Aortic Coarctation  (ISO)
Arteriovenous Fistula  (ISO)
aspiration pneumonia  (IMP)
asthma  (IAGP)
atrial fibrillation  (EXP,IAGP)
autistic disorder  (EXP)
autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease  (ISO)
Banti's Syndrome  (IEP)
Behcet's disease  (IAGP)
berylliosis  (EXP)
bipolar disorder  (IEA)
brain ischemia  (EXP)
breast cancer  (IAGP)
bronchiolitis obliterans  (ISO)
Cardiac Arrhythmias  (EXP,IAGP)
Cardiomegaly  (ISO)
cardiovascular system disease  (EXP)
carotid artery disease  (IEA)
celiac disease  (EXP)
Cerebral Hemorrhage  (EXP,IAGP)
cerebral infarction  (IAGP)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury  (ISO)
chemical colitis  (ISO)
Chemotherapy-Induced Febrile Neutropenia  (IAGP)
cholestasis  (ISO)
Chronic Hepatitis C  (IEP,IMP,ISO)
Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia  (ISO)
chronic myeloid leukemia  (IEP)
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  (IAGP,IMP)
congenital diaphragmatic hernia  (ISO)
Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis  (ISO)
congestive heart failure  (EXP,ISO)
coronary artery disease  (EXP,IAGP,IEA)
Coronary Disease  (EXP,IAGP)
coronary restenosis  (EXP)
Coronavirus infectious disease  (IMP)
Cough  (EXP,IMP)
Cytomegalovirus Infections  (IDA)
diabetic angiopathy  (IAGP)
Diabetic Cardiomyopathies  (ISO)
Diabetic Nephropathies  (EXP,IAGP,IEA,ISO)
diabetic retinopathy  (IAGP,IEA,IEP)
diastolic heart failure  (IAGP,ISO)
diffuse cystic renal dysplasia  (IAGP)
dilated cardiomyopathy  (IAGP)
drug allergy  (EXP)
end stage renal disease  (EXP,IAGP,IEA,ISO)
endomyocardial fibrosis  (ISO)
Endotoxemia  (ISO)
Experimental Arthritis  (ISO)
Experimental Colitis  (ISO)
Experimental Diabetes Mellitus  (EXP,ISO)
Experimental Liver Cirrhosis  (ISO)
extrinsic allergic alveolitis  (IEP)
Fabry disease  (IDA)
Familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformation  (IAGP)
familial Mediterranean fever  (IAGP)
Fetal Death  (IAGP)
Fetal Growth Retardation  (ISO)
focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 1  (ISO)
gallbladder adenocarcinoma  (IAGP)
Gaucher's disease  (EXP)
Genetic Predisposition to Disease  (EXP)
glomerulonephritis  (ISO)
glomerulosclerosis  (ISO)
glycogen storage disease V  (EXP)
heart valve disease  (IAGP)
Helicobacter Infections  (IAGP)
Henoch-Schoenlein purpura  (IAGP)
hepatitis A  (IAGP)
hepatocellular carcinoma  (EXP,IAGP)
Hyperoxia  (ISO)
hypertension  (EXP,IAGP,IEA,ISO)
Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis  (IEP,ISO)
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy  (IAGP)
Hypotension  (EXP)
IgA glomerulonephritis  (EXP,IAGP,IEA)
in situ carcinoma  (ISO)
Insulin Resistance  (IEA)
intermediate coronary syndrome  (IEP)
Intestinal Reperfusion Injury  (ISO)
intracranial aneurysm  (IEA)
kidney disease  (EXP)
kidney failure  (EXP)
Kidney Reperfusion Injury  (ISO)
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy  (EXP,IAGP,IDA,IEA,ISO)
leukemia  (IAGP)
leukostasis  (ISO)
liver cirrhosis  (IAGP,IEP,ISO)
Liver Metastasis  (ISO)
lung cancer  (IAGP)
lung carcinoma  (IEP)
lung disease  (EXP,ISO)
Lung Injury  (EXP)
Lung Neoplasms  (EXP)
malaria  (ISO)
male infertility  (EXP)
Memory Disorders  (IEA,ISO)
Meningococcal Infections  (EXP)
microcephaly  (IAGP)
middle cerebral artery infarction  (ISO)
mitral valve disease  (IAGP)
mitral valve prolapse  (IAGP,IEA)
multiple myeloma  (IDA)
Mycobacterium Infections  (IEP)
myocardial infarction  (EXP,IAGP,IEA,ISO)
myocarditis  (ISO)
Neoplasm Metastasis  (EXP)
nephritis  (IAGP)
nephrosis  (ISO)
nephrotic syndrome  (ISO)
non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  (EXP)
non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy  (IAGP)
obesity  (IAGP,ISO)
obstructive sleep apnea  (IAGP,ISO)
ocular hypotension  (ISO)
osteoporosis  (ISO)
Pain  (ISO)
pancreatic cancer  (ISO)
pancreatic ductal carcinoma  (IEP)
Parkinson's disease  (IEA)
Peritoneal Fibrosis  (ISO)
Pleural Effusion  (IEP)
pneumonia  (IEP,IMP)
polycythemia  (IMP)
pre-eclampsia  (EXP,IAGP)
pre-malignant neoplasm  (ISO)
Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension  (ISO)
Premature Infant Diseases  (EXP)
primary biliary cholangitis  (ISO)
Prostatic Neoplasms  (EXP)
proteinuria  (IAGP,ISO)
pulmonary fibrosis  (EXP,ISO)
pulmonary hypertension  (EXP)
Puromycin Aminonucleoside Nephrosis  (ISO)
pyelonephritis  (IEP)
Radiation Nephropathy  (ISO)
renal fibrosis  (IEP,ISO)
Renal Tubular Dysgenesis  (EXP,IAGP)
renovascular hypertension  (ISO)
Reperfusion Injury  (ISO)
respiratory system disease  (EXP)
Right Ventricular Hypertrophy  (ISO)
sarcoidosis  (IAGP,IDA,IEA,IEP)
schizophrenia  (IEP)
Sepsis  (IAGP)
severe acute respiratory syndrome  (EXP)
Staphylococcal Infections  (EXP)
stomach cancer  (IAGP)
Stomach Neoplasms  (EXP)
subacute sclerosing panencephalitis  (IAGP)
substance-induced psychosis  (EXP)
Sudden Death  (EXP)
systemic lupus erythematosus  (IEA)
systemic scleroderma  (IEA,IEP)
toxic shock syndrome  (IAGP)
type 1 diabetes mellitus  (IAGP,IEP)
type 2 diabetes mellitus  (IAGP,IEA)
ureteral obstruction  (ISO)
uveitis  (IEP)
Vascular System Injuries  (EXP,ISO)
Venous Thromboembolism  (IAGP)
Ventricular Fibrillation  (ISO)
Ventricular Remodeling  (ISO)
viral pneumonia  (EXP)
Weight Gain  (EXP)
Weight Loss  (EXP)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(+)-pilocarpine  (ISO)
(+)-schisandrin B  (ISO)
(+)-trans-(S)-allethrin  (EXP)
(-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate  (EXP)
(R)-lipoic acid  (ISO)
(S)-colchicine  (ISO)
(S)-nicotine  (EXP)
(S,S,S)-nicotianamine  (EXP)
1,10-phenanthroline  (EXP)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
14,15-EET  (ISO)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (ISO)
3'-amino-3'-deoxy-N(6),N(6)-dimethyladenosine  (ISO)
3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine  (ISO)
3-\{1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-1H-indol-3-yl\}-4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione  (EXP)
3-chloropropane-1,2-diol  (ISO)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (ISO)
4-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydroimidazo[1,5-a]pyridin-5-yl)benzonitrile  (ISO)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (ISO)
7,9-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6,8(3H)-trione  (ISO)
Ac-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro-OH  (ISO)
acetamide  (ISO)
acetylsalicylic acid  (EXP)
acrylamide  (ISO)
actinomycin D  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
aldosterone  (ISO)
aluminium atom  (ISO)
aluminium(0)  (ISO)
aminoguanidine  (ISO)
amitrole  (ISO)
amlodipine  (ISO)
ammonium chloride  (ISO)
antirheumatic drug  (EXP)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
atorvastatin calcium  (ISO)
atrazine  (EXP)
benazepril  (EXP)
benzo[a]pyrene  (EXP,ISO)
beta-naphthoflavone  (ISO)
bezafibrate  (ISO)
bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
bleomycin A2  (ISO)
boric acid  (EXP)
bortezomib  (EXP)
cadmium dichloride  (ISO)
caffeine  (ISO)
candesartan  (ISO)
cannabidiol  (EXP)
captan  (ISO)
captopril  (EXP,ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
carvedilol  (EXP,ISO)
chromium atom  (ISO)
chromium(6+)  (ISO)
cilazapril monohydrate  (EXP)
cobalt dichloride  (ISO)
cocaine  (EXP)
corticosterone  (ISO)
Cuprizon  (ISO)
curcumin  (ISO)
cyclophosphamide  (ISO)
D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
dexamethasone  (ISO)
dextran sulfate  (ISO)
diisononyl phthalate  (ISO)
dioxygen  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (ISO)
EC (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) inhibitor  (ISO)
enalapril  (EXP,ISO)
enalaprilat dihydrate  (EXP)
ethanol  (ISO)
ethylbenzene  (EXP)
ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid  (EXP)
fenvalerate  (ISO)
flavonoids  (ISO)
folic acid  (ISO)
folpet  (ISO)
fructose  (ISO)
furan  (ISO)
genistein  (ISO)
gentamycin  (ISO)
glucose  (EXP,ISO)
glycidol  (ISO)
goralatide  (ISO)
GW 4064  (ISO)
herbimycin  (EXP)
hydralazine  (ISO)
hydrazines  (ISO)
hydrochlorothiazide  (ISO)
hydrogen peroxide  (EXP,ISO)
indometacin  (EXP)
indoxyl sulfate  (ISO)
ketamine  (ISO)
L-ascorbic acid  (EXP)
Lasiocarpine  (EXP)
lead diacetate  (ISO)
lead(0)  (ISO)
lead(2+)  (ISO)
lipoic acid  (ISO)
lisinopril dihydrate  (EXP)
lithium chloride  (ISO)
losartan  (EXP,ISO)
Magnolol  (ISO)
manganese(II) chloride  (ISO)
manidipine  (ISO)
methoxychlor  (ISO)
metoprolol  (EXP)
microcystin RR  (ISO)
mifepristone  (ISO)
monocrotaline  (ISO)
N(gamma)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester  (ISO)
N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal  (EXP)
N-methylnicotinate  (ISO)
N-nitrosodiethylamine  (ISO)
Nandrolone decanoate  (ISO)
naringin  (ISO)
nicotianamine  (EXP)
nicotine  (EXP)
nicotinic acid  (ISO)
nitric oxide  (ISO)
nitrofen  (ISO)
NS-398  (EXP)
oltipraz  (ISO)
omapatrilat  (EXP)
ouabain  (ISO)
ozone  (ISO)
paracetamol  (ISO)
paraquat  (ISO)
perindopril  (EXP)
phenylephrine  (EXP)
phorbol 13-acetate 12-myristate  (EXP)
pioglitazone  (ISO)
pirfenidone  (ISO)
pirinixic acid  (ISO)
potassium dichromate  (ISO)
pravastatin  (ISO)
pregabalin  (ISO)
proanthocyanidin  (ISO)
prostaglandin E2  (EXP)
prostaglandin I2  (EXP)
quercetin  (ISO)
quinapril hydrochloride  (EXP,ISO)
raloxifene  (EXP)
ramipril  (EXP)
rebaudioside A  (EXP)
resveratrol  (ISO)
rivastigmine  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (ISO)
silver atom  (ISO)
silver(0)  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (EXP,ISO)
sodium chloride  (EXP)
sodium dichromate  (ISO)
sodium fluoride  (ISO)
spironolactone  (ISO)
steviol  (EXP)
stevioside  (EXP)
streptozocin  (ISO)
sunitinib  (EXP)
telmisartan  (ISO)
testosterone  (EXP,ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (ISO)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
toluene  (EXP)
trandolapril  (ISO)
tributylstannane  (ISO)
triclosan  (EXP)
triptonide  (ISO)
tyrphostin AG 1478  (ISO)
valproic acid  (EXP)
valsartan  (ISO)
venlafaxine hydrochloride  (ISO)
vinclozolin  (ISO)
zinc atom  (EXP)
zinc sulfate  (EXP)
zinc(0)  (EXP)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
aging  (IEA,ISO)
amyloid-beta metabolic process  (IDA)
angiogenesis involved in coronary vascular morphogenesis  (IEA,ISO)
angiotensin maturation  (IC,IDA,IEA,TAS)
animal organ regeneration  (IEA,ISO)
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I  (TAS)
arachidonic acid secretion  (IDA)
blood vessel diameter maintenance  (IC)
blood vessel remodeling  (IC)
bradykinin catabolic process  (IDA,IEA,ISO)
brain development  (IEA,ISO)
cell proliferation in bone marrow  (IEA,ISS)
cellular response to aldosterone  (IEA,ISO)
cellular response to glucose stimulus  (IEA,ISO)
eating behavior  (IEA,ISO)
embryo development ending in birth or egg hatching  (IEA,ISO)
female pregnancy  (IEA,ISO)
heart contraction  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
hematopoietic stem cell differentiation  (IC)
hormone catabolic process  (IDA,IEA,ISS)
hormone metabolic process  (IDA)
kidney development  (IEA,IMP,ISO,ISS)
lung alveolus development  (IEA,ISO)
lung development  (IEA,ISO)
male gonad development  (IEA,ISO)
mononuclear cell proliferation  (IC)
negative regulation of calcium ion import  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of gap junction assembly  (IEA,ISS)
negative regulation of gene expression  (IEA)
negative regulation of glucose import  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of protein binding  (IEA)
negative regulation of renal sodium excretion  (IEA,ISO)
neutrophil mediated immunity  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
peptide catabolic process  (IDA,IEA,ISO)
peptide metabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of apoptotic process  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of blood pressure  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of inflammatory response  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of neurogenesis  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylation  (IEA,ISS)
positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine autophosphorylation  (IEA,ISS)
positive regulation of protein binding  (IEA)
positive regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity  (IEA,ISS)
positive regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure  (IBA,IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of vasoconstriction  (IEA,ISO)
post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression  (IEA)
proteolysis  (IEA,TAS)
regulation of angiotensin metabolic process  (IDA)
regulation of blood pressure  (IEA,ISS)
regulation of hematopoietic stem cell proliferation  (IC,IEA,ISS)
regulation of renal output by angiotensin  (IC)
regulation of smooth muscle cell migration  (IEA,ISS)
regulation of synaptic plasticity  (IEA,ISS)
regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by renin-angiotensin  (IBA,IC,IMP)
regulation of vasoconstriction  (IC)
response to dexamethasone  (IEA,ISO)
response to hypoxia  (IEA,ISO)
response to laminar fluid shear stress  (IEA,ISO)
response to lipopolysaccharide  (IEA,ISO)
response to nutrient levels  (IEA,ISO)
response to thyroid hormone  (IEA,ISO)
response to xenobiotic stimulus  (IEA,ISO)
sensory perception of pain  (IEA,ISO)
spermatogenesis  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
substance P catabolic process  (IDA)
vasoconstriction  (IEA,ISO)

Cellular Component
basal plasma membrane  (IEA,ISO)
brush border membrane  (IEA,ISO)
cytoplasm  (IEA)
endosome  (IDA)
external side of plasma membrane  (IDA)
extracellular exosome  (HDA,IDA)
extracellular region  (IEA,TAS)
extracellular space  (HDA,IDA,IEA,ISO)
lysosome  (IDA)
membrane  (IEA)
plasma membrane  (IBA,IDA,IEA,ISO,TAS)
sperm midpiece  (IEA,ISO)
vesicle  (IEA,ISO)

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
Phenotype Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Human Phenotype
Abnormal echocardiogram  (IAGP)
Abnormal EKG  (IAGP)
Abnormal fundus morphology  (IAGP)
Abnormal mitral valve physiology  (IAGP)
Abnormal posterior segment imaging  (IAGP)
Abnormal PR interval  (IAGP)
Abnormal sacroiliac joint morphology  (IAGP)
Abnormality of prenatal development or birth  (IAGP)
Abnormality of the eye  (IAGP)
Abnormality of the urinary system  (IAGP)
Adult onset  (IAGP)
Albuminuria  (IAGP)
Anhydramnios  (IAGP)
Anuria  (IAGP)
Arrhythmia  (IAGP)
Autosomal recessive inheritance  (IAGP)
Cerebral hemorrhage  (IAGP)
Elevated circulating creatinine concentration  (IAGP)
Elevated diastolic blood pressure  (IAGP)
Elevated hemoglobin A1c  (IAGP)
Elevated systolic blood pressure  (IAGP)
Genital ulcers  (IAGP)
Heart block  (IAGP)
Helicobacter pylori infection  (IAGP)
Hematuria  (IAGP)
Hyperglycemia  (IAGP)
Hypertension  (IAGP)
Hypotension  (IAGP)
Increased C-peptide level  (IAGP)
Ischemic stroke  (IAGP)
Localized skin lesion  (IAGP)
Marcus Gunn pupil  (IAGP)
Microcephaly  (IAGP)
Nasal congestion  (IAGP)
Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy  (IAGP)
Oligohydramnios  (IAGP)
Oral ulcer  (IAGP)
Potter facies  (IAGP)
Preretinal hemorrhage  (IAGP)
Prolonged PR interval  (IAGP)
Proteinuria  (IAGP)
Pulmonary hypoplasia  (IAGP)
Renal dysplasia  (IAGP)
Renotubular dysgenesis  (IAGP)
Respiratory insufficiency  (IAGP)
Retinal neovascularization  (IAGP)
Retinopathy  (IAGP)
Rhinorrhea  (IAGP)
Sneeze  (IAGP)
Stroke  (IAGP)
Sudden loss of visual acuity  (IAGP)
Uveitis  (IAGP)
Visual field defect  (IAGP)
Vitreous hemorrhage  (IAGP)
Widely patent fontanelles and sutures  (IAGP)

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Protective effect of captopril against clozapine-induced myocarditis in rats: role of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines and DNA damage. Abdel-Wahab BA, etal., Chem Biol Interact. 2014 Jun 5;216:43-52. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2014.03.012. Epub 2014 Apr 5.
2. Mechanisms of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor-induced IOP reduction in normotensive rats. Agarwal R, etal., Eur J Pharmacol. 2014 May 5;730:8-13. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.02.021. Epub 2014 Feb 26.
3. Is serum angiotensin converting enzyme level a useful non-invasive marker for liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C? Akar T, Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2018 Mar;64(3):224-229. doi: 10.1590/1806-9282.64.03.224.
4. Elevated serum angiotensin converting enzyme levels as a reflection of bone marrow renin-angiotensin system activation in multiple myeloma. Albayrak M, etal., J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2012 Jun;13(2):259-64. doi: 10.1177/1470320312437070. Epub 2012 Feb 16.
5. Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion gene polymorphism in patients with familial multiple cerebral cavernous malformations. Altas M, etal., J Clin Neurosci. 2010 Aug;17(8):1034-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2009.12.002. Epub 2010 May 21.
6. Effects of blockade of the renin-angiotensin and endothelin systems on experimental bronchiolitis obliterans. Antus B, etal., J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006 Nov;25(11):1324-9.
7. Antihypertensives as novel antineoplastics: angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Arafat HA, etal., J Am Coll Surg. 2007 May;204(5):996-1005; discussion 1005-6.
8. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity in puromycin aminonucleoside-nephrotic syndrome. Arevalo AE, etal., Clin Chim Acta. 1990 Nov 5;191(3):175-84.
9. Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype predicts valve damage in acute rheumatic fever. Atalar E, etal., J Heart Valve Dis. 2003 Jan;12(1):7-10.
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