APOE (apolipoprotein E) - Rat Genome Database

Send us a Message



Submit Data |  Help |  Video Tutorials |  News |  Publications |  Download |  REST API |  Citing RGD |  Contact   
Gene: APOE (apolipoprotein E) Homo sapiens
Analyze
Symbol: APOE
Name: apolipoprotein E
RGD ID: 736378
HGNC Page HGNC:613
Description: Enables several functions, including amyloid-beta binding activity; heparan sulfate proteoglycan binding activity; and lipoprotein particle receptor binding activity. Involved in several processes, including lipid transport; regulation of lipid transport; and regulation of protein metabolic process. Acts upstream of or within with a positive effect on AMPA glutamate receptor clustering and NMDA glutamate receptor clustering. Acts upstream of or within negative regulation of dendritic spine development; positive regulation of dendritic spine development; and regulation of dendritic spine maintenance. Located in several cellular components, including Golgi apparatus; cytoplasmic vesicle; and extracellular exosome. Part of several cellular components, including chylomicron; low-density lipoprotein particle; and triglyceride-rich plasma lipoprotein particle. Is active in glutamatergic synapse and synaptic cleft. Implicated in several diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (multiple); artery disease (multiple); biliary tract cancer (multiple); eye disease (multiple); and familial hyperlipidemia (multiple). Biomarker of several diseases, including Lewy body dementia; diabetes mellitus (multiple); end stage renal disease; neurodegenerative disease (multiple); and obesity.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: REVIEWED
Previously known as: AD2; Alzheimer disease 2 (APOE*E4-associated, late onset); apo-E; ApoE4; apolipoprotein E3; LDLCQ5; LPG; MGC1571
RGD Orthologs
Mouse
Rat
Chinchilla
Bonobo
Dog
Squirrel
Pig
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Allele / Splice: See ClinVar data
Is Marker For: Strains:   SD-Apoetm1(APOE*)Sage  
QTLs:   SCL22_H  
Candidate Gene For: BW139_H
Latest Assembly: GRCh38 - Human Genome Assembly GRCh38
Position:
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
GRCh381944,905,796 - 44,909,393 (+)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl1944,905,791 - 44,909,393 (+)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh371945,409,053 - 45,412,650 (+)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 361950,100,879 - 50,104,490 (+)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 341950,100,878 - 50,104,489NCBI
Celera1942,213,361 - 42,216,972 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map19q13.32NCBI
HuRef1941,839,825 - 41,843,436 (+)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_11945,411,793 - 45,415,404 (+)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.01947,730,492 - 47,734,089 (+)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)
Model


Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
abdominal aortic aneurysm  (IAGP,ISO)
adenocarcinoma  (EXP)
age related macular degeneration 1  (IAGP)
Alzheimer's disease  (EXP,IAGP,IEA,IEP,ISO)
Alzheimer's disease 2  (IAGP)
Alzheimer's disease 3  (IAGP)
Alzheimer's disease 4  (EXP,IAGP)
Alzheimer's Disease, Familial, 3, with Spastic Paraparesis and Apraxia  (EXP)
amyloidosis  (EXP)
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  (IAGP)
angle-closure glaucoma  (IAGP)
anxiety disorder  (EXP)
aortic atherosclerosis  (ISO)
Apolipoprotein E, Deficiency or Defect of  (IAGP)
arteriosclerosis  (EXP)
atherosclerosis  (EXP,IMP,ISO)
atopic dermatitis  (IDA)
B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  (IAGP)
beta thalassemia  (IEP)
bile duct cancer  (IAGP)
Brain Injuries  (IEA)
breast cancer  (IAGP)
Broad-Betalipoproteinemia  (IAGP)
cardiovascular system disease  (EXP,IEA)
carotid artery disease  (EXP,IEA)
carotid stenosis  (EXP)
cerebral amyloid angiopathy  (EXP)
Cerebral Hemorrhage  (IAGP)
cerebral infarction  (IAGP)
cerebrovascular disease  (IAGP)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury  (EXP)
cholelithiasis  (IAGP)
cholestasis  (IEP)
Chronic Brain Injury  (IAGP)
Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion  (ISO)
Chronic Hepatitis B  (IAGP)
Chronic Hepatitis C  (IAGP)
cognitive disorder  (EXP)
Cognitive Dysfunction  (IAGP)
congestive heart failure  (IAGP)
coronary artery disease  (IAGP,IEA,ISO)
Coronary Disease  (EXP,IAGP)
Coumarin Sensitivity  (IAGP)
dementia  (IEA)
diabetes mellitus  (IDA)
Diabetic Nephropathies  (IAGP,ISO)
diabetic retinopathy  (IAGP)
dilated cardiomyopathy  (IAGP)
Disease Progression  (EXP)
Dysbetalipoproteinemia due to Defect in Apolipoprotein E-d  (IAGP)
Dyslipidemias  (EXP)
Emphysema  (EXP)
end stage renal disease  (IEP,ISO)
Endotoxemia  (IDA)
exfoliation syndrome  (IAGP)
Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis  (ISO)
Experimental Diabetes Mellitus  (ISO)
Experimental Mammary Neoplasms  (ISO)
familial combined hyperlipidemia  (IAGP)
Familial Hyperbeta- and Prebetalipoproteinemia  (IAGP)
familial hypercholesterolemia  (ISO)
familial hyperlipidemia  (EXP,IEA,ISO)
fatty liver disease  (EXP,ISO)
fetal alcohol spectrum disorder  (ISO)
Fetal Growth Retardation  (ISO)
Fibrosis  (EXP)
Floating-Betalipoproteinemia  (IAGP)
gallbladder cancer  (IAGP)
Genetic Translocation  (EXP)
glaucoma  (IEA)
glomerulonephritis  (ISO)
glomerulosclerosis  (ISO)
Habitual Abortions  (IAGP)
Hearing Loss  (EXP)
hepatocellular carcinoma  (ISO)
herpes simplex  (IMP)
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis  (IAGP)
herpes simplex virus keratitis  (IDA)
Hypercholesterolemia  (EXP,IAGP,ISO)
hyperhomocysteinemia  (ISO)
Hyperlipemia with Familial Hypercholesterolemic Xanthomatosis  (IAGP)
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II  (EXP)
hyperlipoproteinemia type III  (EXP,IAGP,IEA)
hypertension  (EXP,IEA,ISO)
Hypertriglyceridemia  (IAGP,IEA,ISO)
hyperuricemia  (IAGP)
hypothyroidism  (ISO)
kidney failure  (EXP)
Klebsiella Infections  (ISO)
Kuhnt-Junius degeneration  (IAGP,IMP)
Lewy body dementia  (IEP)
Lipoprotein Glomerulopathy  (EXP,IAGP,IMP)
low tension glaucoma  (IAGP)
lung carcinoma  (IAGP)
Lung Neoplasms  (EXP)
macular degeneration  (EXP,IAGP,IEA,IMP)
malaria  (IAGP)
membranous glomerulonephritis  (ISO)
Memory Disorders  (IAGP,ISO)
Mercury Poisoning  (EXP)
middle cerebral artery infarction  (ISO)
multiple myeloma  (IDA)
multiple sclerosis  (EXP,IEA)
myocardial infarction  (EXP,IAGP,IEA)
Myocardial Ischemia  (IAGP)
Neoplasm Metastasis  (ISO)
nephrotic syndrome  (IEP)
Nerve Degeneration  (EXP)
Neurobehavioral Manifestations  (EXP)
non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  (ISO)
obesity  (EXP,IEA,IEP,ISO)
open-angle glaucoma  (IAGP)
pancreatic cancer  (IEP)
Parkinson's disease  (IEP)
Peripheral Nerve Injuries  (IDA,ISO)
Plaque, Atherosclerotic  (EXP)
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious  (ISO)
Presenile and Senile Dementia  (IAGP)
primary cutaneous amyloidosis  (IEP)
primary open angle glaucoma  (IAGP)
proteinuria  (EXP)
psoriasis  (EXP,IAGP)
Puromycin Aminonucleoside Nephrosis  (ISO)
relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis  (EXP)
retinal disease  (IAGP)
schizophrenia  (EXP,IEA)
sciatic neuropathy  (ISO)
sea-blue histiocytosis  (EXP,IAGP)
sensorineural hearing loss  (IAGP)
Sjogren's syndrome  (IAGP)
sleep apnea  (IEA)
Spinal Cord Injuries  (IAGP,ISO)
Splenomegaly  (EXP)
Spontaneous Abortions  (EXP)
Stroke  (IEA)
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  (IEA)
transient cerebral ischemia  (ISO)
type 1 diabetes mellitus  (IEA,IEP)
type 2 diabetes mellitus  (IEA,IEP)
Vascular System Injuries  (ISO)
Venous Thrombosis  (ISO)
Ventricular Dysfunction, Left  (IAGP)
visual epilepsy  (EXP)
warfarin resistance  (IAGP)
warfarin sensitivity  (IAGP)
Wilson disease  (EXP)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(+)-catechin  (ISO)
(+)-schisandrin B  (ISO)
(25R)-cholest-5-ene-3beta,26-diol  (ISO)
(S)-nicotine  (ISO)
1,1-dichloroethene  (ISO)
11-dehydro-thromboxane B2  (EXP)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one  (EXP)
2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl  (EXP)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran  (ISO)
2-amino-2-deoxy-D-galactopyranose  (ISO)
2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose  (ISO)
2-arachidonoylglycerol  (ISO)
2-butoxyethanol  (ISO)
2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine  (EXP)
26-hydroxycholesterol  (ISO)
3',5'-cyclic GMP  (ISO)
3'-amino-3'-deoxy-N(6),N(6)-dimethyladenosine  (ISO)
3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl  (EXP,ISO)
3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine  (ISO)
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine  (ISO)
3-chloropropane-1,2-diol  (ISO)
3-Nitrobenzanthrone  (EXP)
3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione  (ISO)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (EXP)
4-hydroxy-TEMPO  (EXP,ISO)
5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine  (ISO)
6-oxoprostaglandin F1alpha  (ISO)
7,12-dimethyltetraphene  (ISO)
8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha  (ISO)
acenocoumarol  (EXP)
acetamide  (ISO)
acetylcholine  (ISO)
acetylsalicylic acid  (EXP,ISO)
acrolein  (EXP)
aflatoxin B1  (EXP,ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucosamine  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
amiodarone  (ISO)
ammonium chloride  (ISO)
amphibole asbestos  (ISO)
arachidonic acid  (EXP,ISO)
aristolochic acid A  (EXP)
Aroclor 1254  (ISO)
arsane  (EXP,ISO)
arsenic atom  (EXP,ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
arsenous acid  (EXP)
aspartame  (EXP)
atorvastatin calcium  (EXP,ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (EXP,ISO)
beta-D-glucosamine  (ISO)
bezafibrate  (EXP,ISO)
bifenthrin  (ISO)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
BQ 123  (ISO)
Brodifacoum  (ISO)
cadmium atom  (EXP,ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (ISO)
caffeine  (EXP)
Calcimycin  (ISO)
calcium atom  (ISO)
calcium(0)  (ISO)
capsaicin  (ISO)
captan  (ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
cerium trichloride  (EXP)
cetirizine  (ISO)
cetrorelix  (EXP)
chlordecone  (ISO)
chloropicrin  (EXP)
chloroquine  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (EXP,ISO)
cholesterol  (ISO)
cisplatin  (EXP,ISO)
clofibrate  (ISO)
clofibric acid  (ISO)
cobalt atom  (EXP)
copper atom  (EXP,ISO)
copper(0)  (EXP,ISO)
copper(II) sulfate  (ISO)
curcumin  (ISO)
cyclophosphamide  (ISO)
cyclosporin A  (EXP)
cypermethrin  (ISO)
D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
DDE  (EXP)
Deoxycorticosterone acetate  (ISO)
desogestrel  (EXP)
dexamethasone  (EXP,ISO)
dextran sulfate  (ISO)
diarsenic trioxide  (EXP)
diazinon  (ISO)
dibutyl phthalate  (ISO)
diethylstilbestrol  (EXP,ISO)
dimethylarsinic acid  (ISO)
dimethylarsinous acid  (ISO)
dipyridamole  (EXP)
diuron  (ISO)
dorsomorphin  (EXP)
doxorubicin  (ISO)
elemental selenium  (EXP,ISO)
enalapril  (EXP,ISO)
endosulfan  (ISO)
entinostat  (EXP)
epoxiconazole  (ISO)
ethanol  (ISO)
ethanolamine  (ISO)
felodipine  (ISO)
fenvalerate  (ISO)
Fexofenadine hydrochloride  (ISO)
flusilazole  (ISO)
flutamide  (ISO)
fluvastatin  (EXP)
folic acid  (EXP,ISO)
folpet  (ISO)
furan  (ISO)
Ganoderic acid A  (EXP)
gemfibrozil  (ISO)
genistein  (ISO)
gentamycin  (ISO)
ginkgolide B  (ISO)
glucose  (EXP,ISO)
glutathione  (ISO)
GW 3965  (EXP,ISO)
GW 4064  (EXP,ISO)
GW 7647  (EXP)
hexadecanoic acid  (ISO)
high-density lipoprotein cholesterol  (EXP,ISO)
hydrazine  (ISO)
hydrogen peroxide  (ISO)
hydroquinone  (ISO)
indometacin  (ISO)
iron atom  (EXP)
iron(0)  (EXP)
isotretinoin  (EXP)
ivabradine  (ISO)
ivermectin  (EXP)
kaempferol  (ISO)
kainic acid  (ISO)
ketamine  (EXP,ISO)
kuwanone G  (ISO)
L-ascorbic acid  (ISO)
lansoprazole  (EXP,ISO)
lead diacetate  (ISO)
lead(0)  (EXP)
lead(2+)  (EXP)
Licochalcone B  (EXP)
lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
lovastatin  (ISO)
mechlorethamine  (ISO)
menadione  (ISO)
mercury atom  (EXP)
mercury(0)  (EXP)
methyl beta-cyclodextrin  (ISO)
methylmercury chloride  (EXP)
microcystin-LR  (ISO)
mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (ISO)
monosodium L-glutamate  (EXP,ISO)
morphine  (ISO)
Morroniside  (ISO)
myricitrin  (ISO)
N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide  (ISO)
N-[2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]isoquinoline-5-sulfonamide  (EXP)
N-acetyl-L-cysteine  (ISO)
N-Acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-cysteine  (EXP)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (EXP)
N-nitrosodiethylamine  (ISO)
N-tosyl-L-phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone  (EXP)
nickel atom  (EXP)
nickel sulfate  (EXP)
nicotine  (ISO)
nimesulide  (ISO)
nitric oxide  (ISO)
nitrofen  (ISO)
NONOate(1-)  (ISO)
notoginsenoside R1  (ISO)
obeticholic acid  (EXP)
ochratoxin A  (ISO)
oleic acid  (EXP)
oxaliplatin  (ISO)
ozone  (ISO)
palbociclib  (EXP)
paracetamol  (EXP,ISO)
paricalcitol  (EXP,ISO)
pentanal  (EXP)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (EXP,ISO)
perfluorooctanoic acid  (EXP)
permethrin  (ISO)
Phenelzine  (ISO)
phenobarbital  (ISO)
phenylephrine  (ISO)
phenytoin  (ISO)
phosphorus atom  (EXP)
phosphorus(.)  (EXP)
phytosterols  (ISO)
pirinixic acid  (ISO)
potassium chloride  (ISO)
probucol  (ISO)
propanal  (EXP)
Pyridostigmine bromide  (ISO)
quercetin  (EXP,ISO)
resveratrol  (EXP,ISO)
retinyl acetate  (ISO)
rotenone  (ISO)
sarin  (EXP)
SB 431542  (EXP)
selenium atom  (EXP,ISO)
sevoflurane  (ISO)
simvastatin  (EXP,ISO)
sodium arsenite  (EXP,ISO)
sodium dichromate  (ISO)
sodium fluoride  (ISO)
streptozocin  (ISO)
sunitinib  (EXP)
superoxide  (ISO)
T-2 toxin  (ISO)
tamoxifen  (EXP,ISO)
taurocholic acid  (ISO)
tert-butyl hydroperoxide  (EXP,ISO)
testosterone enanthate  (EXP)
tetrachloromethane  (ISO)
theaflavin  (ISO)
thioacetamide  (ISO)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
tolcapone  (ISO)
topotecan  (ISO)
tributylstannane  (ISO)
trichloroethene  (ISO)
Trihexyphenidyl  (EXP)
trimellitic anhydride  (ISO)
triolein  (ISO)
triphenyl phosphate  (ISO)
triptonide  (ISO)
troglitazone  (EXP)
Tropicamide  (EXP)
trovafloxacin  (ISO)
Tungsten carbide  (EXP)
valproic acid  (EXP,ISO)
valsartan  (EXP)
vanadyl sulfate  (ISO)
varenicline  (ISO)
vitamin E  (ISO)
vitamin K  (EXP)
vitexin  (ISO)
warfarin  (EXP,ISO)
zearalenone  (EXP)
zinc atom  (EXP)
zinc sulfate  (ISO)
zinc(0)  (EXP)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
aging  (ISO)
AMPA glutamate receptor clustering  (IDA)
amyloid precursor protein metabolic process  (IDA)
artery morphogenesis  (IEA,ISO)
axon regeneration  (ISO)
cellular oxidant detoxification  (IEA)
cellular response to cholesterol  (ISO)
cellular response to ethanol  (ISO)
cellular response to growth factor stimulus  (ISO)
cellular response to interleukin-1  (ISO)
cGMP-mediated signaling  (IDA)
cholesterol catabolic process  (IBA,IEA,ISO)
cholesterol efflux  (IDA,IEA,ISO)
cholesterol homeostasis  (IDA,IEA,IGI,ISO)
cholesterol metabolic process  (IDA,IEA,IMP,ISO)
chylomicron remnant clearance  (IDA,IMP)
circulatory system development  (IEA,ISO)
cytoskeleton organization  (TAS)
fatty acid homeostasis  (IDA)
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  (IDA)
gene expression  (IEA,ISO)
high-density lipoprotein particle assembly  (IDA)
high-density lipoprotein particle clearance  (IDA)
high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling  (IGI)
intermediate-density lipoprotein particle clearance  (IDA)
intermembrane lipid transfer  (IEA)
intracellular calcium ion homeostasis  (IEA,ISO)
intracellular transport  (TAS)
lipid homeostasis  (IEA,ISO)
lipid metabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
lipid transport  (IEA,ISO)
lipid transport involved in lipid storage  (IEA,ISS)
lipoprotein biosynthetic process  (IDA,IEA,ISO)
lipoprotein catabolic process  (IBA,IEA,ISO)
lipoprotein metabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
locomotory exploration behavior  (IMP)
long-chain fatty acid transport  (IDA)
long-term memory  (IGI)
low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling  (IEA)
maintenance of location in cell  (IEA,ISO)
melanosome organization  (IEA,IMP)
negative regulation of amyloid fibril formation  (IEA,ISS)
negative regulation of amyloid-beta formation  (IDA)
negative regulation of blood coagulation  (IDA)
negative regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration  (IDA)
negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway  (IDA,IGI,TAS)
negative regulation of cholesterol biosynthetic process  (IDA,ISO)
negative regulation of cholesterol efflux  (IDA)
negative regulation of dendritic spine development  (IDA)
negative regulation of dendritic spine maintenance  (IDA)
negative regulation of endothelial cell migration  (IMP)
negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation  (IDA)
negative regulation of gene expression  (IEA,ISS)
negative regulation of inflammatory response  (IC,IEA)
negative regulation of lipid biosynthetic process  (IDA)
negative regulation of lipid transport across blood-brain barrier  (IDA)
negative regulation of long-term synaptic potentiation  (IDA)
negative regulation of MAP kinase activity  (IDA)
negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process  (IBA,ISO)
negative regulation of neuron death  (IDA)
negative regulation of neuron projection development  (IDA)
negative regulation of phospholipid efflux  (IDA)
negative regulation of platelet activation  (IDA)
negative regulation of postsynaptic membrane organization  (IDA)
negative regulation of protein metabolic process  (IGI)
negative regulation of protein secretion  (IMP)
negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation  (IEA,ISS)
negative regulation of triglyceride metabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
neuron projection development  (IDA)
nitric oxide mediated signal transduction  (IDA)
NMDA glutamate receptor clustering  (IDA)
obsolete positive regulation of cholesterol esterification  (IDA)
oligodendrocyte differentiation  (ISO)
peripheral nervous system axon regeneration  (ISO)
phospholipid efflux  (IDA)
positive regulation by host of viral process  (IMP)
positive regulation of amyloid fibril formation  (TAS)
positive regulation of amyloid-beta clearance  (IEA,ISS)
positive regulation of amyloid-beta formation  (IDA)
positive regulation of axon extension  (ISO)
positive regulation of cholesterol efflux  (IDA,IEA,IGI)
positive regulation of cholesterol metabolic process  (IDA,IEA)
positive regulation of CoA-transferase activity  (IDA,IEA)
positive regulation of dendritic spine development  (IDA)
positive regulation of dendritic spine maintenance  (IDA)
positive regulation of DNA-templated transcription  (IMP)
positive regulation of endocytosis  (IDA)
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade  (IMP)
positive regulation of heparan sulfate binding  (IDA)
positive regulation of heparan sulfate proteoglycan binding  (IDA)
positive regulation of lipid biosynthetic process  (IDA)
positive regulation of lipid transport across blood-brain barrier  (IDA)
positive regulation of low-density lipoprotein particle receptor catabolic process  (IDA)
positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis  (IDA,IGI)
positive regulation of neurofibrillary tangle assembly  (IDA)
positive regulation of neuron death  (IDA)
positive regulation of neuron projection development  (IDA,IEA,ISS)
positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity  (IBA,IDA)
positive regulation of phospholipid efflux  (IDA)
positive regulation of presynaptic membrane organization  (IDA)
protein import  (IDA)
protein localization  (ISO)
receptor-mediated endocytosis  (IDA,TAS)
regulation of amyloid fibril formation  (IDA)
regulation of amyloid precursor protein catabolic process  (IDA)
regulation of amyloid-beta clearance  (IBA,IDA)
regulation of apoptotic process  (IEA)
regulation of axon extension  (TAS)
regulation of behavioral fear response  (IMP)
regulation of Cdc42 protein signal transduction  (IDA)
regulation of cellular response to very-low-density lipoprotein particle stimulus  (IDA)
regulation of cholesterol metabolic process  (IGI)
regulation of gene expression  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of innate immune response  (IEA)
regulation of neuron death  (IDA)
regulation of neuronal synaptic plasticity  (TAS)
regulation of plasma lipoprotein particle levels  (IEA)
regulation of proteasomal protein catabolic process  (IMP)
regulation of protein metabolic process  (IGI)
regulation of protein-containing complex assembly  (IDA)
regulation of synapse organization  (IEA)
regulation of tau-protein kinase activity  (IDA)
regulation of triglyceride metabolic process  (ISO)
response to caloric restriction  (IGI)
response to D-galactosamine  (ISO)
response to dietary excess  (IEA,ISO)
response to ethanol  (ISO)
response to insulin  (ISO)
response to oxidative stress  (IEA,ISO)
response to reactive oxygen species  (NAS)
response to retinoic acid  (ISO)
response to tumor necrosis factor  (ISO)
response to zinc ion  (ISO)
reverse cholesterol transport  (IDA)
steroid metabolic process  (IEA)
synaptic transmission, cholinergic  (TAS)
triglyceride homeostasis  (IEA,ISS)
triglyceride metabolic process  (IDA,IMP)
triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle clearance  (IEA,IMP)
vasodilation  (IEA,ISO)
very-low-density lipoprotein particle clearance  (IDA,IMP)
very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling  (IDA,IEA,IGI)
virion assembly  (IMP)

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
Phenotype Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Human Phenotype
Abnormal cerebral vascular morphology  (IAGP)
Abnormal circulating apolipoprotein concentration  (IAGP)
Abnormal circulating cholesterol concentration  (IAGP)
Abnormal circulating lipid concentration  (IAGP)
Abnormal renal glomerulus morphology  (IAGP)
Abnormality of extrapyramidal motor function  (IAGP)
Absent axillary hair  (IAGP)
Accelerated atherosclerosis  (IAGP)
Acute pancreatitis  (IAGP)
Adult onset  (IAGP)
Agnosia  (IAGP)
Alzheimer disease  (IAGP)
Angina pectoris  (IAGP)
Aortic atherosclerotic lesion  (IAGP)
Apraxia  (IAGP)
Autosomal dominant inheritance  (IAGP)
Autosomal recessive inheritance  (IAGP)
Babinski sign  (IAGP)
Blepharitis  (IAGP)
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy  (IAGP)
Cerebral cortical atrophy  (IAGP)
Choroidal neovascularization  (IAGP)
Cirrhosis  (IAGP)
Corneal arcus  (IAGP)
Cotton wool plaques  (IAGP)
Decreased HDL cholesterol concentration  (IAGP)
Decreased LDL cholesterol concentration  (IAGP)
Dementia  (IAGP)
Diabetes mellitus  (IAGP)
Dysarthria  (IAGP)
Dysphagia  (IAGP)
Dystonia  (IAGP)
Edema  (IAGP)
Elevated circulating alanine aminotransferase concentration  (IAGP)
Elevated circulating aspartate aminotransferase concentration  (IAGP)
Foam cells  (IAGP)
Foveal hypopigmentation  (IAGP)
Gait disturbance  (IAGP)
Geographic atrophy  (IAGP)
Glomerulopathy  (IAGP)
Gout  (IAGP)
Hepatic steatosis  (IAGP)
Hepatomegaly  (IAGP)
Hypercholesterolemia  (IAGP)
Hyperpigmentation of the skin  (IAGP)
Hypertriglyceridemia  (IAGP)
Hyperuricemia  (IAGP)
Hypopigmentation of the skin  (IAGP)
Hypothyroidism  (IAGP)
Impaired visuospatial constructive cognition  (IAGP)
Increased LDL cholesterol concentration  (IAGP)
Increased total bilirubin  (IAGP)
Invasive parasitic infection  (IAGP)
Late onset  (IAGP)
Long-tract signs  (IAGP)
Lower limb hyperreflexia  (IAGP)
Macular degeneration  (IAGP)
Macular drusen  (IAGP)
Macular hemorrhage  (IAGP)
Mediastinal lymphadenopathy  (IAGP)
Memory impairment  (IAGP)
Mesangial hypercellularity  (IAGP)
Middle age onset  (IAGP)
Myocardial infarction  (IAGP)
Myoclonus  (IAGP)
Neurofibrillary tangles  (IAGP)
Obesity  (IAGP)
Optic ataxia  (IAGP)
Parietal hypometabolism in FDG PET  (IAGP)
Parkinsonism  (IAGP)
Peripheral arterial stenosis  (IAGP)
Personality changes  (IAGP)
Petechiae  (IAGP)
Premature coronary artery atherosclerosis  (IAGP)
Progressive visual loss  (IAGP)
Proteinuria  (IAGP)
Pulmonary infiltrates  (IAGP)
Rapidly progressive  (IAGP)
Renal insufficiency  (IAGP)
Renal steatosis  (IAGP)
Retinopathy  (IAGP)
Sea-blue histiocytosis  (IAGP)
Seizure  (IAGP)
Senile plaques  (IAGP)
Sleep-wake cycle disturbance  (IAGP)
Spastic tetraparesis  (IAGP)
Splenomegaly  (IAGP)
Subcutaneous nodule  (IAGP)
Tendon xanthomatosis  (IAGP)
Thrombocytopenia  (IAGP)
Transient hyperlipidemia  (IAGP)
Type IV atherosclerotic lesion  (IAGP)
Viral hepatitis  (IAGP)
Xanthelasma  (IAGP)
References

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Memory deficits and cholinergic impairments in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. null
2. Mammary tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis are enhanced in a hyperlipidemic mouse model. Alikhani N, etal., Oncogene. 2013 Feb 21;32(8):961-7. doi: 10.1038/onc.2012.113. Epub 2012 Apr 2.
3. Polymorphisms of genes in the lipid metabolism pathway and risk of biliary tract cancers and stones: a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. Andreotti G, etal., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Mar;17(3):525-34. Epub 2008 Feb 22.
4. Apolipoprotein E level and cholesterol are associated with reduced synaptic amyloid beta in Alzheimer's disease and apoE TR mouse cortex. Arold S, etal., Acta Neuropathol. 2012 Jan;123(1):39-52. Epub 2011 Oct 22.
5. Deficiency of a transcriptional regulator, inhibitor of differentiation 3, induces glomerulonephritis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice: a model linking hyperlipidemia and renal disease. Bagavant H, etal., Am J Pathol. 2011 Aug;179(2):651-60. Epub 2011 Jun 14.
6. APOE and APOC1 genetic polymorphisms in age-associated memory impairment. Bartres-Faz D, etal., Neurogenetics. 2001 Oct;3(4):215-9.
7. The genetic association database. Becker KG, etal., Nat Genet. 2004 May;36(5):431-2.
8. Macrophage-specific expression of human apolipoprotein E reduces atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E-null mice. Bellosta S, etal., J Clin Invest. 1995 Nov;96(5):2170-9.
9. Effective treatment of ocular HSK with a human apolipoprotein E mimetic peptide in a mouse eye model. Bhattacharjee PS, etal., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Oct;49(10):4263-8. doi: 10.1167/iovs.08-2077. Epub 2008 May 30.
10. Fetal adrenal gland alterations in a rat model of adverse intrauterine environment. Bibeau K, etal., Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010 Apr;298(4):R899-911. Epub 2009 Nov 18.
11. Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele is associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Bleumink GS, etal., Am Heart J. 2004 Apr;147(4):685-9.
12. A role for apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein A-I, and low density lipoprotein receptors in cholesterol transport during regeneration and remyelination of the rat sciatic nerve. Boyles JK, etal., J Clin Invest. 1989 Mar;83(3):1015-31.
13. Protective peptides that are orally active and mechanistically nonchiral. Brenneman DE, etal., J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Jun;309(3):1190-7. Epub 2004 Mar 8.
14. Studies of familial type III hyperlipoproteinemia using as a genetic marker the apoE phenotype E2/2. Breslow JL, etal., J Lipid Res. 1982 Nov;23(8):1224-35.
15. Chronic renal failure alters endothelial function in cerebral circulation in mice. Bugnicourt JM, etal., Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011 Sep;301(3):H1143-52. Epub 2011 Jun 24.
16. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms are associated with psoriasis but do not determine disease response to acitretin. Campalani E, etal., Br J Dermatol. 2006 Feb;154(2):345-52.
17. The apolipoprotein E genotype predicts postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Cardona F, etal., J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 May;90(5):2972-5. Epub 2005 Feb 15.
18. Characterizations and proteome analysis of platelet-free plasma-derived microparticles in beta-thalassemia/hemoglobin E patients. Chaichompoo P, etal., J Proteomics. 2012 Dec 5;76 Spec No.:239-50. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2012.06.004. Epub 2012 Jun 15.
19. Influences of apolipoprotein E polymorphism on the risk for breast cancer and HER2/neu status in Taiwan. Chang NW, etal., Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2005 Apr;90(3):257-61.
20. Association between the apolipoprotein E genotypes and breast cancer patients in Taiwanese. Chang SJ, etal., Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006 Jul;98(1):109-13. Epub 2006 Jun 5.
21. The effects of berberine on hyperhomocysteinemia and hyperlipidemia in rats fed with a long-term high-fat diet. Chang XX, etal., Lipids Health Dis. 2012 Jul 4;11(1):86.
22. APOE polymorphism and angiographic coronary artery disease severity in the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study. Chen Q, etal., Atherosclerosis. 2003 Jul;169(1):159-67.
23. Low cholesterol in dialysis patients--causal factor for mortality or an effect of confounding? Chmielewski M, etal., Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011 Oct;26(10):3325-31. Epub 2011 Feb 28.
24. SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS THAT INFLUENCE LIPID METABOLISM: Interaction with Dietary Factors. Corella D and Ordovas JM, Annu Rev Nutr. 2005;25:341-90.
25. [Comparative plasma proteomic analysis of patients with multiple myeloma treated with bortezomib-based regimens]. Cumova J, etal., Klin Onkol. 2012;25(1):17-25.
26. Angiotensin II promotes atherosclerotic lesions and aneurysms in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Daugherty A, etal., J Clin Invest. 2000 Jun;105(11):1605-12.
27. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice have an impaired immune response to Klebsiella pneumoniae. de Bont N, etal., Eur J Clin Invest. 2000 Sep;30(9):818-22.
28. Impaired fibrinolytic system in ApoE gene-deleted mice with hyperlipidemia augments deep vein thrombosis. Diaz JA, etal., J Vasc Surg. 2012 Mar;55(3):815-22. Epub 2011 Nov 25.
29. Magnesium sulfate reduces bacterial LPS-induced inflammation at the maternal-fetal interface. Dowling O, etal., Placenta. 2012 May;33(5):392-8. doi: 10.1016/j.placenta.2012.01.013. Epub 2012 Feb 16.
30. Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele as a genetic risk factor for left ventricular failure in homozygous beta-thalassemia. Economou-Petersen E, etal., Blood. 1998 Nov 1;92(9):3455-9.
31. Effect of polymorphisms of the MTHFR and APOE genes on susceptibility to diabetes and severity of diabetic retinopathy in Brazilian patients. Errera FI, etal., Braz J Med Biol Res. 2006 Jul;39(7):883-8.
32. Severe type III hyperlipoproteinemia associated with unusual apolipoprotein E1 phenotype and epsilon 1/'null' genotype. Feussner G, etal., Eur J Clin Invest. 1992 Sep;22(9):599-608.
33. Subsets of SNPs define rare genotype classes that predict ischemic heart disease. Frikke-Schmidt R, etal., Hum Genet. 2007 Feb;120(6):865-877. Epub 2006 Sep 28.
34. Age-related macular degeneration and functional promoter and coding variants of the apolipoprotein E gene. Fritsche LG, etal., Hum Mutat. 2009 Jul;30(7):1048-53. doi: 10.1002/humu.20957.
35. Apolipoprotein E is present in primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis. Furumoto H, etal., J Invest Dermatol. 1998 Sep;111(3):417-21.
36. Involvement of apolipoprotein E in excess fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Gao J, etal., Diabetes. 2007 Jan;56(1):24-33.
37. Establishment of a rat model with diet-induced coronary atherosclerosis. Gao M, etal., J Biomed Res. 2016 Oct 17;31(1):47-55. doi: 10.7555/JBR.31.20160020.
38. Apolipoprotein E genotype is associated with differential expansion rates of small abdominal aortic aneurysms. Gerdes LU, etal., Br J Surg. 2000 Jun;87(6):760-5.
39. GOAs Human GO annotations GOA_HUMAN data from the GO Consortium
40. The association of Apoprotein E polymorphisms with recurrent pregnancy loss. Goodman C, etal., Am J Reprod Immunol. 2009 Jan;61(1):34-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2008.00659.x.
41. Biomarker discovery from pancreatic cancer secretome using a differential proteomic approach. Gronborg M, etal., Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006 Jan;5(1):157-71. Epub 2005 Oct 8.
42. Association of gene polymorphisms with coronary artery disease in low- or high-risk subjects defined by conventional risk factors. Hirashiki A, etal., J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Oct 15;42(8):1429-37.
43. The apolipoprotein E epsilon4-allele and antihypertensive treatment are associated with increased risk of cerebral MRI white matter hyperintensities. Hogh P, etal., Acta Neurol Scand. 2007 Apr;115(4):248-53.
44. Proteomic identification of biomarkers of vascular injury. Huang NF, etal., Am J Transl Res. 2011 Feb;3(2):139-48. Epub 2010 Nov 21.
45. Expression of apolipoprotein E during nerve degeneration and regeneration. Ignatius MJ, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Feb;83(4):1125-9.
46. Synergistic effects of prothrombotic polymorphisms and atherogenic factors on the risk of myocardial infarction in young males. Inbal A, etal., Blood. 1999 Apr 1;93(7):2186-90.
47. Virus-mediated transduction of apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-sendai develops lipoprotein glomerulopathy in ApoE-deficient mice. Ishigaki Y, etal., J Biol Chem. 2000 Oct 6;275(40):31269-73.
48. Apolipoprotein E modifies neurological outcome by affecting cerebral edema but not hematoma size after intracerebral hemorrhage in humans. James ML, etal., J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009 Mar-Apr;18(2):144-9.
49. Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele and outcomes of traumatic spinal cord injury. Jha A, etal., J Spinal Cord Med. 2008;31(2):171-6.
50. Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 associated with chronic traumatic brain injury in boxing. Jordan BD, etal., JAMA. 1997 Jul 9;278(2):136-40.
51. Abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism in patients with the nephrotic syndrome. Joven J, etal., N Engl J Med. 1990 Aug 30;323(9):579-84.
52. Is the ApoE polymorphism associated with dilated cardiomyopathy? Jurkovicova D, etal., Gen Physiol Biophys. 2006 Mar;25(1):3-10.
53. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism in psoriasis. Karpouzis A, etal., Arch Dermatol Res. 2009 Jul;301(6):405-10. doi: 10.1007/s00403-009-0968-0. Epub 2009 Jun 5.
54. KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes KEGG
55. Effect of fungal polysaccharides on the modulation of plasma proteins in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Kim SW, etal., Proteomics. 2006 Oct;6(19):5291-302.
56. Glycoproteomic analysis of plasma from patients with atopic dermatitis: CD5L and ApoE as potential biomarkers. Kim WK, etal., Exp Mol Med. 2008 Dec 31;40(6):677-85.
57. Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphisms with normal tension glaucoma in a Chinese population. Lam CY, etal., J Glaucoma. 2006 Jun;15(3):218-22.
58. Expression profiles of cholesterol metabolism-related genes are altered during development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the rat spinal cord. Lavrnja I, etal., Sci Rep. 2017 Jun 2;7(1):2702. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-02638-8.
59. Red mold rice promotes neuroprotective sAPPalpha secretion instead of Alzheimer's risk factors and amyloid beta expression in hyperlipidemic Abeta40-infused rats. Lee CL, etal., J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Feb 24;58(4):2230-8. doi: 10.1021/jf904027y.
60. Knockout rat models mimicking human atherosclerosis created by Cpf1-mediated gene targeting. Lee JG, etal., Sci Rep. 2019 Feb 22;9(1):2628. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-38732-2.
61. An apolipoprotein E-mimetic stimulates axonal regeneration and remyelination after peripheral nerve injury. Li FQ, etal., J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Jul;334(1):106-15. Epub 2010 Apr 20.
62. Glucose concentration in the dialysate does not contribute to lipid profiles in patients undergoing CAPD. Li Z and Fengxian H, Ren Fail. 2011;33(2):124-30.
63. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms and retinal vascular signs: the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study. Liew G, etal., Arch Ophthalmol. 2007 Jun;125(6):813-8.
64. Herpes simplex encephalitis: involvement of apolipoprotein E genotype. Lin WR, etal., J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001 Jan;70(1):117-9.
65. Apolipoprotein E influences melatonin biosynthesis by regulating NAT and MAOA expression in C6 cells. Liu YJ, etal., J Pineal Res. 2012 May;52(4):397-402. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-079X.2011.00954.x. Epub 2012 Jan 8.
66. Fcgamma receptor deficiency attenuates diabetic nephropathy. Lopez-Parra V, etal., J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Sep;23(9):1518-27. Epub 2012 Aug 2.
67. Apolipoprotein E promoter polymorphisms (-491A/T and -427T/C) and Alzheimer's disease: no evidence of association in the Irish population. Lynch CA, etal., Ir J Med Sci. 2008 Mar;177(1):29-33. Epub 2007 Dec 5.
68. The apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism is associated with open angle glaucoma in the Japanese population. Mabuchi F, etal., Mol Vis. 2005 Aug 12;11:609-12.
69. Apolipoprotein E allele-dependent pathogenesis: a model for age-related retinal degeneration. Malek G, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Aug 16;102(33):11900-5. Epub 2005 Aug 3.
70. Meta-analysis of genome-wide gene expression differences in onset and maintenance phases of genetic hypertension. Marques FZ, etal., Hypertension. 2010 Aug;56(2):319-24. Epub 2010 Jun 28.
71. Beta amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau deposits in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes. Miklossy J, etal., Neurobiol Aging. 2008 Oct 23.
72. Isoform-specific effects of ApoE on HSV immediate early gene expression and establishment of latency. Miller RM and Federoff HJ, Neurobiol Aging. 2008 Jan;29(1):71-7. Epub 2006 Nov 13.
73. Genetic associations in diabetic nephropathy: a meta-analysis. Mooyaart AL, etal., Diabetologia. 2011 Mar;54(3):544-53. Epub 2010 Dec 3.
74. Apolipoprotein E genotyping in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: evidence for a major influence on the clinical presentation and prognosis. Moulard B, etal., J Neurol Sci. 1996 Aug;139 Suppl:34-7.
75. Impact of artificial sunlight therapy on the progress of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats. Nakano T, etal., J Hepatol. 2011 Aug;55(2):415-25. Epub 2010 Dec 22.
76. Apolipoprotein E alleles and sensorineural hearing loss. O'Grady G, etal., Int J Audiol. 2007 Apr;46(4):183-6.
77. Apolipoprotein E Sendai (arginine 145-->proline): a new variant associated with lipoprotein glomerulopathy. Oikawa S, etal., J Am Soc Nephrol. 1997 May;8(5):820-3.
78. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
79. Combined germline variations of thrombophilic genes promote genesis of lung cancer. Ozen F, etal., Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(9):5449-54.
80. Regulation of apolipoprotein A-1 and E gene expression in liver and intestine of nephrotic and pair-fed rats. Panduro A, etal., Nephron. 1993;65(1):100-7.
81. The apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele is unlikely to be a major risk factor of age-related macular degeneration in Chinese. Pang CP, etal., Ophthalmologica. 2000;214(4):289-91.
82. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism influences lipid phenotypes in Chinese families with familial combined hyperlipidemia. Pei WD, etal., Circ J. 2006 Dec;70(12):1606-10.
83. Presence of apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele predisposes to early onset of primary Sjogren's syndrome. Pertovaara M, etal., Rheumatology (Oxford). 2004 Dec;43(12):1484-7. Epub 2004 Aug 24.
84. Angiotensin II Infusion Does Not Cause Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Rats. Phillips EH, etal., J Vasc Res. 2018;55(1):1-12. doi: 10.1159/000484086. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
85. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
86. Early hypercholesterolemia contributes to vasomotor dysfunction and injury associated atherogenesis that can be inhibited by nitric oxide. Raman KG, etal., J Vasc Surg. 2011 Mar;53(3):754-63. Epub 2010 Dec 15.
87. Postprandial triglyceride levels in familial combined hyperlipidemia. The role of apolipoprotein E and lipoprotein lipase polymorphisms. Reiber I, etal., J Nutr Biochem. 2003 Jul;14(7):394-400.
88. Human recombinant apolipoprotein E redirects lipopolysaccharide from Kupffer cells to liver parenchymal cells in rats In vivo. Rensen PC, etal., J Clin Invest. 1997 May 15;99(10):2438-45.
89. Apolipoprotein E promoter polymorphisms do not have a major influence on the risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma. Ressiniotis T, etal., Mol Vis. 2004 Oct 28;10:805-7.
90. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
91. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
92. RGD HPO Phenotype Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for human HPO-to-gene-to-disease annotations
93. Combined serum and tissue proteomic study applied to a c-Myc transgenic mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma identified novel disease regulated proteins suitable for diagnosis and therapeutic intervention strategies. Ritorto MS and Borlak J, J Proteome Res. 2011 Jul 1;10(7):3012-30. Epub 2011 Jun 6.
94. Epistatic Interactions between apolipoprotein E and hemoglobin S Genes in regulation of malaria parasitemia. Rougeron V, etal., PLoS One. 2013 Oct 8;8(10):e76924. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076924. eCollection 2013.
95. Enriched environment reduces apolipoprotein E (ApoE) in reactive astrocytes and attenuates inflammation of the peri-infarct tissue after experimental stroke. Ruscher K, etal., J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009 Nov;29(11):1796-805. Epub 2009 Jul 22.
96. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein E and genetic markers in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease. Scacchi R, etal., Neurosci Lett. 1999 Jan 4;259(1):33-6.
97. A pooled case-control study of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene in age-related maculopathy. Schmidt S, etal., Ophthalmic Genet. 2002 Dec;23(4):209-23.
98. Robust association of the APOE epsilon4 allele with premature myocardial infarction especially in patients without hypercholesterolaemia: the Aachen study. Schmitz F, etal., Eur J Clin Invest. 2007 Feb;37(2):106-8.
99. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism is not a strong risk factor for diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy in Type I diabetes: case-control study. Shcherbak NS BMC Med Genet. 2001;2:8. Epub 2001 Jul 24.
100. Intermediate phenotypes identify divergent pathways to Alzheimer's disease. Shulman JM, etal., PLoS One. 2010 Jun 21;5(6):e11244. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011244.
101. A discovery-phase urine proteomics investigation in type 1 diabetes. Soggiu A, etal., Acta Diabetol. 2012 Jun 8.
102. The epsilon4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene as a potential protective factor for exudative age-related macular degeneration. Souied EH, etal., Am J Ophthalmol. 1998 Mar;125(3):353-9.
103. The usefulness of measuring body fat deposition for detecting obesity and atherogenesity in Japanese school children. Takahashi H, etal., Acta Paediatr Jpn. 1996 Dec;38(6):634-9.
104. Polymorphism of apolipoprotein E and occurrence of dysbetalipoproteinaemia in man. Utermann G, etal., Nature. 1977 Oct 13;269(5629):604-7.
105. Apolipoprotein E gene promoter (-219G/T) polymorphism is associated with premature coronary heart disease. Viitanen L, etal., J Mol Med. 2001 Dec;79(12):732-7. Epub 2001 Jul 25.
106. Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Induced Synaptic Proteome Changes in the rat Cerebral Cortex. Völgyi K, etal., Mol Neurobiol. 2018 May;55(5):4253-4266. doi: 10.1007/s12035-017-0641-0. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
107. Proteinuria decreases tissue lipoprotein receptor levels resulting in altered lipoprotein structure and increasing lipid levels. Wang L, etal., Kidney Int. 2012 Jul 11. doi: 10.1038/ki.2012.244.
108. Olfactory identification and apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele in mild cognitive impairment. Wang QS, etal., Brain Res. 2002 Sep 27;951(1):77-81.
109. Apolipoprotein E genotype as a determinant of survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Weinberg JB, etal., Leukemia. 2008 Dec;22(12):2184-92. doi: 10.1038/leu.2008.241. Epub 2008 Sep 11.
110. Effects of triiodothyronine and propylthiouracil on plasma lipoproteins in male rats. Wilcox HG, etal., J Lipid Res. 1982 Nov;23(8):1159-66.
111. Apolipoprotein E and LRP1 Increase Early in Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis. Wilhelmus MM, etal., Am J Pathol. 2011 Nov;179(5):2152-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.07.021. Epub 2011 Sep 9.
112. Apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 protects against severe liver disease caused by hepatitis C virus. Wozniak MA, etal., Hepatology. 2002 Aug;36(2):456-63.
113. Genetic risk for coronary artery disease in individuals with or without type 2 diabetes. Yamada Y, etal., Mol Genet Metab. 2004 Apr;81(4):282-90.
114. Genetic risk for atherothrombotic cerebral infarction in individuals stratified by sex or conventional risk factors for atherosclerosis. Yamaguchi S, etal., Int J Mol Med. 2006 Nov;18(5):871-83.
115. Confounding effect of obstructive jaundice in the interpretation of proteomic plasma profiling data for pancreatic cancer. Yan L, etal., J Proteome Res. 2009 Jan;8(1):142-8.
116. Effects of apolipoprotein E genotypes on the development of exfoliation syndrome. Yilmaz A, etal., Exp Eye Res. 2005 Jun;80(6):871-5.
117. Investigation of the relationship between apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms and hepatitis B virus infection in northern China. Yin Z, etal., Clin Chem Lab Med. 2010 Dec;48(12):1803-7. doi: 10.1515/CCLM.2010.354. Epub 2010 Oct 20.
118. [A study on the association of apolipoprotein E genotypes with primary open-angle glaucoma and primary angle-closure glaucoma in northeast of China]. Yuan HP, etal., Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2007 May;43(5):416-20.
119. Spontaneous hypercholesterolemia and arterial lesions in mice lacking apolipoprotein E. Zhang SH, etal., Science 1992 Oct 16;258(5081):468-71.
120. Hyperlipidemia induces typical atherosclerosis development in Ldlr and Apoe deficient rats. Zhao Y, etal., Atherosclerosis. 2018 Apr;271:26-35. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.02.015. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
121. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in rats with spinal cord injury during the transitional phase using an iTRAQ-based quantitative analysis. Zhou H, etal., Gene. 2018 Jul 20. pii: S0378-1119(18)30820-5. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2018.07.050.
122. Less gelatinases is associated with apolipoprotein E accumulation in glomerulosclerosis rats. Zhou TB, etal., Histol Histopathol. 2012 Feb;27(2):249-56.
123. All-trans retinoic acid can regulate the expressions of gelatinases and apolipoprotein E in glomerulosclerosis rats. Zhou TB, etal., Vascul Pharmacol. 2011 Nov-Dec;55(5-6):169-77. Epub 2011 Sep 2.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:210174   PMID:210175   PMID:759055   PMID:1356443   PMID:1361196   PMID:1384047   PMID:1530612   PMID:1617762   PMID:1674745   PMID:1713245   PMID:1730728   PMID:1911868  
PMID:1917954   PMID:2063194   PMID:2101409   PMID:2280190   PMID:2313204   PMID:2341812   PMID:2470732   PMID:2498325   PMID:2539388   PMID:2556398   PMID:2738044   PMID:2745454  
PMID:2760009   PMID:2762297   PMID:2779654   PMID:2851587   PMID:2987927   PMID:2992507   PMID:3038959   PMID:3243553   PMID:3283935   PMID:3771793   PMID:3922972   PMID:3947350  
PMID:4066713   PMID:4345202   PMID:6199196   PMID:6289314   PMID:6323533   PMID:6325438   PMID:6327682   PMID:6897404   PMID:7068630   PMID:7263700   PMID:7498414   PMID:7566652  
PMID:7581381   PMID:7586659   PMID:7592957   PMID:7635945   PMID:7683668   PMID:7761390   PMID:7768901   PMID:7797576   PMID:7833947   PMID:7972031   PMID:8063017   PMID:8071364  
PMID:8083695   PMID:8089103   PMID:8127890   PMID:8245722   PMID:8287539   PMID:8300609   PMID:8340399   PMID:8346443   PMID:8488843   PMID:8620924   PMID:8624078   PMID:8626535  
PMID:8756331   PMID:8939961   PMID:8995232   PMID:9003062   PMID:9012418   PMID:9147408   PMID:9211985   PMID:9218423   PMID:9228033   PMID:9236223   PMID:9360638   PMID:9488694  
PMID:9512010   PMID:9622609   PMID:9649566   PMID:9685360   PMID:9831625   PMID:9869645   PMID:9931331   PMID:10520737   PMID:10559559   PMID:10662539   PMID:10842709   PMID:10850798  
PMID:10962542   PMID:10993992   PMID:11030801   PMID:11032626   PMID:11033977   PMID:11042151   PMID:11055796   PMID:11058710   PMID:11060506   PMID:11061249   PMID:11063158   PMID:11064931  
PMID:11072138   PMID:11074789   PMID:11076057   PMID:11079660   PMID:11095479   PMID:11095526   PMID:11096027   PMID:11099722   PMID:11100124   PMID:11106322   PMID:11109009   PMID:11110974  
PMID:11113217   PMID:11118024   PMID:11118404   PMID:11118932   PMID:11119301   PMID:11121165   PMID:11125748   PMID:11126401   PMID:11129109   PMID:11129992   PMID:11140838   PMID:11140944  
PMID:11141572   PMID:11143490   PMID:11152862   PMID:11153762   PMID:11156623   PMID:11157409   PMID:11160955   PMID:11162594   PMID:11166913   PMID:11166947   PMID:11171287   PMID:11171894  
PMID:11172628   PMID:11173876   PMID:11173877   PMID:11173882   PMID:11176958   PMID:11177205   PMID:11182472   PMID:11204323   PMID:11218879   PMID:11229422   PMID:11231028   PMID:11236867  
PMID:11244490   PMID:11254923   PMID:11256794   PMID:11257253   PMID:11257255   PMID:11259129   PMID:11269459   PMID:11269753   PMID:11273849   PMID:11273909   PMID:11277566   PMID:11280044  
PMID:11281447   PMID:11281508   PMID:11285089   PMID:11294867   PMID:11295126   PMID:11299424   PMID:11302074   PMID:11303757   PMID:11305732   PMID:11305851   PMID:11305869   PMID:11311499  
PMID:11315514   PMID:11320185   PMID:11326299   PMID:11328206   PMID:11332642   PMID:11334266   PMID:11334897   PMID:11340230   PMID:11341749   PMID:11343612   PMID:11343837   PMID:11351136  
PMID:11354629   PMID:11355019   PMID:11357958   PMID:11359065   PMID:11360807   PMID:11376902   PMID:11378846   PMID:11383910   PMID:11388660   PMID:11398147   PMID:11401610   PMID:11412677  
PMID:11420577   PMID:11420784   PMID:11421127   PMID:11421132   PMID:11421580   PMID:11422615   PMID:11431078   PMID:11434425   PMID:11445282   PMID:11445633   PMID:11454010   PMID:11456487  
PMID:11458997   PMID:11463413   PMID:11471927   PMID:11472462   PMID:11474482   PMID:11475012   PMID:11477126   PMID:11482130   PMID:11484169   PMID:11484172   PMID:11487204   PMID:11494308  
PMID:11495026   PMID:11500190   PMID:11501342   PMID:11502364   PMID:11504565   PMID:11509287   PMID:11512679   PMID:11516561   PMID:11526473   PMID:11535238   PMID:11546879   PMID:11552016  
PMID:11553047   PMID:11558492   PMID:11559372   PMID:11560764   PMID:11563433   PMID:11568917   PMID:11571342   PMID:11574101   PMID:11580926   PMID:11585357   PMID:11589721   PMID:11592046  
PMID:11592592   PMID:11665324   PMID:11673588   PMID:11673590   PMID:11676289   PMID:11676291   PMID:11684342   PMID:11684904   PMID:11698154   PMID:11701639   PMID:11702052   PMID:11711204  
PMID:11714857   PMID:11714860   PMID:11720484   PMID:11721184   PMID:11722155   PMID:11723294   PMID:11730829   PMID:11738493   PMID:11739991   PMID:11740190   PMID:11743999   PMID:11748362  
PMID:11755017   PMID:11755252   PMID:11756600   PMID:11769625   PMID:11769703   PMID:11769724   PMID:11775232   PMID:11780357   PMID:11780396   PMID:11784357   PMID:11784371   PMID:11788473  
PMID:11788960   PMID:11791620   PMID:11793025   PMID:11798896   PMID:11803456   PMID:11804199   PMID:11804704   PMID:11805010   PMID:11807891   PMID:11807900   PMID:11814460   PMID:11820771  
PMID:11823668   PMID:11830396   PMID:11834531   PMID:11836653   PMID:11840773   PMID:11840804   PMID:11844848   PMID:11849659   PMID:11849755   PMID:11857554   PMID:11860878   PMID:11860925  
PMID:11863377   PMID:11873594   PMID:11879722   PMID:11882334   PMID:11882335   PMID:11882522   PMID:11882743   PMID:11882744   PMID:11884656   PMID:11884660   PMID:11885754   PMID:11889238  
PMID:11890580   PMID:11893833   PMID:11901276   PMID:11903341   PMID:11903399   PMID:11904138   PMID:11910554   PMID:11912196   PMID:11920850   PMID:11921083   PMID:11922198   PMID:11931575  
PMID:11931577   PMID:11936239   PMID:11936240   PMID:11939894   PMID:11939896   PMID:11940690   PMID:11940706   PMID:11949718   PMID:11950276   PMID:11952809   PMID:11954859   PMID:11959333  
PMID:11966948   PMID:11971052   PMID:11971084   PMID:11981126   PMID:11983298   PMID:11983299   PMID:11984219   PMID:11987699   PMID:11988589   PMID:11988615   PMID:11990879   PMID:11992263  
PMID:11992569   PMID:12000192   PMID:12003251   PMID:12003753   PMID:12006218   PMID:12006397   PMID:12007670   PMID:12009520   PMID:12015813   PMID:12015945   PMID:12019933   PMID:12023414  
PMID:12023438   PMID:12028246   PMID:12028507   PMID:12030385   PMID:12032151   PMID:12036962   PMID:12040140   PMID:12042130   PMID:12042142   PMID:12042316   PMID:12042669   PMID:12042894  
PMID:12044628   PMID:12049183   PMID:12057992   PMID:12059987   PMID:12061406   PMID:12069854   PMID:12071547   PMID:12074828   PMID:12075916   PMID:12077730   PMID:12082592   PMID:12086087  
PMID:12086099   PMID:12086229   PMID:12087994   PMID:12093429   PMID:12094820   PMID:12095653   PMID:12105308   PMID:12107813   PMID:12112161   PMID:12113906   PMID:12116196   PMID:12116231  
PMID:12117364   PMID:12118856   PMID:12123486   PMID:12123862   PMID:12128082   PMID:12133811   PMID:12135350   PMID:12138091   PMID:12142731   PMID:12145452   PMID:12148096   PMID:12160362  
PMID:12164879   PMID:12165926   PMID:12166499   PMID:12167620   PMID:12167762   PMID:12168771   PMID:12175441   PMID:12185156   PMID:12185856   PMID:12192621   PMID:12192623   PMID:12195533  
PMID:12196500   PMID:12198535   PMID:12200750   PMID:12205106   PMID:12205649   PMID:12210279   PMID:12213685   PMID:12213863   PMID:12214086   PMID:12220441   PMID:12221169   PMID:12226739  
PMID:12232782   PMID:12243365   PMID:12269825   PMID:12270650   PMID:12297572   PMID:12325053   PMID:12359980   PMID:12364385   PMID:12370113   PMID:12379839   PMID:12393935   PMID:12394840  
PMID:12397634   PMID:12398946   PMID:12401887   PMID:12405546   PMID:12406021   PMID:12411758   PMID:12411763   PMID:12413003   PMID:12414984   PMID:12417285   PMID:12417379   PMID:12417380  
PMID:12417381   PMID:12417453   PMID:12419494   PMID:12433268   PMID:12434887   PMID:12438469   PMID:12438664   PMID:12439225   PMID:12439291   PMID:12444925   PMID:12444983   PMID:12454737  
PMID:12457072   PMID:12459519   PMID:12461692   PMID:12471457   PMID:12473860   PMID:12475089   PMID:12477932   PMID:12480082   PMID:12480755   PMID:12486288   PMID:12495080   PMID:12495081  
PMID:12495082   PMID:12497107   PMID:12497631   PMID:12498968   PMID:12499050   PMID:12500534   PMID:12502505   PMID:12507914   PMID:12512226   PMID:12518038   PMID:12521230   PMID:12527542  
PMID:12529167   PMID:12533090   PMID:12535745   PMID:12536572   PMID:12544508   PMID:12552038   PMID:12552039   PMID:12556576   PMID:12558712   PMID:12561220   PMID:12566177   PMID:12573381  
PMID:12576523   PMID:12579507   PMID:12580702   PMID:12580859   PMID:12581338   PMID:12584430   PMID:12587416   PMID:12588864   PMID:12588928   PMID: