INS (insulin) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: INS (insulin) Homo sapiens
Symbol: INS
Name: insulin
RGD ID: 731056
HGNC Page HGNC:6081
Description: Enables identical protein binding activity; protease binding activity; and signaling receptor binding activity. Involved in several processes, including negative regulation of catabolic process; positive regulation of signal transduction; and regulation of protein localization. Located in extracellular space. Implicated in diabetic retinopathy; glucose metabolism disease (multiple); insulinoma; and pancreatic cancer. Biomarker of carcinoma (multiple); disease of metabolism (multiple); osteoarthritis; and prostate cancer.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: REVIEWED
Previously known as: IDDM; IDDM1; IDDM2; ILPR; insulin isoform U3B; insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 2; IRDN; MODY10; PNDM4; preproinsulin; proinsulin
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Allele / Splice: See ClinVar data
Latest Assembly: GRCh38 - Human Genome Assembly GRCh38
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38112,159,779 - 2,161,209 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl112,159,779 - 2,161,221 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37112,181,009 - 2,182,439 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36112,137,585 - 2,139,015 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 34112,137,584 - 2,139,000NCBI
Celera112,217,516 - 2,218,946 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map11p15.5NCBI
HuRef111,971,272 - 1,972,702 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1112,179,957 - 2,181,387 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.0112,247,427 - 2,248,857 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
acute kidney failure  (EXP)
Acute Liver Failure  (EXP)
adenoma  (ISO)
Albuminuria  (EXP,ISO)
Alzheimer's disease  (EXP,ISO)
bipolar disorder  (EXP)
bladder disease  (EXP)
cardiac arrest  (EXP)
cholangiocarcinoma  (IEP)
cognitive disorder  (EXP)
congestive heart failure  (EXP)
cystic kidney disease  (EXP)
delta beta-thalassemia  (IAGP)
developmental and epileptic encephalopathy  (IAGP)
diabetes mellitus  (EXP,IAGP,IDA,IMP,ISO)
Diabetic Cardiomyopathies  (EXP)
diabetic ketoacidosis  (EXP)
Diabetic Nephropathies  (EXP,ISO)
diabetic retinopathy  (IDA,ISO)
disease of metabolism  (EXP,IEP)
early infantile epileptic encephalopathy  (IAGP)
Edema  (EXP)
Experimental Liver Cirrhosis  (EXP)
fatty liver disease  (EXP,IEP)
generalized dystonia  (IAGP)
genetic disease  (IAGP)
gestational diabetes  (IEP)
glucose intolerance  (EXP)
hepatitis  (EXP)
hepatocellular carcinoma  (HEP)
hyperglycemia  (EXP,ISO)
hyperinsulinism  (EXP,IAGP)
Hyperkalemia  (EXP)
Hyperproinsulinemia  (IAGP)
hypertension  (EXP,ISO)
Hypertriglyceridemia  (EXP)
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy  (EXP)
hyperuricemia  (IEP)
hypoglycemia  (EXP)
Hypoinsulinemia  (IAGP)
hypokalemia  (EXP)
Hypotension  (EXP)
immunodeficiency 39  (IAGP)
Insulin Resistance  (EXP,IEP)
insulinoma  (IDA)
kidney disease  (ISO)
kidney failure  (EXP)
Lewy body dementia  (EXP)
liver disease  (EXP)
maturity-onset diabetes of the young  (IAGP,ISS)
maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 1  (IAGP)
maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10  (IAGP)
Memory Disorders  (EXP)
Metabolic Syndrome  (EXP)
Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective  (EXP)
MPTP Poisoning  (EXP)
muscular disease  (EXP)
neonatal diabetes  (IAGP,ISS)
Neoplasm Invasiveness  (EXP)
neural tube defect  (EXP)
neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis  (IAGP)
non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  (EXP)
obesity  (EXP)
osteoarthritis  (IEP)
pancreatic cancer  (IAGP,IDA,ISO)
pancreatic ductal carcinoma  (IEP)
pancreatitis  (EXP)
panic disorder  (EXP)
Paralysis  (EXP)
Paresthesia  (EXP)
Parkinson's disease  (EXP)
permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus  (IAGP,ISS)
Permanent Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus 4  (IAGP)
Phelan-McDermid syndrome  (EXP)
polycystic ovary syndrome  (EXP)
prostate cancer  (IEP)
Prostatic Neoplasms  (EXP)
Rhabdomyolysis  (EXP)
Segawa Syndrome, Autosomal Recessive  (IAGP)
Tachycardia  (EXP)
transient neonatal diabetes mellitus  (IAGP)
type 1 diabetes mellitus  (EXP,IAGP,IMP,ISO)
type 1 diabetes mellitus 2  (IAGP,ISO)
type 2 diabetes mellitus  (EXP,IAGP,IEP)
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 1  (IAGP)
Ventricular Dysfunction, Left  (EXP)
Ventricular Fibrillation  (EXP)
Ventricular Outflow Obstruction  (EXP)
Weight Loss  (EXP,ISO)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(R)-adrenaline  (EXP)
(R)-lipoic acid  (EXP)
(R)-pantothenic acid  (EXP)
(S)-nicotine  (ISO)
1-Oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol  (EXP)
15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2  (EXP)
17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone  (EXP)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP,ISO)
2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether  (ISO)
2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
2,2'-Dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone  (EXP)
2,2,2-tetramine  (EXP)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP)
2,4-dibromophenyl 2,4,5-tribromophenyl ether  (ISO)
2,6-dinitrotoluene  (ISO)
2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose  (EXP)
2-arachidonoylglycerol  (EXP)
2-deoxy-D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
2-hydroxypropanoic acid  (EXP)
3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl  (EXP,ISO)
3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A  (ISO)
3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine  (EXP,ISO)
3,7-dihydropurine-6-thione  (ISO)
3-\{1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-1H-indol-3-yl\}-4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione  (EXP)
3-aminobenzamide  (EXP)
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine  (EXP,ISO)
3-methylcholanthrene  (EXP)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (EXP,ISO)
4-phenylbutyric acid  (EXP)
5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine  (ISO)
5-fluorouracil  (ISO)
5-iodotubercidin  (EXP)
5-methyl-4-oxido-2-pyrazin-4-iumcarboxylic acid  (EXP)
5-oxo-L-proline  (ISO)
6-chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxamide  (EXP)
6-Hydroxychlorzoxazone  (EXP)
9-cis-retinoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
acetaminophen O-beta-D-glucosiduronic acid  (EXP)
acetic acid  (ISO)
acrolein  (ISO)
actinomycin D  (ISO)
albuterol  (EXP)
aldehydo-D-glucosamine  (EXP)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
all-trans-retinol  (ISO)
allethrin  (ISO)
amino acid  (ISO)
amiodarone  (ISO)
amlodipine  (EXP)
ammonium chloride  (ISO)
anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one  (EXP,ISO)
arachidonic acid  (EXP)
arotinoid acid  (EXP)
arsane  (ISO)
arsenic atom  (ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (EXP,ISO)
arsenous acid  (EXP,ISO)
aspartame  (EXP,ISO)
atenolol  (EXP)
atorvastatin calcium  (EXP)
atrazine  (EXP)
avobenzone  (EXP)
bafilomycin A1  (EXP,ISO)
baicalein  (EXP)
Bardoxolone methyl  (EXP)
benzene  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (EXP,ISO)
beta-D-glucosamine  (EXP)
bexarotene  (EXP,ISO)
bezafibrate  (EXP)
biotin  (EXP)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
bismuth atom  (EXP)
bismuthane  (EXP)
bisoprolol  (EXP)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol F  (EXP)
boric acid  (ISO)
bromochloroacetic acid  (ISO)
bromocriptine  (EXP)
butan-1-amine  (ISO)
Butylbenzyl phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
Butylparaben  (EXP)
cadmium atom  (EXP)
cadmium dichloride  (EXP)
caffeine  (EXP)
calcidiol  (EXP)
cannabidiolic acid  (ISO)
cannabigerol  (ISO)
cannabigerolic acid  (ISO)
capsaicin  (ISO)
capsazepine  (ISO)
carbamic acid  (ISO)
carvedilol  (EXP)
chlorpropamide  (EXP)
chlorpyrifos  (ISO)
chlorzoxazone  (EXP)
cholesterol  (ISO)
chromium atom  (ISO)
chromium(3+) trichloride  (EXP)
ciprofibrate  (ISO)
clofibrate  (EXP)
clonidine  (EXP)
clonidine (amino form)  (EXP)
clonidine (imino form)  (EXP)
clozapine  (EXP)
co-trimoxazole  (EXP)
cobalt dichloride  (ISO)
cocaine  (EXP)
conjugated linoleic acid  (EXP)
copper atom  (EXP)
copper(0)  (EXP)
corticosterone  (EXP)
corticotropin  (EXP)
cortisol  (EXP)
curcumin  (ISO)
cycloheximide  (EXP)
cyproterone acetate  (EXP)
D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
D-mannopyranose  (EXP)
decabromodiphenyl ether  (ISO)
demethoxycurcumin  (EXP)
desmosterol  (ISO)
dexamethasone  (EXP,ISO)
dexamethasone phosphate  (EXP)
diarsenic trioxide  (EXP,ISO)
diazinon  (EXP)
dibenziodolium  (EXP)
dicamba  (EXP)
Didymin  (EXP)
diethyl maleate  (EXP)
diethyl sulfate  (EXP)
diethylstilbestrol  (ISO)
digoxin  (EXP,ISO)
dimercaprol  (ISO)
diphosphoric acid  (ISO)
disodium selenite  (EXP,ISO)
dopamine  (EXP)
elemental selenium  (EXP)
enalaprilat dihydrate  (EXP)
equilin  (EXP)
ethanol  (ISO)
ethyl dihydrogen phosphate  (ISO)
ethylamine  (ISO)
farnesol  (EXP)
fenofibrate  (EXP)
fentin hydroxide  (ISO)
ferric ammonium citrate  (EXP)
fipronil  (EXP)
flavonoids  (ISO)
folic acid  (EXP,ISO)
fructose  (EXP,ISO)
fulvestrant  (EXP,ISO)
furan  (ISO)
gatifloxacin  (ISO)
gemcitabine  (EXP)
genistein  (ISO)
glimepiride  (EXP)
glucose  (EXP,ISO)
glutathione  (EXP)
glyburide  (EXP,ISO)
glycerol 2-phosphate  (EXP,ISO)
glycine  (ISO)
glycogen  (EXP)
glyoxylic acid  (ISO)
glyphosate  (EXP)
GW 7647  (EXP,ISO)
harmine  (EXP)
hemin  (ISO)
heptadecanoic acid  (ISO)
hexadecanoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
hispidulin  (ISO)
hydrogen peroxide  (EXP)
indometacin  (EXP,ISO)
inositol  (ISO)
isoflavones  (ISO)
isoprenaline  (ISO)
isopropyl palmitate  (ISO)
kynurenic acid  (EXP)
L-ascorbic acid  (EXP,ISO)
L-cystathionine  (ISO)
lanthanum atom  (EXP)
lercanidipine  (EXP)
levonorgestrel  (EXP)
Licarin A  (ISO)
lipoic acid  (EXP)
lipopolysaccharide  (EXP)
lithocholic acid  (EXP)
lovastatin  (ISO)
LY294002  (EXP,ISO)
magnesium atom  (EXP)
magnesium oxide  (EXP)
Magnolol  (ISO)
manganese atom  (EXP)
manganese(0)  (EXP)
manganese(II) chloride  (EXP)
Melengestrol acetate  (EXP)
mercaptopurine  (ISO)
metformin  (EXP)
methadone  (EXP)
methotrexate  (EXP)
methyl dihydrogen phosphate  (ISO)
methylarsonite  (ISO)
methylglyoxal  (ISO)
metoclopramide  (EXP)
microcystin-LR  (EXP)
mifepristone  (EXP)
miquelianin  (EXP)
mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
monosodium L-glutamate  (ISO)
Moxonidine  (EXP,ISO)
N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide  (EXP)
N-[2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]isoquinoline-5-sulfonamide  (ISO)
N-acetyl-L-cysteine  (EXP,ISO)
N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal  (EXP)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea  (ISO)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (EXP)
N-methylnicotinate  (ISO)
nateglinide  (EXP)
neomycin  (ISO)
nicotinamide  (EXP)
nicotine  (ISO)
nitric oxide  (EXP)
norethisterone  (EXP)
norgestrel  (EXP)
NS-398  (EXP)
ochratoxin A  (EXP)
octadecanoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
octocrylene  (EXP)
octreotide  (EXP,ISO)
olanzapine  (EXP)
oleanolic acid  (EXP)
oleic acid  (EXP,ISO)
oltipraz  (ISO)
orlistat  (EXP)
orotic acid  (EXP)
oxybenzone  (EXP)
palmitoleic acid  (ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP)
paroxetine  (ISO)
Pentagastrin  (EXP)
pentolinium tartrate  (EXP)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (ISO)
permethrin  (EXP)
phenobarbital  (ISO)
phenylarsine oxide  (ISO)
phenylarsonous acid  (EXP)
phloretin  (EXP)
phosphoric acid  (ISO)
pioglitazone  (EXP,ISO)
potassium chloride  (EXP)
prallethrin  (ISO)
prednisone  (EXP)
progesterone  (ISO)
propranolol  (EXP)
Ptaquiloside  (ISO)
purine-6-thiol  (ISO)
pyridine  (ISO)
pyruvic acid  (ISO)
quercetin  (EXP,ISO)
quinoxyfen  (EXP,ISO)
rac-lactic acid  (EXP)
resveratrol  (EXP,ISO)
rifampicin  (EXP,ISO)
rimonabant  (ISO)
risperidone  (EXP)
ritodrine  (EXP)
Ro 41-5253  (EXP,ISO)
Rutamarin  (ISO)
ruthenium red  (ISO)
saquinavir  (EXP)
saroglitazar  (EXP)
SB 203580  (EXP)
sebacic acid  (ISO)
selenium atom  (EXP)
sertraline  (ISO)
sirolimus  (EXP)
SKF-96365 hydrochloride  (EXP)
sodium arsenite  (EXP,ISO)
sodium dichromate  (ISO)
Sodium oleate  (EXP)
Sodium salicylate  (EXP)
spironolactone  (EXP)
staurosporine  (ISO)
streptozocin  (EXP,ISO)
sucrose  (EXP)
sulforaphane  (EXP)
sulpiride  (EXP)
tacrolimus hydrate  (EXP)
tauroursodeoxycholic acid  (EXP)
telmisartan  (EXP)
terbutaline  (EXP)
testosterone  (EXP,ISO)
thapsigargin  (EXP)
Thiocarbohydrazide  (EXP)
thyroxine  (EXP)
tolbutamide  (EXP)
tolylfluanid  (EXP)
triamcinolone  (EXP)
tributylstannane  (EXP,ISO)
triciribine  (EXP)
triclosan  (ISO)
triflumizole  (EXP)
trimethyltin  (ISO)
triphenyl phosphate  (EXP,ISO)
troglitazone  (EXP,ISO)
undecane  (ISO)
valproic acid  (EXP)
vandetanib  (EXP)
vanillic acid  (EXP)
vitamin D  (EXP)
wortmannin  (EXP,ISO)
zinc atom  (EXP)
zinc(0)  (EXP)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
activation of protein kinase B activity  (IDA)
acute-phase response  (IDA)
alpha-beta T cell activation  (IDA)
carbohydrate metabolic process  (IEA)
cell-cell signaling  (IC)
cognition  (TAS)
ER overload response  (ISO)
fatty acid homeostasis  (IMP)
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  (IDA)
glucose homeostasis  (IBA)
glucose homeostasis  (IBA)
glucose homeostasis  (IMP)
glucose homeostasis  (IMP)
glucose homeostasis  (ISO)
glucose metabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
glycoprotein biosynthetic process  (ISO)
glycoprotein biosynthetic process  (ISO)
insulin processing  (ISO)
insulin receptor signaling pathway  (IDA,ISO)
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress  (ISO)
lactate biosynthetic process  (ISO)
lipid biosynthetic process  (ISO)
lipid catabolic process  (ISO)
lipoprotein biosynthetic process  (ISO)
myoblast fusion  (ISO)
myotube differentiation  (ISO)
negative regulation of acute inflammatory response  (IDA)
negative regulation of fatty acid metabolic process  (IMP)
negative regulation of feeding behavior  (IDA)
negative regulation of gene expression  (IDA)
negative regulation of gluconeogenesis  (NAS)
negative regulation of glycogen catabolic process  (IMP)
negative regulation of lipid catabolic process  (IMP,NAS)
negative regulation of NAD(P)H oxidase activity  (IDA)
negative regulation of oxidative stress-induced intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway  (NAS)
negative regulation of protein catabolic process  (IDA)
negative regulation of protein secretion  (IDA)
negative regulation of proteolysis  (IMP)
negative regulation of reactive oxygen species biosynthetic process  (IGI)
negative regulation of respiratory burst involved in inflammatory response  (IDA)
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  (ISO)
neuron projection maintenance  (IGI)
nitric oxide-cGMP-mediated signaling pathway  (IDA)
positive regulation of brown fat cell differentiation  (TAS)
positive regulation of cell differentiation  (NAS)
positive regulation of cell growth  (NAS)
positive regulation of cell migration  (ISS)
positive regulation of cell population proliferation  (IDA)
positive regulation of cytokine production  (IDA)
positive regulation of dendritic spine maintenance  (IGI)
positive regulation of DNA replication  (ISO)
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade  (ISO)
positive regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of gene expression  (IGI)
positive regulation of glucose import  (IDA,IMP)
positive regulation of glucose metabolic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process  (IDA)
positive regulation of glycolytic process  (IDA,IMP)
positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway  (IDA,IMP)
positive regulation of lipid biosynthetic process  (NAS)
positive regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity  (ISO)
positive regulation of long-term synaptic potentiation  (TAS)
positive regulation of MAPK cascade  (IDA)
positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division  (IDA)
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity  (IDA)
positive regulation of nitric oxide mediated signal transduction  (IDA,IMP)
positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity  (NAS)
positive regulation of peptide hormone secretion  (TAS)
positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation  (ISO)
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity  (ISO)
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling  (IDA)
positive regulation of protein autophosphorylation  (ISS)
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling  (IDA)
positive regulation of protein localization to nucleus  (IDA)
positive regulation of protein metabolic process  (IMP)
positive regulation of protein secretion  (IBA)
positive regulation of respiratory burst  (IDA)
protein hexamerization  (ISO)
receptor internalization  (ISO)
regulation of cellular amino acid metabolic process  (IMP)
regulation of DNA-templated transcription  (NAS)
regulation of gene expression  (ISO)
regulation of phosphorylation  (ISO)
regulation of protein binding  (ISO)
regulation of protein localization  (IDA)
regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane  (IGI)
regulation of protein secretion  (IDA)
regulation of protein secretion  (IDA)
regulation of synaptic plasticity  (TAS)
regulation of transmembrane transporter activity  (IDA)
response to L-arginine  (ISS)
signal transduction  (IEA)
signal transduction  (IEA)
vasodilation  (IDA,NAS)
wound healing  (IDA)
wound healing  (IDA)

Molecular Function

Phenotype Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Human Phenotype
Abnormal circulating C-peptide concentration  (IAGP)
Abnormal heart morphology  (IAGP)
Abnormal oral glucose tolerance  (IAGP)
Apraxia  (IAGP)
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita  (IAGP)
Ataxia  (IAGP)
Autoimmune antibody positivity  (IAGP)
Autosomal dominant inheritance  (IAGP)
Autosomal recessive inheritance  (IAGP)
Bilateral ptosis  (IAGP)
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure  (IAGP)
Coma  (IAGP)
Dehydration  (IAGP)
Diabetes mellitus  (IAGP)
Diabetic ketoacidosis  (IAGP)
Downturned corners of mouth  (IAGP)
Elevated hemoglobin A1c  (IAGP)
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency  (IAGP)
Failure to thrive  (IAGP)
Fasting hyperinsulinemia  (IAGP)
Generalized dystonia  (IAGP)
Generalized myoclonic seizure  (IAGP)
Global developmental delay  (IAGP)
Glycosuria  (IAGP)
Hearing impairment  (IAGP)
Hepatocellular adenoma  (IAGP)
Hyperglycemia  (IAGP)
Hyperinsulinemia  (IAGP)
Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia  (IAGP)
Hypoinsulinemia  (IAGP)
Hypotonia  (IAGP)
Hypovolemia  (IAGP)
Intellectual disability, severe  (IAGP)
Intrauterine growth retardation  (IAGP)
Ketonuria  (IAGP)
Large for gestational age  (IAGP)
Lower-limb joint contracture  (IAGP)
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young  (IAGP)
Moderate albuminuria  (IAGP)
Motor delay  (IAGP)
Neonatal hypoglycemia  (IAGP)
Neonatal insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus  (IAGP)
Nephropathy  (IAGP)
Obesity  (IAGP)
Overweight  (IAGP)
Pancreatic hypoplasia  (IAGP)
Peripheral axonal neuropathy  (IAGP)
Prominent metopic ridge  (IAGP)
Reduced C-peptide level  (IAGP)
Reduced pancreatic beta cells  (IAGP)
Renal cyst  (IAGP)
Renal tubular dysfunction  (IAGP)
Retinopathy  (IAGP)
Small for gestational age  (IAGP)
Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus  (IAGP)
Type I diabetes mellitus  (IAGP)
Type II diabetes mellitus  (IAGP)
Weight loss  (IAGP)

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. The role of the IDDM2 locus in the susceptibility of UK APS1 subjects to type 1 diabetes mellitus. Adamson KA, etal., Int J Immunogenet. 2007 Feb;34(1):17-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-313X.2006.00643.x.
2. Insulin-induced hypertension in rats depends on an intact renin-angiotensin system. Brands MW, etal., Hypertension. 1997 Apr;29(4):1014-9.
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