INS (insulin) - Rat Genome Database

Send us a Message

Submit Data |  Help |  Video Tutorials |  News |  Publications |  Download |  REST API |  Citing RGD |  Contact   
Gene: INS (insulin) Homo sapiens
Symbol: INS
Name: insulin
RGD ID: 731056
Description: Exhibits identical protein binding activity; protease binding activity; and signaling receptor binding activity. Involved in several processes, including negative regulation of inflammatory response; positive regulation of signal transduction; and regulation of generation of precursor metabolites and energy. Localizes to extracellular space. Implicated in diabetic retinopathy; glucose metabolism disease (multiple); insulinoma; and pancreatic cancer. Biomarker of several diseases, including diabetes mellitus (multiple); fatty liver disease; hyperuricemia; osteoarthritis; and pancreatic ductal carcinoma.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: REVIEWED
Also known as: IDDM; IDDM1; IDDM2; ILPR; insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 2; IRDN; MODY10; PNDM4; preproinsulin; proinsulin
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Allele / Splice: See ClinVar data
Latest Assembly: GRCh38 - Human Genome Assembly GRCh38
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl112,159,779 - 2,161,221 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38112,159,779 - 2,161,209 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37112,181,009 - 2,182,439 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36112,137,585 - 2,139,015 (-)NCBINCBI36hg18NCBI36
Build 34112,137,584 - 2,139,000NCBI
Celera112,217,516 - 2,218,946 (-)NCBI
Cytogenetic Map11p15.5NCBI
HuRef111,971,272 - 1,972,702 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1112,179,957 - 2,181,387 (-)NCBICHM1_1
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
acute kidney failure  (EXP)
Acute Liver Failure  (EXP)
adenoma  (ISO)
Albuminuria  (EXP,ISO)
Alzheimer's disease  (EXP,ISO)
bipolar disorder  (EXP)
bladder disease  (EXP)
cardiac arrest  (EXP)
cognitive disorder  (EXP)
congestive heart failure  (EXP)
cystic kidney disease  (EXP)
developmental and epileptic encephalopathy  (IAGP)
diabetes mellitus  (EXP,IAGP,IDA,IMP,ISO)
Diabetic Cardiomyopathies  (EXP)
diabetic ketoacidosis  (EXP)
Diabetic Nephropathies  (EXP,ISO)
diabetic retinopathy  (IDA,ISO)
disease of metabolism  (EXP)
dystonia  (IAGP)
early infantile epileptic encephalopathy  (IAGP)
Edema  (EXP)
Experimental Liver Cirrhosis  (EXP)
fatty liver disease  (EXP,IEP)
gestational diabetes  (IEP)
glucose intolerance  (EXP)
hepatitis  (EXP)
hyperglycemia  (EXP,ISO)
hyperinsulinism  (EXP,IAGP)
Hyperkalemia  (EXP)
Hyperproinsulinemia  (IAGP)
hypertension  (EXP,ISO)
Hypertriglyceridemia  (EXP)
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy  (EXP)
hyperuricemia  (IEP)
hypoglycemia  (EXP)
hypokalemia  (EXP)
Hypotension  (EXP)
immunodeficiency 39  (IAGP)
Insulin Resistance  (EXP,IEP)
insulinoma  (IDA)
kidney failure  (EXP)
Lewy body dementia  (EXP)
liver disease  (EXP)
maturity-onset diabetes of the young  (IAGP,ISS)
maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10  (IAGP)
Memory Disorders  (EXP)
Metabolic Syndrome  (EXP)
Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective  (EXP)
MPTP Poisoning  (EXP)
muscular disease  (EXP)
neonatal diabetes  (IAGP,ISS)
Neoplasm Invasiveness  (EXP)
neural tube defect  (EXP)
neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis  (IAGP)
obesity  (EXP)
osteoarthritis  (IEP)
pancreatic cancer  (IAGP,IDA,ISO)
pancreatic ductal carcinoma  (IEP)
pancreatitis  (EXP)
panic disorder  (EXP)
Paralysis  (EXP)
Paresthesia  (EXP)
Parkinson's disease  (EXP)
permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus  (IAGP,ISS)
Permanent Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus 4  (IAGP)
Phelan-McDermid syndrome  (EXP)
polycystic ovary syndrome  (EXP)
prostate cancer  (IEP)
Prostatic Neoplasms  (EXP)
Rhabdomyolysis  (EXP)
Segawa Syndrome, Autosomal Recessive  (IAGP)
Tachycardia  (EXP)
transient neonatal diabetes mellitus  (IAGP)
type 1 diabetes mellitus  (EXP,IMP,ISO)
type 1 diabetes mellitus 2  (IAGP,ISO)
type 2 diabetes mellitus  (EXP,IAGP,IEP)
Ventricular Dysfunction, Left  (EXP)
Ventricular Fibrillation  (EXP)
Ventricular Outflow Obstruction  (EXP)
visual epilepsy  (EXP)
Weight Loss  (EXP)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(R)-adrenaline  (EXP)
(R)-lipoic acid  (EXP)
(S)-nicotine  (ISO)
1,2,3,4,6-pentakis-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose  (ISO)
15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2  (EXP)
17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone  (EXP)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP,ISO)
2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether  (ISO)
2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
2,2'-Dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone  (EXP)
2,2,2-tetramine  (EXP)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP)
2,4-dibromophenyl 2,4,5-tribromophenyl ether  (ISO)
2,6-dinitrotoluene  (ISO)
2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose  (EXP)
2-arachidonoylglycerol  (EXP)
2-deoxy-D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
2-hydroxypropanoic acid  (EXP)
3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl  (EXP,ISO)
3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A  (ISO)
3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine  (EXP,ISO)
3,7-dihydropurine-6-thione  (ISO)
3-\{1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-1H-indol-3-yl\}-4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione  (EXP)
3-aminobenzamide  (EXP)
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine  (EXP,ISO)
3-methylcholanthrene  (EXP)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (EXP,ISO)
4-phenylbutyric acid  (EXP)
5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine  (ISO)
5-fluorouracil  (ISO)
5-iodotubercidin  (EXP)
5-methyl-4-oxido-2-pyrazin-4-iumcarboxylic acid  (EXP)
5-oxo-L-proline  (ISO)
6-chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxamide  (EXP)
9-cis-retinoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
acetaminophen O-beta-D-glucosiduronic acid  (EXP)
acetic acid  (ISO)
acrolein  (ISO)
actinomycin D  (ISO)
albuterol  (EXP)
aldehydo-D-glucosamine  (EXP)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
all-trans-retinol  (ISO)
allethrin  (ISO)
amino acid  (ISO)
amiodarone  (ISO)
amlodipine  (EXP)
ammonium chloride  (ISO)
anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one  (EXP,ISO)
arachidonic acid  (EXP)
arotinoid acid  (EXP)
arsenite(3-)  (EXP,ISO)
aspartame  (EXP,ISO)
atenolol  (EXP)
atorvastatin calcium  (EXP)
atrazine  (EXP)
avobenzone  (EXP)
bafilomycin A1  (EXP,ISO)
baicalein  (EXP)
benzene  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (EXP,ISO)
beta-D-glucosamine  (EXP)
bexarotene  (EXP,ISO)
bezafibrate  (EXP)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
bisoprolol  (EXP)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol F  (EXP)
boric acid  (ISO)
bromochloroacetic acid  (ISO)
bromocriptine  (EXP)
butan-1-amine  (ISO)
Butylbenzyl phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
Butylparaben  (EXP)
cadmium atom  (EXP)
cadmium dichloride  (EXP)
caffeine  (EXP)
calcidiol  (EXP)
capsaicin  (ISO)
capsazepine  (ISO)
carbamic acid  (ISO)
carvedilol  (EXP)
chlorpropamide  (EXP)
chlorpyrifos  (ISO)
chlorzoxazone  (EXP)
cholesterol  (ISO)
chromium atom  (ISO)
chromium(3+) trichloride  (EXP)
ciprofibrate  (ISO)
clofibrate  (EXP)
clonidine  (EXP)
clonidine (amino form)  (EXP)
clonidine (imino form)  (EXP)
clozapine  (EXP)
co-trimoxazole  (EXP)
cobalt dichloride  (ISO)
cocaine  (EXP)
conjugated linoleic acid  (EXP)
copper atom  (EXP)
copper(0)  (EXP)
corticosterone  (EXP)
corticotropin  (EXP)
cortisol  (EXP)
curcumin  (ISO)
cycloheximide  (EXP)
cyproterone acetate  (EXP)
D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
D-mannopyranose  (EXP)
decabromodiphenyl ether  (ISO)
demethoxycurcumin  (EXP)
desmosterol  (ISO)
dexamethasone  (EXP,ISO)
dexamethasone phosphate  (EXP)
diazinon  (EXP)
dibenziodolium  (EXP)
dicamba  (EXP)
diethyl sulfate  (EXP)
diethylstilbestrol  (ISO)
digoxin  (EXP,ISO)
dimercaprol  (ISO)
diphosphoric acid  (ISO)
disodium selenite  (EXP,ISO)
dopamine  (EXP)
elemental selenium  (EXP)
enalaprilat dihydrate  (EXP)
equilin  (EXP)
ethanol  (ISO)
ethyl dihydrogen phosphate  (ISO)
ethylamine  (ISO)
farnesol  (EXP)
fentin hydroxide  (ISO)
ferric ammonium citrate  (EXP)
fipronil  (EXP)
flavonoids  (ISO)
folic acid  (EXP,ISO)
fructose  (EXP,ISO)
fulvestrant  (EXP,ISO)
furan  (ISO)
gatifloxacin  (ISO)
gemcitabine  (EXP)
genistein  (ISO)
glimepiride  (EXP)
glucose  (EXP,ISO)
glutathione  (EXP)
glyburide  (EXP,ISO)
glycerol 2-phosphate  (EXP,ISO)
glycine  (ISO)
glycogen  (EXP)
glyoxylic acid  (ISO)
glyphosate  (EXP)
GW 7647  (EXP,ISO)
harmine  (EXP)
hemin  (ISO)
heptadecanoic acid  (ISO)
hexadecanoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
hispidulin  (ISO)
hydrogen peroxide  (EXP)
indometacin  (EXP,ISO)
inositol  (ISO)
isoflavones  (ISO)
isoprenaline  (ISO)
isopropyl palmitate  (ISO)
kynurenic acid  (EXP)
L-ascorbic acid  (EXP,ISO)
L-cystathionine  (ISO)
lanthanum atom  (EXP)
lercanidipine  (EXP)
levonorgestrel  (EXP)
Licarin A  (ISO)
lipoic acid  (EXP)
lipopolysaccharide  (EXP)
lithocholic acid  (EXP)
lovastatin  (ISO)
LY294002  (EXP,ISO)
magnesium atom  (EXP)
magnesium oxide  (EXP)
Magnolol  (ISO)
manganese atom  (EXP)
manganese(0)  (EXP)
manganese(II) chloride  (EXP)
Melengestrol acetate  (EXP)
mercaptopurine  (ISO)
metformin  (EXP)
methadone  (EXP)
methotrexate  (EXP)
methyl dihydrogen phosphate  (ISO)
methylarsonite  (ISO)
methylglyoxal  (ISO)
metoclopramide  (EXP)
microcystin-LR  (EXP)
mifepristone  (EXP)
miquelianin  (EXP)
mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
monosodium L-glutamate  (ISO)
Moxonidine  (EXP,ISO)
N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide  (EXP)
N-[2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]isoquinoline-5-sulfonamide  (ISO)
N-acetyl-L-cysteine  (EXP,ISO)
N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal  (EXP)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea  (ISO)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (EXP)
nateglinide  (EXP)
neomycin  (ISO)
nicotinamide  (EXP)
nicotine  (ISO)
nitric oxide  (EXP)
norethisterone  (EXP)
norgestrel  (EXP)
NS-398  (EXP)
ochratoxin A  (EXP)
octadecanoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
octreotide  (EXP,ISO)
olanzapine  (EXP)
oleanolic acid  (EXP)
oleic acid  (EXP,ISO)
orlistat  (EXP)
orotic acid  (EXP)
oxybenzone  (EXP)
palmitoleic acid  (ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP)
paroxetine  (ISO)
Pentagastrin  (EXP)
pentolinium tartrate  (EXP)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (ISO)
permethrin  (EXP)
phenobarbital  (ISO)
phenylarsine oxide  (ISO)
phenylarsonous acid  (EXP)
phloretin  (EXP)
phosphoric acid  (ISO)
pioglitazone  (EXP,ISO)
potassium chloride  (EXP)
prallethrin  (ISO)
prednisone  (EXP)
progesterone  (ISO)
propranolol  (EXP)
Ptaquiloside  (ISO)
purine-6-thiol  (ISO)
pyridine  (ISO)
pyruvic acid  (ISO)
quercetin  (EXP,ISO)
quinoxyfen  (ISO)
rac-lactic acid  (EXP)
resveratrol  (EXP,ISO)
rifampicin  (EXP)
rimonabant  (ISO)
risperidone  (EXP)
ritodrine  (EXP)
Ro 41-5253  (EXP,ISO)
Rutamarin  (ISO)
ruthenium red  (ISO)
saquinavir  (EXP)
SB 203580  (EXP)
sebacic acid  (ISO)
selenium atom  (EXP)
sertraline  (ISO)
sirolimus  (EXP)
SKF-96365 hydrochloride  (EXP)
sodium arsenite  (EXP,ISO)
sodium dichromate  (ISO)
Sodium salicylate  (EXP)
spironolactone  (EXP)
staurosporine  (ISO)
streptozocin  (EXP,ISO)
sucrose  (EXP)
sulforaphane  (EXP)
sulpiride  (EXP)
tacrolimus hydrate  (EXP)
tauroursodeoxycholic acid  (EXP)
telmisartan  (EXP)
terbutaline  (EXP)
testosterone  (EXP,ISO)
thapsigargin  (EXP)
Thiocarbohydrazide  (EXP)
tolbutamide  (EXP)
tolylfluanid  (EXP)
triamcinolone  (EXP)
tributylstannane  (EXP,ISO)
triciribine  (EXP)
triclosan  (ISO)
triflumizole  (EXP)
trimethyltin  (ISO)
triphenyl phosphate  (EXP,ISO)
troglitazone  (EXP,ISO)
undecane  (ISO)
valproic acid  (EXP)
vandetanib  (EXP)
wortmannin  (EXP,ISO)
zinc atom  (EXP)
zinc(0)  (EXP)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
activation of protein kinase B activity  (IDA)
acute-phase response  (IDA)
alpha-beta T cell activation  (IDA)
canonical Wnt signaling pathway  (ISO)
cell-cell signaling  (IC)
cognition  (TAS)
ER overload response  (ISO)
fatty acid homeostasis  (IMP)
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  (IDA)
glucose homeostasis  (IMP,ISO)
glucose metabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
glycoprotein biosynthetic process  (ISO)
insulin receptor signaling pathway  (IDA,ISO)
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress  (ISO)
lactate biosynthetic process  (ISO)
lipid biosynthetic process  (ISO)
lipid catabolic process  (ISO)
lipoprotein biosynthetic process  (ISO)
myoblast fusion  (ISO)
myotube differentiation  (ISO)
negative regulation of acute inflammatory response  (IDA)
negative regulation of fatty acid metabolic process  (IMP)
negative regulation of feeding behavior  (IDA)
negative regulation of gluconeogenesis  (NAS)
negative regulation of glycogen catabolic process  (IMP)
negative regulation of lipid catabolic process  (IMP,NAS)
negative regulation of NAD(P)H oxidase activity  (IDA)
negative regulation of oxidative stress-induced intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway  (NAS)
negative regulation of protein catabolic process  (IDA)
negative regulation of protein secretion  (IDA)
negative regulation of proteolysis  (IMP)
negative regulation of reactive oxygen species biosynthetic process  (IGI)
negative regulation of respiratory burst involved in inflammatory response  (IDA)
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  (ISO)
neuron projection maintenance  (IGI)
nitric oxide-cGMP-mediated signaling pathway  (IDA)
positive regulation of brown fat cell differentiation  (TAS)
positive regulation of cell differentiation  (NAS)
positive regulation of cell growth  (NAS)
positive regulation of cell migration  (ISS)
positive regulation of cell population proliferation  (IDA)
positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process  (IMP)
positive regulation of cytokine production  (IDA)
positive regulation of dendritic spine maintenance  (IGI)
positive regulation of DNA replication  (ISO)
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade  (ISO)
positive regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of gene expression  (IGI)
positive regulation of glucose import  (IDA,IMP)
positive regulation of glucose metabolic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process  (IDA)
positive regulation of glycolytic process  (IDA,IMP)
positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway  (IDA,IMP)
positive regulation of lipid biosynthetic process  (NAS)
positive regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity  (ISO)
positive regulation of long-term synaptic potentiation  (TAS)
positive regulation of MAPK cascade  (IDA)
positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division  (IDA)
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity  (IDA)
positive regulation of nitric oxide mediated signal transduction  (IDA,IMP)
positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity  (NAS)
positive regulation of peptide hormone secretion  (TAS)
positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation  (ISO)
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity  (ISO)
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling  (IDA)
positive regulation of protein autophosphorylation  (ISS)
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling  (IDA)
positive regulation of protein localization to nucleus  (IDA)
positive regulation of respiratory burst  (IDA)
protein hexamerization  (ISO)
regulation of cellular amino acid metabolic process  (IMP)
regulation of gene expression  (ISO)
regulation of phosphorylation  (ISO)
regulation of protein binding  (ISO)
regulation of protein localization  (IDA)
regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane  (IGI)
regulation of protein secretion  (IDA)
regulation of synaptic plasticity  (TAS)
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  (NAS)
regulation of transmembrane transporter activity  (IDA)
response to L-arginine  (ISS)
signal transduction  (IEA)
vasodilation  (IDA,NAS)
wound healing  (IDA)

Molecular Function

Phenotype Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Human Phenotype
Abnormal C-peptide level  (IAGP)
Abnormal heart morphology  (IAGP)
Abnormal oral glucose tolerance  (IAGP)
Apraxia  (IAGP)
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita  (IAGP)
Ataxia  (IAGP)
Autosomal dominant inheritance  (IAGP)
Autosomal recessive inheritance  (IAGP)
Bilateral ptosis  (IAGP)
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure  (IAGP)
Coma  (IAGP)
Contractures of the joints of the lower limbs  (IAGP)
Dehydration  (IAGP)
Diabetes mellitus  (IAGP)
Diabetic ketoacidosis  (IAGP)
Downturned corners of mouth  (IAGP)
Dystonia  (IAGP)
Elevated hemoglobin A1c  (IAGP)
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency  (IAGP)
Failure to thrive  (IAGP)
Fasting hyperinsulinemia  (IAGP)
Generalized myoclonic seizure  (IAGP)
Global developmental delay  (IAGP)
Glycosuria  (IAGP)
Hearing impairment  (IAGP)
Hepatocellular adenoma  (IAGP)
Hyperglycemia  (IAGP)
Hyperinsulinemia  (IAGP)
Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia  (IAGP)
Hypoinsulinemia  (IAGP)
Hypotonia  (IAGP)
Hypovolemia  (IAGP)
Intellectual disability, severe  (IAGP)
Intrauterine growth retardation  (IAGP)
Ketonuria  (IAGP)
Large for gestational age  (IAGP)
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young  (IAGP)
Moderate albuminuria  (IAGP)
Motor delay  (IAGP)
Neonatal hypoglycemia  (IAGP)
Neonatal insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus  (IAGP)
Nephropathy  (IAGP)
Obesity  (IAGP)
Overweight  (IAGP)
Pancreatic hypoplasia  (IAGP)
Peripheral axonal neuropathy  (IAGP)
Prominent metopic ridge  (IAGP)
Reduced C-peptide level  (IAGP)
Reduced pancreatic beta cells  (IAGP)
Renal cyst  (IAGP)
Renal tubular dysfunction  (IAGP)
Retinopathy  (IAGP)
Small for gestational age  (IAGP)
Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus  (IAGP)
Type I diabetes mellitus  (IAGP)
Weight loss  (IAGP)

References - curated
1. Brands MW, etal., Hypertension. 1997 Apr;29(4):1014-9.
2. Collinet M, etal., Eur J Pediatr. 1998 Jun;157(6):456-60.
3. Colombo C, etal., J Clin Invest. 2008 Jun;118(6):2148-56.
4. Crabtree JS, etal., Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Sep;23(17):6075-85.
5. Currie CJ, etal., Diabetologia. 2009 Sep;52(9):1766-77. Epub 2009 Jul 2.
6. Dayyani F, etal., BMC Cancer. 2016 Sep 6;16:721. doi: 10.1186/s12885-016-2723-1.
7. Denko CW, etal., J Rheumatol. 1990 Sep;17(9):1217-21.
8. Fang D, etal., Endocr J. 2012;59(1):81-90. Epub 2011 Nov 9.
9. Fort PE, etal., PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e26498. Epub 2011 Oct 26.
10. Gastinger MJ, etal., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Jul;47(7):3143-50.
11. GOA_HUMAN data from the GO Consortium
12. Grunblatt E, etal., J Neurochem. 2007 May;101(3):757-70.
13. Holmkvist J, etal., PLoS One. 2009 Jun 11;4(6):e5872.
14. Hompesch M, etal., Diabetes Technol Ther. 2009 May;11(5):307-13.
15. Hong EG, etal., Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Dec;293(6):E1687-96. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00256.2007. Epub 2007 Oct 2.
16. Hunter SJ and Garvey WT, Am J Med. 1998 Oct;105(4):331-45.
17. Jiang Y and Steinle JJ, Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010 May;88(5):553-61.
18. Kao PC, etal., J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994 May;78(5):1048-51.
19. Kolb A, etal., Cancer Biol Ther. 2009 Aug;8(16):1527-33. Epub 2009 Aug 13.
20. Krechler T, etal., Neoplasma. 2009;56(1):26-32.
21. Le Stunff C, etal., Nat Genet. 2000 Dec;26(4):444-6.
22. Li D, etal., Gastroenterology. 2009 Aug;137(2):482-8. Epub 2009 Apr 16.
23. Lu H, etal., J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Feb;24(2):228-32. Epub 2008 Aug 17.
24. Navaneethan SD and Beddhu S, Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009 Apr;24(4):1260-6. Epub 2008 Nov 25.
25. Olansky L, etal., J Clin Invest. 1992 May;89(5):1596-602.
26. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
27. Park SY, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Jan 15;391(3):1449-54. Epub 2009 Dec 23.
28. Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
29. Pipeline to import Pathway Interaction Database annotations from NCI into RGD
30. Pipeline to import SMPDB annotations from SMPDB into RGD
31. RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
32. RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
33. RGD automated import pipeline for human HPO-to-gene-to-disease annotations
34. Roth J, etal., Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol Incl Mol Pathol. 1989;56(5):287-92.
35. Skyler JS, etal., Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008 Nov;82(2):238-46. Epub 2008 Sep 27.
36. Stoy J, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Sep 18;104(38):15040-4. Epub 2007 Sep 12.
37. Ward WK, etal., Diabetologia. 1987 Sep;30(9):698-702.
38. Yilmaz O, etal., J Diabetes Complications. 2009 Mar 6.
39. Youngren JF Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Apr;64(7-8):873-91.
40. Zyromski NJ, etal., Surgery. 2009 Aug;146(2):258-63.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:195962   PMID:381941   PMID:503234   PMID:1184755   PMID:1406615   PMID:1433291   PMID:1601997   PMID:1646635   PMID:1851182   PMID:1944595   PMID:1959628   PMID:2036420  
PMID:2196279   PMID:2271664   PMID:2550426   PMID:3470784   PMID:3511099   PMID:3518947   PMID:3537011   PMID:3553851   PMID:4019786   PMID:4443293   PMID:4698553   PMID:4698555  
PMID:4803504   PMID:5101771   PMID:5560404   PMID:6243748   PMID:6248962   PMID:6253909   PMID:6312455   PMID:6351842   PMID:6382002   PMID:6424111   PMID:6927840   PMID:7027261  
PMID:7350438   PMID:7477119   PMID:7556975   PMID:7688386   PMID:7716547   PMID:7773291   PMID:7818556   PMID:8072542   PMID:8072544   PMID:8358440   PMID:8421693   PMID:8452530  
PMID:8496180   PMID:8524413   PMID:8702995   PMID:8844841   PMID:8971927   PMID:9092559   PMID:9141561   PMID:9235985   PMID:9388210   PMID:9498508   PMID:9631292   PMID:9773776  
PMID:9830016   PMID:10084601   PMID:10383393   PMID:10497219   PMID:10508408   PMID:10604997   PMID:10644978   PMID:10909971   PMID:10938588   PMID:10966857   PMID:10969839   PMID:11140838  
PMID:11145591   PMID:11347740   PMID:11376336   PMID:11387233   PMID:11398136   PMID:11439092   PMID:11443198   PMID:11500939   PMID:11502799   PMID:11511079   PMID:11606170   PMID:11738155  
PMID:11739440   PMID:11742412   PMID:11779231   PMID:11779865   PMID:11800057   PMID:11866509   PMID:11912547   PMID:11937112   PMID:11953210   PMID:11978629   PMID:12021212   PMID:12029093  
PMID:12032154   PMID:12047362   PMID:12051853   PMID:12072386   PMID:12079889   PMID:12086926   PMID:12101177   PMID:12111440   PMID:12133430   PMID:12135947   PMID:12138094   PMID:12182905  
PMID:12186542   PMID:12189018   PMID:12364457   PMID:12378388   PMID:12392301   PMID:12404181   PMID:12441313   PMID:12477932   PMID:12479880   PMID:12529491   PMID:12589110   PMID:12610512  
PMID:12620428   PMID:12624089   PMID:12631734   PMID:12637980   PMID:12639765   PMID:12654724   PMID:12660731   PMID:12709672   PMID:12715715   PMID:12721156   PMID:12750767   PMID:12803245  
PMID:12821730   PMID:12881524   PMID:12930990   PMID:12946932   PMID:12952878   PMID:13658959   PMID:14426955   PMID:14551916   PMID:14607844   PMID:14615391   PMID:14616883   PMID:14633852  
PMID:14647005   PMID:14651526   PMID:14657411   PMID:14659752   PMID:14671163   PMID:14671189   PMID:14671204   PMID:14679083   PMID:14693412   PMID:14707040   PMID:14715866   PMID:14739855  
PMID:14744991   PMID:14749349   PMID:14979729   PMID:14986111   PMID:15028719   PMID:15046555   PMID:15047631   PMID:15070567   PMID:15095040   PMID:15111508   PMID:15126243   PMID:15161800  
PMID:15163889   PMID:15170498   PMID:15185208   PMID:15194403   PMID:15220197   PMID:15220214   PMID:15230641   PMID:15237706   PMID:15240646   PMID:15265780   PMID:15277396   PMID:15305767  
PMID:15342556   PMID:15351621   PMID:15367890   PMID:15473891   PMID:15489334   PMID:15529622   PMID:15538935   PMID:15561961   PMID:15581831   PMID:15583859   PMID:15589123   PMID:15591776  
PMID:15610006   PMID:15613433   PMID:15616007   PMID:15632182   PMID:15678496   PMID:15684637   PMID:15699505   PMID:15705595   PMID:15705917   PMID:15792832   PMID:15834700   PMID:15880482  
PMID:15889096   PMID:15919610   PMID:15920061   PMID:15922332   PMID:15928253   PMID:15929679   PMID:15936461   PMID:15949705   PMID:15956217   PMID:15956745   PMID:15983206   PMID:16006430  
PMID:16025255   PMID:16025839   PMID:16081366   PMID:16123374   PMID:16246524   PMID:16246845   PMID:16251897   PMID:16276008   PMID:16307231   PMID:16344718   PMID:16344925   PMID:16362283  
PMID:16380501   PMID:16390390   PMID:16418171   PMID:16497805   PMID:16519889   PMID:16531418   PMID:16552513   PMID:16595598   PMID:16604263   PMID:16608900   PMID:16614815   PMID:16629714  
PMID:16691379   PMID:16731532   PMID:16731859   PMID:16736556   PMID:16741735   PMID:16751187   PMID:16799400   PMID:16800793   PMID:16835468   PMID:16866381   PMID:16868061   PMID:16885156  
PMID:16949073   PMID:16951936   PMID:16996478   PMID:17011062   PMID:17011566   PMID:17051221   PMID:17052889   PMID:17053071   PMID:17065334   PMID:17068290   PMID:17103462   PMID:17105729  
PMID:17116217   PMID:17127405   PMID:17130532   PMID:17157312   PMID:17192475   PMID:17192483   PMID:17242212   PMID:17279313   PMID:17284223   PMID:17291451   PMID:17299081   PMID:17310371  
PMID:17311896   PMID:17327422   PMID:17327440   PMID:17327454   PMID:17337306   PMID:17341563   PMID:17342078   PMID:17344504   PMID:17348446   PMID:17416760   PMID:17433504   PMID:17437081  
PMID:17461431   PMID:17464100   PMID:17468256   PMID:17471492   PMID:17472440   PMID:17473382   PMID:17479246   PMID:17487982   PMID:17497031   PMID:17506723   PMID:17513702   PMID:17520407  
PMID:17553505   PMID:17554260   PMID:17586504   PMID:17616349   PMID:17620332   PMID:17632545   PMID:17652220   PMID:17667841   PMID:17675047   PMID:17698984   PMID:17700581   PMID:17726611  
PMID:17805200   PMID:17828388   PMID:17846745   PMID:17890489   PMID:17898179   PMID:17901401   PMID:17914103   PMID:17920639   PMID:17923791   PMID:17925406   PMID:17937736   PMID:17957153  
PMID:17972051   PMID:17993259   PMID:18029081   PMID:18029348   PMID:18039179   PMID:18039812   PMID:18040865   PMID:18057381   PMID:18070774   PMID:18072146   PMID:18077505   PMID:18083784  
PMID:18085551   PMID:18090240   PMID:18093308   PMID:18157793   PMID:18162506   PMID:18171712   PMID:18192540   PMID:18198306   PMID:18198311   PMID:18211635   PMID:18216377   PMID:18220656  
PMID:18279373   PMID:18283245   PMID:18283256   PMID:18283260   PMID:18284601   PMID:18292987   PMID:18294642   PMID:18305020   PMID:18307789   PMID:18310307   PMID:18375961   PMID:18388898  
PMID:18404969   PMID:18417529   PMID:18441389   PMID:18483566   PMID:18520331   PMID:18582564   PMID:18620562   PMID:18660489   PMID:18662362   PMID:18692115   PMID:18716398   PMID:18719673  
PMID:18834984   PMID:18839133   PMID:18840770   PMID:18853485   PMID:18940880   PMID:18951876   PMID:18981553   PMID:18983503   PMID:18996102   PMID:19000139   PMID:19000992   PMID:19020323  
PMID:19025443   PMID:19037607   PMID:19051206   PMID:19052261   PMID:19064572   PMID:19073905   PMID:19073967   PMID:19094425   PMID:19115062   PMID:19141582   PMID:19146426   PMID:19188433  
PMID:19188609   PMID:19190820   PMID:19214176   PMID:19247282   PMID:19249902   PMID:19321435   PMID:19321436   PMID:19321446   PMID:19324891   PMID:19336408   PMID:19338578   PMID:19367319  
PMID:19430480   PMID:19434426   PMID:19445897   PMID:19463742   PMID:19466592   PMID:19491387   PMID:19556358   PMID:19578600   PMID:19578796   PMID:19602055   PMID:19680231   PMID:19683528  
PMID:19688775   PMID:19709092   PMID:19727662   PMID:19742322   PMID:19767753   PMID:19769745   PMID:19778377   PMID:19785038   PMID:19833889   PMID:19845278   PMID:19885595   PMID:19898946  
PMID:19913026   PMID:19913121   PMID:19935854   PMID:19948072   PMID:19950226   PMID:20007936   PMID:20033399   PMID:20054344   PMID:20082125   PMID:20098959   PMID:20106974   PMID:20119675  
PMID:20133622   PMID:20133841   PMID:20138117   PMID:20142200   PMID:20190549   PMID:20203524   PMID:20208155   PMID:20226046   PMID:20232313   PMID:20301620   PMID:20332111   PMID:20345871  
PMID:20357092   PMID:20357430   PMID:20361993   PMID:20378605   PMID:20391195   PMID:20455999   PMID:20468064   PMID:20535137   PMID:20564319   PMID:20566319   PMID:20587420   PMID:20607677  
PMID:20628086   PMID:20628762   PMID:20647273   PMID:20655470   PMID:20679359   PMID:20724178   PMID:20734064   PMID:20738396   PMID:20739464   PMID:20805278   PMID:20808760   PMID:20849903  
PMID:20863361   PMID:20938745   PMID:21036154   PMID:21054880   PMID:21059249   PMID:21073664   PMID:21094141   PMID:21193298   PMID:21193618   PMID:21203453   PMID:21203503   PMID:21251282  
PMID:21281583   PMID:21302286   PMID:21308844   PMID:21336277   PMID:21352425   PMID:21361910   PMID:21412422   PMID:21427225   PMID:21437235   PMID:21442164   PMID:21448434   PMID:21454690  
PMID:21454697   PMID:21462967   PMID:21473587   PMID:21507316   PMID:21544516   PMID:21559376   PMID:21566073   PMID:21574953   PMID:21592955   PMID:21646299   PMID:21660954   PMID:21707690  
PMID:21711374   PMID:21724851   PMID:21813805   PMID:21816162   PMID:21823539   PMID:21829393   PMID:21832049   PMID:21867683   PMID:21871813   PMID:21887289   PMID:21900206   PMID:21906630  
PMID:21911493   PMID:22003494   PMID:22005517   PMID:22033917   PMID:22065208   PMID:22065581   PMID:22068552   PMID:22082268   PMID:22095122   PMID:22132167   PMID:22132232   PMID:22167125  
PMID:22167126   PMID:22193626   PMID:22229322   PMID:22235272   PMID:22242132   PMID:22253890   PMID:22290178   PMID:22297303   PMID:22307032   PMID:22315413   PMID:22319034   PMID:22357962  
PMID:22359667   PMID:22378730   PMID:22379117   PMID:22383948   PMID:22393448   PMID:22403629   PMID:22461323   PMID:22465905   PMID:22468791   PMID:22547909   PMID:22567146   PMID:22577092  
PMID:22684034   PMID:22718751   PMID:22739332   PMID:22748134   PMID:22751690   PMID:22763970   PMID:22854022   PMID:22883454   PMID:22918957   PMID:22940118   PMID:22949029   PMID:22950808  
PMID:22957706   PMID:22967498   PMID:22967500   PMID:22972030   PMID:22982989   PMID:23018458   PMID:23043361   PMID:23050777   PMID:23092880   PMID:23106816   PMID:23133528   PMID:23223446  
PMID:23227203   PMID:23275337   PMID:23289766   PMID:23302862   PMID:23321478   PMID:23347689   PMID:23348915   PMID:23357976   PMID:23405181   PMID:23410103   PMID:23416304   PMID:23428413  
PMID:23443243   PMID:23447530   PMID:23460020   PMID:23463541   PMID:23484124   PMID:23510797   PMID:23531221   PMID:23584706   PMID:23600561   PMID:23624892   PMID:23648896   PMID:23697264  
PMID:23718986   PMID:23721563   PMID:23729554   PMID:23780880   PMID:23796517   PMID:23820621   PMID:23886629   PMID:23911422   PMID:23933688   PMID:23936387   PMID:23944770   PMID:23980258  
PMID:24002365   PMID:24022479   PMID:24030901   PMID:24036112   PMID:24075908   PMID:24081736   PMID:24132974   PMID:24139410   PMID:24142430   PMID:24146977   PMID:24167603   PMID:24184209  
PMID:24279684   PMID:24283070   PMID:24302564   PMID:24338965   PMID:24446161   PMID:24465779   PMID:24468049   PMID:24478457   PMID:24479346   PMID:24492466   PMID:24506168   PMID:24507870  
PMID:24529663   PMID:24552441   PMID:24559166   PMID:24559912   PMID:24559913   PMID:24559914   PMID:24559925   PMID:24587638   PMID:24606127   PMID:24614131   PMID:24628669   PMID:24672804  
PMID:24675707   PMID:24677210   PMID:24679227   PMID:24683100   PMID:24713842   PMID:24724616   PMID:24778449   PMID:24785155   PMID:24810472   PMID:24811232   PMID:24812634   PMID:24819707  
PMID:24828025   PMID:24829924   PMID:24829925   PMID:24841383   PMID:24845759   PMID:24854384   PMID:24885899   PMID:24895638   PMID:24906975   PMID:24910105   PMID:24912197   PMID:24971665  
PMID:25003985   PMID:25007043   PMID:25008428   PMID:25015099   PMID:25036495   PMID:25047698   PMID:25068948   PMID:25108160   PMID:25126860   PMID:25133511   PMID:25139051   PMID:25200289  
PMID:25200290   PMID:25200291   PMID:25200304   PMID:25220536   PMID:25233421   PMID:25255697   PMID:25305014   PMID:25345799   PMID:25348467   PMID:25355081   PMID:25375650   PMID:25380325  
PMID:25388749   PMID:25403480   PMID:25408296   PMID:25416956   PMID:25458830   PMID:25516545   PMID:25523979   PMID:25527324   PMID:25529453   PMID:25573092   PMID:25583030   PMID:25616509  
PMID:25627686   PMID:25627966   PMID:25649462   PMID:25665061   PMID:25696117   PMID:25697093   PMID:25707205   PMID:25721872   PMID:25765664   PMID:25813686   PMID:25849393   PMID:25852025  
PMID:25853706   PMID:25875578   PMID:25892189   PMID:25923089   PMID:25940861   PMID:25957006   PMID:25965336   PMID:25981372   PMID:25987030   PMID:26003327   PMID:26063811   PMID:26068931  
PMID:26078977   PMID:26103160   PMID:26136127   PMID:26192187   PMID:26216854   PMID:26225416   PMID:26281834   PMID:26289721   PMID:26297026   PMID:26310669   PMID:26321373   PMID:26354543  
PMID:26402673   PMID:26404065   PMID:26420624   PMID:26469762   PMID:26492921   PMID:26505114   PMID:26519138   PMID:26584065   PMID:26592151   PMID:26657615   PMID:26684862   PMID:26822090  
PMID:26824044   PMID:26836020   PMID:26849622   PMID:26858360   PMID:26866713   PMID:26902691   PMID:26921119   PMID:26930065   PMID:26950281   PMID:26968895   PMID:26981544   PMID:26994470  
PMID:27012460   PMID:27019958   PMID:27052801   PMID:27127999   PMID:27129279   PMID:27133621   PMID:27257781   PMID:27280334   PMID:27300270   PMID:27388232   PMID:27398945   PMID:27401534  
PMID:27424144   PMID:27459526   PMID:27463367   PMID:27487489   PMID:27548502   PMID:27572655   PMID:27643615   PMID:27659712   PMID:27665380   PMID:27667266   PMID:27745529   PMID:27768686  
PMID:27798656   PMID:27846285   PMID:27889612   PMID:27907006   PMID:27919543   PMID:27926856   PMID:28000708   PMID:28042651   PMID:28111382   PMID:28116849   PMID:28137793   PMID:28213469  
PMID:28242267   PMID:28263308   PMID:28267407   PMID:28268248   PMID:28286049   PMID:28300542   PMID:28318878   PMID:28325894   PMID:28341309   PMID:28343707   PMID:28360393   PMID:28406435  
PMID:28450972   PMID:28466587   PMID:28565926   PMID:28597946   PMID:28693499   PMID:28750074   PMID:28758130   PMID:28805732   PMID:28855269   PMID:28869884   PMID:28877460   PMID:28880472  
PMID:28880475   PMID:28880478   PMID:28880479   PMID:28919328   PMID:29040868   PMID:29117231   PMID:29132475   PMID:29154275   PMID:29175121   PMID:29203512   PMID:29222417   PMID:29229776  
PMID:29252126   PMID:29273204   PMID:29303782   PMID:29320365   PMID:29376874   PMID:29411439   PMID:29444458   PMID:29512653   PMID:29531349   PMID:29537934   PMID:29588286   PMID:29596046  
PMID:29633446   PMID:29764935   PMID:29792621   PMID:29793481   PMID:29804482   PMID:29809159   PMID:29950119   PMID:29950394   PMID:30025187   PMID:30103773   PMID:30215464   PMID:30375294  
PMID:30400868   PMID:30409165   PMID:30412052   PMID:30414308   PMID:30451800   PMID:30528738   PMID:30586628   PMID:30595379   PMID:30658672   PMID:30718702   PMID:30770752   PMID:30796294  
PMID:31099751   PMID:31142238   PMID:31176671   PMID:31211453   PMID:31394085   PMID:31398795   PMID:31436533   PMID:31442418   PMID:31473874   PMID:31605659   PMID:31642314   PMID:31661671  
PMID:31827251   PMID:31964806   PMID:32052124   PMID:32220179   PMID:32254061   PMID:32296183   PMID:32302499   PMID:32313883   PMID:32324968   PMID:32344305   PMID:32344313   PMID:32374541  
PMID:32383989   PMID:32388330   PMID:32388331   PMID:32388332   PMID:32392431   PMID:32392473   PMID:32393351   PMID:32396397   PMID:32401039   PMID:32401405   PMID:32405783   PMID:32405973  
PMID:32409498   PMID:32416527   PMID:32433667   PMID:32457219   PMID:33579016  


Comparative Map Data
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl112,159,779 - 2,161,221 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38112,159,779 - 2,161,209 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37112,181,009 - 2,182,439 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36112,137,585 - 2,139,015 (-)NCBINCBI36hg18NCBI36
Build 34112,137,584 - 2,139,000NCBI
Celera112,217,516 - 2,218,946 (-)NCBI
Cytogenetic Map11p15.5NCBI
HuRef111,971,272 - 1,972,702 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1112,179,957 - 2,181,387 (-)NCBICHM1_1
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm397142,232,393 - 142,233,463 (-)NCBIGRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl7142,232,393 - 142,297,118 (-)Ensembl
GRCm387142,678,656 - 142,679,726 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl7142,678,656 - 142,743,381 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv377149,864,561 - 149,865,613 (-)NCBIGRCm37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv367142,488,051 - 142,489,098 (-)NCBImm8
Celera7142,434,985 - 142,436,037 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map7F5NCBI
cM Map788.0NCBI
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.21197,843,277 - 197,992,522 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1215,856,971 - 215,858,034 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.01215,856,967 - 215,858,034 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01222,751,786 - 222,756,821 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41202,935,548 - 202,936,379 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11203,123,613 - 203,124,445 (-)NCBI
Celera1195,461,309 - 195,462,376 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map1q41NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_00495542213,909,407 - 13,910,419 (-)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_00495542213,909,408 - 13,910,419 (-)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
PanPan1.1112,230,309 - 2,231,666 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl112,218,117 - 2,231,666 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
Mhudiblu_PPA_v0112,200,785 - 2,202,579 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.11846,324,047 - 46,324,933 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl1846,324,041 - 46,325,122 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha1844,933,843 - 44,934,720 (-)NCBI
ROS_Cfam_1.01847,003,520 - 47,004,406 (-)NCBI
UMICH_Zoey_3.11846,452,280 - 46,453,156 (-)NCBI
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.01846,032,597 - 46,033,483 (-)NCBI
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.01846,779,045 - 46,779,926 (-)NCBI
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_0244049471,748,017 - 1,749,237 (-)NCBI
SpeTri2.0NW_0049368161,002,137 - 1,003,357 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl21,496,842 - 1,497,841 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.121,496,842 - 1,498,052 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.111,965,128 - 1,969,090 (-)NCBI
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_02366603899,163,059 - 99,164,540 (-)NCBI
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla 1.0NW_00462476714,999,088 - 15,000,035 (-)NCBI

Position Markers
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCh37112,180,859 - 2,181,047UniSTSGRCh37
Build 36112,137,435 - 2,137,623RGDNCBI36
Celera112,217,366 - 2,217,554RGD
Cytogenetic Map11p15.5UniSTS
HuRef111,971,122 - 1,971,310UniSTS
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCh37112,182,114 - 2,182,330UniSTSGRCh37
Build 36112,138,690 - 2,138,906RGDNCBI36
Celera112,218,621 - 2,218,837RGD
Cytogenetic Map11p15.5UniSTS
HuRef111,972,377 - 1,972,593UniSTS
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCh37112,181,009 - 2,181,227UniSTSGRCh37
Build 36112,137,585 - 2,137,803RGDNCBI36
Celera112,217,516 - 2,217,734RGD
Cytogenetic Map11p15.5UniSTS
HuRef111,971,272 - 1,971,490UniSTS
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCh37112,180,933 - 2,181,153UniSTSGRCh37
Build 36112,137,509 - 2,137,729RGDNCBI36
Celera112,217,440 - 2,217,660RGD
Cytogenetic Map11p15.5UniSTS
HuRef111,971,196 - 1,971,416UniSTS
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCh37112,182,075 - 2,182,424UniSTSGRCh37
Build 36112,138,651 - 2,139,000RGDNCBI36
Celera112,218,582 - 2,218,931RGD
Cytogenetic Map11p15.5UniSTS
HuRef111,972,338 - 1,972,687UniSTS
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCh37112,181,278 - 2,181,717UniSTSGRCh37
Build 36112,137,854 - 2,138,293RGDNCBI36
Celera112,217,785 - 2,218,224RGD
Cytogenetic Map11p15.5UniSTS
HuRef111,971,541 - 1,971,980UniSTS
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCh37112,182,617 - 2,183,430UniSTSGRCh37
Build 36112,139,193 - 2,140,006RGDNCBI36
Celera112,219,124 - 2,220,023RGD
Cytogenetic Map11p15.5UniSTS
HuRef111,972,880 - 1,973,695UniSTS
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCh37112,181,008 - 2,181,860UniSTSGRCh37
Build 36112,137,584 - 2,138,436RGDNCBI36
Celera112,217,515 - 2,218,367RGD
Cytogenetic Map11p15.5UniSTS
HuRef111,971,271 - 1,972,123UniSTS
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCh37112,183,300 - 2,184,096UniSTSGRCh37
Build 36112,139,876 - 2,140,672RGDNCBI36
Celera112,219,893 - 2,220,689RGD
Cytogenetic Map11p15.5UniSTS
HuRef111,973,565 - 1,974,361UniSTS
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCh37112,181,997 - 2,182,774UniSTSGRCh37
Build 36112,138,573 - 2,139,350RGDNCBI36
Celera112,218,504 - 2,219,281RGD
Cytogenetic Map11p15.5UniSTS
HuRef111,972,260 - 1,973,037UniSTS
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCh37112,182,110 - 2,182,376UniSTSGRCh37
Build 36112,138,686 - 2,138,952RGDNCBI36
Celera112,218,617 - 2,218,883RGD
Cytogenetic Map11p15.5UniSTS
HuRef111,972,373 - 1,972,639UniSTS
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCh37112,181,089 - 2,182,063UniSTSGRCh37
Build 36112,137,665 - 2,138,639RGDNCBI36
Celera112,217,596 - 2,218,570RGD
Cytogenetic Map11p15.5UniSTS
HuRef111,971,352 - 1,972,326UniSTS
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCh37112,181,083 - 2,182,201UniSTSGRCh37
Celera112,217,590 - 2,218,708UniSTS
HuRef111,971,346 - 1,972,464UniSTS
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCh37112,181,084 - 2,182,182UniSTSGRCh37
Celera112,217,591 - 2,218,689UniSTS
HuRef111,971,347 - 1,972,445UniSTS
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCh37112,181,103 - 2,182,189UniSTSGRCh37
Celera112,217,610 - 2,218,696UniSTS
HuRef111,971,366 - 1,972,452UniSTS
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCh37112,181,106 - 2,182,193UniSTSGRCh37
Celera112,217,613 - 2,218,700UniSTS
HuRef111,971,369 - 1,972,456UniSTS

miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:1714
Count of miRNA genes:528
Interacting mature miRNAs:576
Transcripts:ENST00000250971, ENST00000381330, ENST00000397262, ENST00000421783, ENST00000512523
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system sensory system adipose tissue appendage entire extraembryonic component
Medium 6 13 17 1 3 1 16 4 10 4 5 9 11
Low 423 410 383 84 200 58 600 257 543 18 341 223 26 204 412 1
Below cutoff 950 1031 680 256 456 176 1478 859 1495 72 555 490 82 436 1022


Nucleotide Sequences
RefSeq Transcripts NG_007114 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  NG_050578 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  NM_000207 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  NM_001185097 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  NM_001185098 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  NM_001291897 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
GenBank Nucleotide AC132217 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  AH002844 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  AJ009655 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  AY899304 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  BC005255 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  BM510347 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  BM510748 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  BP322143 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  BT006808 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  CH471158 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  DQ778082 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  JF909299 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  JQ951950 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  L15440 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  M10039 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  S99616 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  V00565 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  X70508 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles

Reference Sequences
RefSeq Acc Id: ENST00000250971   ⟹   ENSP00000250971
RefSeq Status:
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl112,159,779 - 2,161,221 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENST00000381330   ⟹   ENSP00000370731
RefSeq Status:
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl112,159,779 - 2,161,209 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENST00000397262   ⟹   ENSP00000380432
RefSeq Status:
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl112,159,779 - 2,161,204 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENST00000421783   ⟹   ENSP00000408400
RefSeq Status:
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl112,159,783 - 2,161,158 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENST00000512523   ⟹   ENSP00000424008
RefSeq Status:
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl112,159,852 - 2,160,971 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_000207   ⟹   NP_000198
RefSeq Status: REVIEWED
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCh38112,159,779 - 2,161,209 (-)NCBI
GRCh37112,181,009 - 2,182,439 (-)ENTREZGENE
Build 36112,137,585 - 2,139,015 (-)NCBI Archive
HuRef111,971,272 - 1,972,702 (-)ENTREZGENE
CHM1_1112,179,957 - 2,181,387 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_001185097   ⟹   NP_001172026
RefSeq Status: REVIEWED
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCh38112,159,779 - 2,161,209 (-)NCBI
GRCh37112,181,009 - 2,182,439 (-)ENTREZGENE
HuRef111,971,272 - 1,972,702 (-)ENTREZGENE
CHM1_1112,179,957 - 2,181,387 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_001185098   ⟹   NP_001172027
RefSeq Status: REVIEWED
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCh38112,159,779 - 2,161,209 (-)NCBI
GRCh37112,181,009 - 2,182,439 (-)ENTREZGENE
HuRef111,971,272 - 1,972,702 (-)ENTREZGENE
CHM1_1112,179,957 - 2,181,387 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_001291897   ⟹   NP_001278826
RefSeq Status: REVIEWED
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCh38112,159,779 - 2,161,209 (-)NCBI
CHM1_1112,179,957 - 2,181,387 (-)NCBI
Reference Sequences
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_000198   ⟸   NM_000207
- Peptide Label: preproprotein
- UniProtKB: P01308 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   I3WAC9 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_001172026   ⟸   NM_001185097
- Peptide Label: preproprotein
- UniProtKB: P01308 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   I3WAC9 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_001172027   ⟸   NM_001185098
- Peptide Label: preproprotein
- UniProtKB: P01308 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   I3WAC9 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_001278826   ⟸   NM_001291897
- Peptide Label: preproprotein
- UniProtKB: P01308 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   I3WAC9 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSP00000424008   ⟸   ENST00000512523
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSP00000370731   ⟸   ENST00000381330
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSP00000408400   ⟸   ENST00000421783
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSP00000250971   ⟸   ENST00000250971
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSP00000380432   ⟸   ENST00000397262
Protein Domains

RGD ID:6850046
Promoter ID:EP07109
Type:single initiation site
Description:Insulin, INS gene.
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPD (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Notes:homology_group=Homology group 45; Mammalian insulin.
Tissues & Cell Lines:pancreas islet cells
Experiment Methods:RNA sequencing by primer extension
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Build 36112,139,015 - 2,139,075EPD
RGD ID:7219333
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_H15412
Type:multiple initiation site
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCh38112,161,209 - 2,161,269EPDNEW

Clinical Variants