Ace2 (angiotensin I converting enzyme 2) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Ace2 (angiotensin I converting enzyme 2) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Ace2
Name: angiotensin I converting enzyme 2
RGD ID: 728890
Description: Enables carboxypeptidase activity. Involved in maternal process involved in female pregnancy; negative regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade; and negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation. Located in extracellular space. Used to study glaucoma; myocardial infarction; and thrombosis. Biomarker of hypertension; lung disease; middle cerebral artery infarction; myocardial infarction; and primary biliary cholangitis. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in several diseases, including avian influenza; cerebral malaria; hypertension (multiple); respiratory syncytial virus infectious disease; and severe acute respiratory syndrome. Orthologous to human ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2); PARTICIPATES IN angiotensin (1-7) signaling pathway; renin-angiotensin cascade pathway; INTERACTS WITH (S)-colchicine; 17alpha-ethynylestradiol; 17beta-estradiol.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: ACE-related carboxypeptidase; angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 2; angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; anigotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase; renal angiotensin-converting enzyme 2
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.2X30,293,597 - 30,340,961 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 EnsemblX30,293,589 - 30,340,977 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_UtxX31,326,034 - 31,372,619 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0X34,763,480 - 34,809,624 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0X30,950,895 - 30,996,838 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0X32,050,734 - 32,095,860 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 EnsemblX32,049,931 - 32,096,016 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0X32,422,286 - 32,469,137 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4X51,051,758 - 51,096,036 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1X51,105,228 - 51,149,505 (-)NCBI
CeleraX30,638,123 - 30,683,403 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic MapXq14NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
abdominal aortic aneurysm  (ISO)
Acute Lung Injury  (ISO)
adult respiratory distress syndrome  (ISO)
Alveolar Bone Loss  (IEP)
anxiety disorder  (ISO)
autistic disorder  (ISO)
avian influenza  (ISO)
bacterial pneumonia  (ISO)
Cardiac Fibrosis  (IEP)
cardiomyopathy  (ISO)
Cardiovirus Infections  (ISO)
cerebral malaria  (ISO)
chemical colitis  (ISO)
congestive heart failure  (ISO,ISS)
Coronary Disease  (ISO)
Coronavirus infectious disease  (ISO)
Diabetic Cardiomyopathies  (IDA)
Diabetic Nephropathies  (ISO)
diabetic retinopathy  (ISO)
endomyocardial fibrosis  (ISO)
Experimental Autoimmune Uveoretinitis  (ISO)
Experimental Diabetes Mellitus  (IEP)
Experimental Liver Cirrhosis  (IEP)
Fanconi anemia  (ISO)
focal segmental glomerulosclerosis  (ISO)
genetic disease  (ISO)
glaucoma  (IDA)
hypertension  (IEP,ISO)
Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis  (ISO)
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy  (ISO)
Inflammation  (ISO)
Kidney Reperfusion Injury  (IEP)
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy  (IEP)
lung disease  (IEP)
Lung Injury  (ISO)
middle cerebral artery infarction  (IEP)
multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2  (ISO)
myocardial infarction  (IDA,IEP)
Neurodevelopmental Disorders  (ISO)
pancreatic ductal carcinoma  (ISO)
Pleural Effusion  (ISO)
Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension  (IEP)
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects  (IEP)
primary biliary cholangitis  (IEP)
pulmonary fibrosis  (ISO)
pulmonary hypertension  (ISO)
respiratory syncytial virus infectious disease  (ISO)
severe acute respiratory syndrome  (ISO)
Spontaneous Abortions  (ISO)
syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Lubs type  (ISO)
thrombosis  (IDA)
Ventricular Remodeling  (IEP,ISO)
Weight Loss  (ISO)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(S)-colchicine  (EXP,ISO)
(S,S,S)-nicotianamine  (ISO)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
14,15-EET  (ISO)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP)
17beta-estradiol 3-benzoate  (EXP)
2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether  (EXP)
2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid  (ISO)
3-chloropropane-1,2-diol  (EXP)
4-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydroimidazo[1,5-a]pyridin-5-yl)benzonitrile  (EXP)
5-methoxy-2-\{[(4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridin-2-yl)methyl]sulfinyl\}-1H-benzimidazole  (EXP,ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (ISO)
8-Br-cAMP  (ISO)
Ac-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro-OH  (ISO)
acarbose  (ISO)
acetic acid [4-[2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy]-2-methyl-5-propan-2-ylphenyl] ester  (ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (EXP,ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
all-trans-retinol  (ISO)
amitriptyline  (ISO)
amphetamine  (EXP)
ampicillin  (EXP)
angiotensin I  (ISO)
angiotensin II  (ISO)
anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one  (EXP)
aprindine  (ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
atorvastatin calcium  (EXP)
azathioprine  (ISO)
benazepril  (ISO)
benzbromarone  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
Benzo[k]fluoranthene  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP)
bleomycin A2  (EXP)
cadmium dichloride  (EXP,ISO)
caffeine  (ISO)
candesartan  (EXP)
Candesartan cilexetil  (EXP)
captopril  (EXP,ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
ceftriaxone  (EXP)
CGP 52608  (ISO)
chloramphenicol  (ISO)
Chlormadinone acetate  (ISO)
chlorpromazine  (ISO)
chlorpropamide  (ISO)
chromium(6+)  (ISO)
cisplatin  (ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (ISO)
copper(II) sulfate  (ISO)
curcumin  (EXP)
cyclophosphamide  (ISO)
cyclosporin A  (EXP)
D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
D-penicillamine  (ISO)
danazol  (EXP,ISO)
dantrolene  (ISO)
desloratadine  (ISO)
dexamethasone  (ISO)
diazepam  (ISO)
diclofenac  (ISO)
diminazene  (ISO)
diminazene diaceturate  (EXP,ISO)
dioxygen  (ISO)
disopyramide  (ISO)
disulfiram  (ISO)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
doxepin  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (EXP,ISO)
EC (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) inhibitor  (ISO)
endosulfan  (ISO)
ethambutol  (ISO)
ethanol  (EXP)
ethionamide  (ISO)
etoposide  (EXP,ISO)
flutamide  (ISO)
gemfibrozil  (ISO)
gentamycin  (EXP)
glucose  (EXP,ISO)
glyburide  (ISO)
glyphosate  (EXP)
goralatide  (ISO)
griseofulvin  (EXP,ISO)
GW 4064  (ISO)
hydroquinone  (ISO)
hydroxyzine  (ISO)
Ile(5)-angiotensin II  (ISO)
imidapril  (ISO)
imipramine  (ISO)
inulin  (ISO)
Iodine aqueous  (ISO)
irbesartan  (ISO)
isoniazide  (ISO)
isoprenaline  (EXP,ISO)
ketoconazole  (ISO)
L-ascorbic acid  (ISO)
labetalol  (ISO)
lead diacetate  (ISO)
levonorgestrel  (ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (EXP,ISO)
lisinopril dihydrate  (EXP,ISO)
lomustine  (ISO)
loratadine  (ISO)
losartan  (EXP,ISO)
Magnolol  (EXP)
melatonin  (ISO)
metformin  (ISO)
methimazole  (ISO)
metronidazole  (EXP)
monocrotaline  (EXP)
N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal  (ISO)
N-methylnicotinate  (EXP,ISO)
naproxen  (ISO)
neomycin  (EXP)
nickel atom  (ISO)
nicotianamine  (ISO)
nicotinamide  (ISO)
nimesulide  (EXP,ISO)
olmesartan  (EXP)
oltipraz  (EXP,ISO)
omeprazole  (EXP,ISO)
orphenadrine  (EXP)
papaverine  (ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP,ISO)
paraquat  (EXP)
PD123319  (EXP)
pentanal  (ISO)
perfluorohexanesulfonic acid  (ISO)
perfluorononanoic acid  (ISO)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (ISO)
perfluorooctanoic acid  (ISO)
perindopril  (EXP)
phenobarbital  (ISO)
phenylmercury acetate  (ISO)
phenytoin  (ISO)
pioglitazone  (EXP)
pirfenidone  (EXP)
pirinixic acid  (ISO)
pravastatin  (EXP)
pregabalin  (EXP)
quercetin  (ISO)
quinidine  (ISO)
rifampicin  (ISO)
SB 203580  (EXP)
SB 431542  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (ISO)
silver atom  (EXP)
silver(0)  (EXP)
simvastatin  (ISO)
sirolimus  (EXP)
spironolactone  (EXP)
streptozocin  (EXP,ISO)
sulfasalazine  (ISO)
sulindac  (EXP,ISO)
sunitinib  (ISO)
tacrolimus hydrate  (EXP)
telmisartan  (EXP,ISO)
testosterone  (EXP)
testosterone undecanoate  (ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (EXP)
tetracycline  (ISO)
theophylline  (ISO)
thioacetamide  (ISO)
Thiorphan  (ISO)
titanium dioxide  (EXP)
trandolapril  (ISO)
tributylstannane  (ISO)
triclosan  (ISO)
triptonide  (ISO)
tryptophan  (EXP)
valproic acid  (EXP,ISO)
valsartan  (EXP,ISO)
vancomycin  (EXP)
xanthone  (EXP)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Cellular Component
apical plasma membrane  (IEA,ISO)
brush border membrane  (IEA,ISO)
cell surface  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
cilium  (IEA)
cytoplasm  (IEA,ISO)
extracellular region  (ISO)
extracellular space  (IBA,IDA,IEA,ISO)
plasma membrane  (IBA,ISO,ISS)

Molecular Function

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Olmesartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker with an inhibitory effect on angiotensin-converting enzyme. Agata J, etal., Hypertens Res. 2006 Nov;29(11):865-74.
2. The pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in hACE2 transgenic mice. Bao L, etal., Nature. 2020 May 7. pii: 10.1038/s41586-020-2312-y. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2312-y.
3. Marked Up-Regulation of ACE2 in Hearts of Patients With Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Implications for SARS-CoV-2-Mediated COVID-19. Bos JM, etal., Mayo Clin Proc. 2020 Jul;95(7):1354-1368. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.04.028. Epub 2020 Apr 28.
4. Telmisartan Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss by Decreasing the Expression of Osteoclasts Markers in Hypertensive Rats With Periodontal Disease. Brito VGB, etal., Front Pharmacol. 2020 Nov 11;11:579926. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.579926. eCollection 2020.
5. Acute kidney injury in the rat causes cardiac remodelling and increases angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression. Burchill L, etal., Exp Physiol. 2008 May;93(5):622-30. doi: 10.1113/expphysiol.2007.040386. Epub 2008 Jan 25.
6. Myocardial infarction increases ACE2 expression in rat and humans. Burrell LM, etal., Eur Heart J 2005 Feb;26(4):369-75; discussion 322-4. Epub 2005 Jan 25.
7. Effects of the ACE2 inhibitor GL1001 on acute dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice. Byrnes JJ, etal., Inflamm Res. 2009 Nov;58(11):819-27. doi: 10.1007/s00011-009-0053-3. Epub 2009 Jun 11.
8. The ACE2 expression in human heart indicates new potential mechanism of heart injury among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Chen L, etal., Cardiovasc Res. 2020 May 1;116(6):1097-1100. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa078.
9. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is an essential regulator of heart function. Crackower MA, etal., Nature 2002 Jun 20;417(6891):822-8.
10. ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis in renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rats. da Silveira KD, etal., Clin Sci (Lond). 2010 Jul 23;119(9):385-94. doi: 10.1042/CS20090554.
11. The host's angiotensin-converting enzyme polymorphism may explain epidemiological findings in COVID-19 infections. Delanghe JR, etal., Clin Chim Acta. 2020 Jun;505:192-193. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2020.03.031. Epub 2020 Mar 24.
12. Gene polymorphisms in angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE I/D) and angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE2 C-->T) protect against cerebral malaria in Indian adults. Dhangadamajhi G, etal., Infect Genet Evol. 2010 Mar;10(2):337-41. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2010.01.009. Epub 2010 Feb 1.
13. ACE2 gene transfer attenuates hypertension-linked pathophysiological changes in the SHR. Diez-Freire C, etal., Physiol Genomics. 2006 Oct 3;27(1):12-9. Epub 2006 Jun 20.
14. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 overexpression improves left ventricular remodeling and function in a rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Dong B, etal., J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Feb 21;59(8):739-47. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.09.071.
15. The K18-Human ACE2 Transgenic Mouse Model Recapitulates Non-severe and Severe COVID-19 in Response to an Infectious Dose of the SARS-CoV-2 Virus. Dong W, etal., J Virol. 2022 Jan 12;96(1):e0096421. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00964-21. Epub 2021 Oct 20.
16. The novel angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) homolog, ACE2, is selectively expressed by adult Leydig cells of the testis. Douglas GC, etal., Endocrinology. 2004 Oct;145(10):4703-11. Epub 2004 Jul 1.
17. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activation protects against hypertension-induced cardiac fibrosis involving extracellular signal-regulated kinases. Ferreira AJ, etal., Exp Physiol. 2011 Mar;96(3):287-94. doi: 10.1113/expphysiol.2010.055277. Epub 2010 Dec 10.
18. Antiglaucomatous effects of the activation of intrinsic Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Foureaux G, etal., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Jun 21;54(6):4296-306. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-11427.
19. ACE2 activation promotes antithrombotic activity. Fraga-Silva RA, etal., Mol Med. 2010 May-Jun;16(5-6):210-5. doi: 10.2119/molmed.2009.00160. Epub 2010 Jan 22.
20. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
21. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
22. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 inhibits lung injury induced by respiratory syncytial virus. Gu H, etal., Sci Rep. 2016 Jan 27;6:19840. doi: 10.1038/srep19840.
23. ACE2 links amino acid malnutrition to microbial ecology and intestinal inflammation. Hashimoto T, etal., Nature. 2012 Jul 25;487(7408):477-81. doi: 10.1038/nature11228.
24. A SARS-CoV-2 Infection Model in Mice Demonstrates Protection by Neutralizing Antibodies. Hassan AO, etal., Cell. 2020 Jun 10. pii: S0092-8674(20)30742-X. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.06.011.
25. The counterregulating role of ACE2 and ACE2-mediated angiotensin 1-7 signaling against angiotensin II stimulation in vascular cells. Hayashi N, etal., Hypertens Res. 2010 Nov;33(11):1182-5. doi: 10.1038/hr.2010.147. Epub 2010 Aug 12.
26. Upregulation of hepatic angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin-(1-7) levels in experimental biliary fibrosis. Herath CB, etal., J Hepatol. 2007 Sep;47(3):387-95. Epub 2007 Apr 2.
27. ACE/ACE2 ratio and MMP-9 activity as potential biomarkers in tuberculous pleural effusions. Hsieh WY, etal., Int J Biol Sci. 2012;8(8):1197-205. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.5087. Epub 2012 Oct 17.
28. Maternal Tryptophan Supplementation Protects Adult Rat Offspring against Hypertension Programmed by Maternal Chronic Kidney Disease: Implication of Tryptophan-Metabolizing Microbiome and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor. Hsu CN, etal., Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jun 26;21(12):4552. doi: 10.3390/ijms21124552.
29. Upregulation Of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 In Hepatic Fibrosis By Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: An In Vivo And In Vitro Study. Huang ML, etal., Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2009 Sep 28.
30. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protects from severe acute lung failure. Imai Y, etal., Nature. 2005 Jul 7;436(7047):112-6. doi: 10.1038/nature03712.
31. A crucial role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in SARS coronavirus-induced lung injury. Kuba K, etal., Nat Med. 2005 Aug;11(8):875-9. doi: 10.1038/nm1267. Epub 2005 Jul 10.
32. Targeting the renin-angiotensin system: what's new? Leckie BJ Curr Med Chem Cardiovasc Hematol Agents. 2005 Jan;3(1):23-32.
33. Modification of the terminal residue of apelin-13 antagonizes its hypotensive action. Lee DK, etal., Endocrinology. 2005 Jan;146(1):231-6. Epub 2004 Oct 14.
34. Receptor and viral determinants of SARS-coronavirus adaptation to human ACE2. Li W, etal., EMBO J. 2005 Apr 20;24(8):1634-43. doi: 10.1038/sj.emboj.7600640. Epub 2005 Mar 24.
35. Sini decoction alleviates E. coli induced acute lung injury in mice via equilibrating ACE-AngII-AT1R and ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis. Liu J, etal., Life Sci. 2018 Sep 1;208:139-148. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2018.07.013. Epub 2018 Jul 7.
36. The expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis are upregulated after acute cerebral ischemic stroke in rats. Lu J, etal., Neuropeptides. 2013 Oct;47(5):289-95. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2013.09.002. Epub 2013 Sep 18.
37. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
38. Renal ACE and ACE2 expression in early diabetic rats. Moon JY, etal., Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2008;110(1):e8-e16. Epub 2008 Aug 4.
39. Oral administration of an angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activator ameliorates diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. Murca TM, etal., Regul Pept. 2012 Aug 20;177(1-3):107-15. doi: 10.1016/j.regpep.2012.05.093. Epub 2012 May 14.
40. ACE2 and ANG-(1-7) in the rat uterus during early and late gestation. Neves LA, etal., Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008 Jan;294(1):R151-61. Epub 2007 Oct 31.
41. Molecular basis of cross-species ACE2 interactions with SARS-CoV-2-like viruses of pangolin origin. Niu S, etal., EMBO J. 2021 Aug 16;40(16):e107786. doi: 10.15252/embj.2021107786. Epub 2021 Jun 8.
42. Enalapril attenuates downregulation of Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in the late phase of ventricular dysfunction in myocardial infarcted rat. Ocaranza MP, etal., Hypertension. 2006 Oct;48(4):572-8. Epub 2006 Aug 14.
43. SARS-coronavirus modulation of myocardial ACE2 expression and inflammation in patients with SARS. Oudit GY, etal., Eur J Clin Invest. 2009 Jul;39(7):618-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2009.02153.x. Epub 2009 May 6.
44. Chronic liver injury in rats and humans upregulates the novel enzyme angiotensin converting enzyme 2. Paizis G, etal., Gut. 2005 Dec;54(12):1790-6. doi: 10.1136/gut.2004.062398. Epub 2005 Sep 15.
45. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
46. Diminazene aceturate enhances angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity and attenuates ischemia-induced cardiac pathophysiology. Qi Y, etal., Hypertension. 2013 Oct;62(4):746-52. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.01337. Epub 2013 Aug 19.
47. [Effect of atorvastatin on ACE2 expression in pressure overload induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats]. Qin XT, etal., Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2008 May;33(5):438-42.
48. Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases Qiu QM, etal., Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2010 Apr;28(4):275-9.
49. Decreased glomerular and tubular expression of ACE2 in patients with type 2 diabetes and kidney disease. Reich HN, etal., Kidney Int. 2008 Dec;74(12):1610-6. Epub 2008 Oct 1.
50. A place in our hearts for the lowly angiotensin 1-7 peptide? Reudelhuber TL Hypertension. 2006 May;47(5):811-5. Epub 2006 Mar 6.
51. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
52. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
53. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
54. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and ACE activities display tissue-specific sensitivity to undernutrition-programmed hypertension in the adult rat. Riviere G, etal., Hypertension. 2005 Nov;46(5):1169-74. Epub 2005 Oct 3.
55. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas Axis Confers Cardiopulmonary Protection against Lung Fibrosis and Pulmonary Hypertension. Shenoy V, etal., Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010 Jun 25.
56. Oral delivery of Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and Angiotensin-(1-7) bioencapsulated in plant cells attenuates pulmonary hypertension. Shenoy V, etal., Hypertension. 2014 Dec;64(6):1248-59. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.03871. Epub 2014 Sep 15.
57. Oral delivery of ACE2/Ang-(1-7) bioencapsulated in plant cells protects against experimental uveitis and autoimmune uveoretinitis. Shil PK, etal., Mol Ther. 2014 Dec;22(12):2069-2082. doi: 10.1038/mt.2014.179. Epub 2014 Sep 17.
58. A Dynamic Variation of Pulmonary ACE2 Is Required to Modulate Neutrophilic Inflammation in Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection in Mice. Sodhi CP, etal., J Immunol. 2019 Dec 1;203(11):3000-3012. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1900579. Epub 2019 Oct 23.
59. ACE2 deficiency modifies renoprotection afforded by ACE inhibition in experimental diabetes. Tikellis C, etal., Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1018-25. Epub 2008 Jan 30.
60. ACE2 X-ray structures reveal a large hinge-bending motion important for inhibitor binding and catalysis. Towler P, etal., J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 23;279(17):17996-8007. Epub 2004 Jan 30.
61. Expression of Human ACE2 in Lactobacillus and Beneficial Effects in Diabetic Retinopathy in Mice. Verma A, etal., Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev. 2019 Jul 10;14:161-170. doi: 10.1016/j.omtm.2019.06.007. eCollection 2019 Sep 13.
62. ACE2 and Ang-(1-7) confer protection against development of diabetic retinopathy. Verma A, etal., Mol Ther. 2012 Jan;20(1):28-36. doi: 10.1038/mt.2011.155. Epub 2011 Jul 26.
63. Discrepancy between intrarenal messenger RNA and protein expression of ACE and ACE2 in human diabetic nephropathy. Wang G, etal., Am J Nephrol. 2009;29(6):524-31. Epub 2008 Dec 12.
64. Expression of ACE and ACE2 in patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Wang G, etal., Kidney Blood Press Res. 2011;34(3):141-9. doi: 10.1159/000324521. Epub 2011 Feb 24.
65. SARS-CoV-2 Causes Lung Infection without Severe Disease in Human ACE2 Knock-In Mice. Winkler ES, etal., J Virol. 2022 Jan 12;96(1):e0151121. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01511-21. Epub 2021 Oct 20.
66. [Relationship of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene polymorphisms and vulnerability to coronary heart disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus] Yan QN, etal., Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2008 Aug;28(8):1365-8.
67. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mediates influenza H7N9 virus-induced acute lung injury. Yang P, etal., Sci Rep. 2014 Nov 13;4:7027. doi: 10.1038/srep07027.
68. Mice transgenic for human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 provide a model for SARS coronavirus infection. Yang XH, etal., Comp Med. 2007 Oct;57(5):450-9.
69. ACE2 overexpression ameliorates left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Zhao YX, etal., Hum Gene Ther. 2010 Nov;21(11):1545-54. doi: 10.1089/hum.2009.160.
70. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene A/G polymorphism and elevated blood pressure in Chinese patients with metabolic syndrome. Zhong J, etal., J Lab Clin Med. 2006 Feb;147(2):91-5.
71. Telmisartan attenuates aortic hypertrophy in hypertensive rats by the modulation of ACE2 and profilin-1 expression. Zhong JC, etal., Regul Pept. 2011 Jan 17;166(1-3):90-7. doi: 10.1016/j.regpep.2010.09.005. Epub 2010 Sep 18.
72. Decreased expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is associated with tumor progression. Zhou L, etal., Tohoku J Exp Med. 2009 Feb;217(2):123-31.
73. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protects from lethal avian influenza A H5N1 infections. Zou Z, etal., Nat Commun. 2014 May 6;5:3594. doi: 10.1038/ncomms4594.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:10924499   PMID:10969042   PMID:11815627   PMID:12623933   PMID:12874086   PMID:12967627   PMID:14647384   PMID:15007027   PMID:15283675   PMID:15380922   PMID:15452268   PMID:15833808  
PMID:15949646   PMID:16009784   PMID:16027241   PMID:16176966   PMID:16710353   PMID:17308000   PMID:17903697   PMID:18250366   PMID:18258853   PMID:18296494   PMID:18343844   PMID:18419956  
PMID:18497476   PMID:18654024   PMID:18768926   PMID:18809792   PMID:18849338   PMID:18926065   PMID:18945956   PMID:19056867   PMID:19185582   PMID:19221212   PMID:19389807   PMID:19424597  
PMID:19927150   PMID:20518313   PMID:20584672   PMID:21053061   PMID:21068237   PMID:21186379   PMID:21351633   PMID:21436210   PMID:21536991   PMID:21880865   PMID:21952934   PMID:21963832  
PMID:22198016   PMID:22286369   PMID:22378820   PMID:22613639   PMID:22715807   PMID:22811473   PMID:22943692   PMID:23141017   PMID:23174757   PMID:23533145   PMID:23535237   PMID:23652350  
PMID:23706365   PMID:23823602   PMID:23873801   PMID:24114819   PMID:24168260   PMID:24227843   PMID:24417403   PMID:24558317   PMID:24741027   PMID:24781988   PMID:24782646   PMID:24877125  
PMID:25031298   PMID:25194129   PMID:25194138   PMID:25217176   PMID:25426615   PMID:25575522   PMID:25766467   PMID:25768373   PMID:25941346   PMID:26010093   PMID:26016560   PMID:26196539  
PMID:27050934   PMID:27085217   PMID:27302421   PMID:28423630   PMID:28656296   PMID:28748720   PMID:29146157   PMID:30006298   PMID:30318562   PMID:30335496   PMID:30628484   PMID:30816157  
PMID:31346990   PMID:32329874   PMID:32513532   PMID:32565336   PMID:32851948   PMID:32940922   PMID:32979558   PMID:33660945   PMID:33931961   PMID:34453661   PMID:34678474   PMID:34684358  
PMID:35000261   PMID:35546127   PMID:36041714   PMID:36932971   PMID:37052403   PMID:37539550  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.2X30,293,597 - 30,340,961 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 EnsemblX30,293,589 - 30,340,977 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_UtxX31,326,034 - 31,372,619 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0X34,763,480 - 34,809,624 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0X30,950,895 - 30,996,838 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0X32,050,734 - 32,095,860 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 EnsemblX32,049,931 - 32,096,016 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0X32,422,286 - 32,469,137 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4X51,051,758 - 51,096,036 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1X51,105,228 - 51,149,505 (-)NCBI
CeleraX30,638,123 - 30,683,403 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic MapXq14NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38X15,518,197 - 15,607,211 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 EnsemblX15,494,566 - 15,607,236 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37X15,536,320 - 15,625,334 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36X15,489,077 - 15,529,058 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 34X15,338,812 - 15,378,794NCBI
CeleraX19,694,648 - 19,735,682 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic MapXp22.2NCBI
HuRefX13,333,989 - 13,374,656 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1X15,610,102 - 15,651,154 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.0X15,101,170 - 15,190,203 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm39X162,922,338 - 162,971,414 (+)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 EnsemblX162,922,328 - 162,971,416 (+)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm38X164,139,342 - 164,188,418 (+)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 EnsemblX164,139,332 - 164,188,420 (+)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv37X160,577,274 - 160,626,350 (+)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv36X159,484,737 - 159,532,523 (+)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
CeleraX147,353,722 - 147,402,904 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic MapXF5NCBI
cM MapX76.12NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_0049555192,591,248 - 2,633,495 (+)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_0049555192,591,229 - 2,643,705 (+)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1X17,362,290 - 17,405,412 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v0X8,189,267 - 8,229,415 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.1X15,470,896 - 15,510,891 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 EnsemblX15,470,896 - 15,510,891 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.1X11,798,839 - 11,839,591 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 EnsemblX11,798,839 - 11,900,594 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_TashaX11,706,330 - 11,745,360 (-)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.0X11,760,479 - 11,822,897 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 EnsemblX11,759,554 - 11,789,618 (-)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.1X11,824,224 - 11,862,960 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.0X11,818,311 - 11,856,868 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.0X11,843,799 - 11,882,613 (-)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2X4,964,502 - 5,012,706 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049364704,965,332 - 5,011,702 (-)EnsemblSpeTri2.0
SpeTri2.0NW_0049364704,964,526 - 5,011,808 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 EnsemblX12,093,242 - 12,151,286 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.1X12,099,849 - 12,152,204 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.2X13,061,317 - 13,089,851 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.1X14,032,231 - 14,094,163 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 EnsemblX14,030,233 - 14,077,785 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_02366605615,866,608 - 15,915,985 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_004624829344,933 - 391,527 (-)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_004624829344,823 - 391,451 (-)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Ace2
182 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:76
Count of miRNA genes:69
Interacting mature miRNAs:73
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Pita, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
731181Uae27Urinary albumin excretion QTL 272.70.0059urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)X143491017Rat
70165Bp64Blood pressure QTL 645.2arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)X144812931706553Rat
1298071Edpm12Estrogen-dependent pituitary mass QTL 123.2pituitary gland mass (VT:0010496)pituitary gland wet weight (CMO:0000853)X292789847927898Rat
10755455Coatc13Coat color QTL 130coat/hair pigmentation trait (VT:0010463)pigmented ventral coat/hair area to total ventral coat/hair area ratio (CMO:0001812)7440600049406000Rat
631666Iddm5Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 5blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)plasma glucose level (CMO:0000042)X449454949494549Rat
61430Cia18Collagen induced arthritis QTL 183.1joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)X14843113120568734Rat
71116Niddm16Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 167.81blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)plasma glucose level (CMO:0000042)X1529780260297802Rat
1598873Memor2Memory QTL 22.5exploratory behavior trait (VT:0010471)average horizontal distance between subject and target during voluntary locomotion in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0002674)X2099094741052531Rat
2290375Gluco34Glucose level QTL 342.75blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level area under curve (AUC) (CMO:0000350)X2099094741203591Rat


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 2 4 31 16 11
Low 1 31 25 13 10 13 5 5 68 4 17 5
Below cutoff 6 26 26 9 26 3 5 6 8 3


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000049947   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000047913
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.0 EnsemblX32,050,736 - 32,095,867 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000080730   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000070410
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 EnsemblX30,293,589 - 30,340,977 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 EnsemblX32,049,931 - 32,096,016 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_001012006   ⟹   NP_001012006
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2X30,293,597 - 30,339,735 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.0X32,050,734 - 32,095,860 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.0X32,422,286 - 32,469,137 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.4X51,051,758 - 51,096,036 (-)RGD
CeleraX30,638,123 - 30,683,403 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039099654   ⟹   XP_038955582
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2X30,293,597 - 30,340,961 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039099655   ⟹   XP_038955583
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2X30,293,597 - 30,340,961 (-)NCBI
Protein Sequences
Protein RefSeqs NP_001012006 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  XP_038955582 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  XP_038955583 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
GenBank Protein AAW78017 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  ACT66272 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL90514 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
Ensembl Protein ENSRNOP00000070410
GenBank Protein Q5EGZ1 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_001012006   ⟸   NM_001012006
- Peptide Label: precursor
- UniProtKB: Q5EGZ1 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   C7ECU5 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A0G2JXU8 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000070410   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000080730
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000047913   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000049947
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038955583   ⟸   XM_039099655
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: Q5EGZ1 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   C7ECU5 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A0G2JXU8 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038955582   ⟸   XM_039099654
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: Q5EGZ1 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   C7ECU5 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A0G2JXU8 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
Protein Domains
Collectrin   Collectrin-like   Peptidase M2

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-Q5EGZ1-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold Q5EGZ1 1-805 view protein structure
ACE2 pdb 1r42 Q5EGZ1 18-708 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13701802
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R12321
Type:single initiation site
Description:angiotensin I converting enzyme 2
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.0X32,095,833 - 32,095,893EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:728890 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-2582 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000031665 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000080730 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Gene3D-CATH 1.10.1370.30 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro Collectrin_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Peptidase_M2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:302668 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTHR10514 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam Collectrin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Peptidase_M2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Ace2 PhenoGen
  PEPTIDASE_M2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  WD_REPEATS_1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ZINC_PROTEASE UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000031665 RatGTEx
Superfamily-SCOP Metalloproteases ('zincins'), catalytic domain UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ACE2_RAT UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2013-06-19 Ace2  angiotensin I converting enzyme 2  Ace2  angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 2  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2005-07-08 Ace2  angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 2      Symbol and Name status set to approved 1299863 APPROVED
2005-02-22 Ace2        Symbol and Name status set to provisional 70820 PROVISIONAL

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_process mouse homolog has a role in regulation of cardiac contractility, regulation of the expression of hypoxia-regulated genes and modulating the levels of Angiotesin 1 and 2 629626
gene_regulation expression is downregulated in hypertensive rats 629626