Mdk (midkine) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Mdk (midkine) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Mdk
Name: midkine
RGD ID: 69073
Description: Predicted to enable glycosaminoglycan binding activity and growth factor activity. Involved in several processes, including adrenal gland development; response to glucocorticoid; and response to wounding. Located in cell projection. Used to study brain infarction and coronary stenosis. Biomarker of myocardial infarction. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in brain ischemia. Orthologous to human MDK (midkine); PARTICIPATES IN glypican signaling pathway; syndecan signaling pathway; INTERACTS WITH 17alpha-ethynylestradiol; 17beta-estradiol; 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: MK
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr8398,356,789 - 98,358,960 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.2377,901,134 - 77,903,997 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl377,901,158 - 77,903,130 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx381,376,607 - 81,377,964 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0389,975,637 - 89,976,994 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0387,826,859 - 87,828,216 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0380,841,003 - 80,843,895 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl380,841,005 - 80,842,916 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0387,539,671 - 87,542,415 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4376,309,988 - 76,311,345 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1376,206,095 - 76,208,044 (-)NCBI
Celera377,104,074 - 77,105,431 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map3q24NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP,ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
3'-amino-3'-deoxy-N(6),N(6)-dimethyladenosine  (EXP)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (EXP)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
amphetamine  (ISO)
antimycin A  (ISO)
antirheumatic drug  (ISO)
aristolochic acid A  (ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
atrazine  (ISO)
azoxystrobin  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
benzo[b]fluoranthene  (ISO)
bicalutamide  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol F  (EXP)
butan-1-ol  (ISO)
cadmium atom  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
carmustine  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (EXP)
choline  (ISO)
chondroitin sulfate  (ISO)
cisplatin  (ISO)
copper atom  (EXP)
copper(0)  (EXP)
Cuprizon  (EXP)
cycloheximide  (ISO)
cyclosporin A  (ISO)
cytarabine  (ISO)
D-glucose  (ISO)
dermatan sulfate  (ISO)
dexamethasone  (ISO)
dextran sulfate  (ISO)
diazinon  (ISO)
dibutyl phthalate  (EXP)
dichloroacetic acid  (ISO)
dieldrin  (EXP)
dioxygen  (ISO)
disodium selenite  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (ISO)
elemental selenium  (ISO)
enzalutamide  (ISO)
ethanol  (ISO)
fenamidone  (ISO)
fenpyroximate  (ISO)
folic acid  (ISO)
furosemide  (EXP)
gefitinib  (ISO)
genistein  (ISO)
glucose  (ISO)
glycidol  (EXP)
gossypol  (ISO)
hexane  (EXP)
L-ascorbic acid  (EXP)
L-methionine  (ISO)
lead diacetate  (EXP)
mitomycin C  (ISO)
monosodium L-glutamate  (ISO)
N-Nitrosopyrrolidine  (ISO)
nickel dichloride  (EXP)
nickel sulfate  (ISO)
O-methyleugenol  (ISO)
oxaliplatin  (EXP)
paraquat  (EXP)
perfluorohexanesulfonic acid  (ISO)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (EXP)
perfluorooctanoic acid  (ISO)
phenytoin  (ISO)
picoxystrobin  (ISO)
piroxicam  (ISO)
pyrimidifen  (ISO)
quercetin  (ISO)
SB 431542  (ISO)
selenium atom  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (ISO)
sunitinib  (ISO)
tamibarotene  (ISO)
tamoxifen  (ISO)
tebufenpyrad  (ISO)
temozolomide  (ISO)
thifluzamide  (ISO)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
topotecan  (EXP)
trichloroethene  (EXP)
triptonide  (ISO)
troglitazone  (ISO)
valproic acid  (ISO)
vitamin E  (ISO)
zearalenone  (ISO)
zoledronic acid  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
adrenal gland development  (IDA)
behavioral fear response  (IEA,ISO)
cell migration  (IDA)
cerebellar granular layer development  (IEA,ISO)
cerebral cortex development  (IEA,ISO)
cytoskeleton organization  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
defecation  (IEA,ISO)
dentate gyrus development  (IEA,ISO)
estrous cycle  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
glial cell projection elongation  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
hippocampus development  (ISO)
intracellular signal transduction  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
leukocyte chemotaxis involved in inflammatory response  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
negative regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
negative regulation of cell adhesion  (ISO,ISS)
negative regulation of epithelial cell apoptotic process  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
negative regulation of inflammatory response to wounding  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
negative regulation of ossification  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
negative regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
oogenesis  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of artery morphogenesis  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of blood vessel branching  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of cartilage development  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of cell adhesion  (ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of cell division  (IEA)
positive regulation of cell migration  (ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of DNA-templated transcription  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of hepatocyte proliferation  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of inflammatory response  (ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of inflammatory response to wounding  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of interleukin-12 production  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of keratinocyte proliferation  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cell  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of leukocyte cell-cell adhesion  (ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis  (ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of macrophage chemotaxis  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of neural precursor cell proliferation  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of neuron migration  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of neuron projection development  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of neutrophil chemotaxis  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of neutrophil extravasation  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of smooth muscle cell chemotaxis  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of T cell differentiation  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
regulation of behavior  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of bone remodeling  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
regulation of chondrocyte differentiation  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
response to auditory stimulus  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
response to glucocorticoid  (IEP)
response to hormone  (IEP)
response to wounding  (IDA,IEA,ISO)
response to xenobiotic stimulus  (IEP)
short-term memory  (IEA,ISO)
T cell activation involved in immune response  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
tissue regeneration  (IEA,ISO,ISS)

Cellular Component

Molecular Function

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Midkine is expressed early in rat fetal adrenal development. Dewing P, etal., Mol Genet Metab 2000 Dec;71(4):616-22.
2. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
3. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
4. Midkine and retinoic acid reduce cerebral infarction induced by middle cerebral artery ligation in rats. Harvey BK, etal., Neurosci Lett. 2004 Oct 14;369(2):138-41.
5. Possible implication of midkine in the development of endometriosis. Hirota Y, etal., Hum Reprod. 2005 Apr;20(4):1084-9. Epub 2005 Feb 25.
6. Neointima formation in a restenosis model is suppressed in midkine-deficient mice. Horiba M, etal., J Clin Invest 2000 Feb;105(4):489-95.
7. The growth factor midkine is modulated by both glucocorticoid and retinoid in fetal lung development. Kaplan F, etal., Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2003 Jan;28(1):33-41.
8. Regulation and localization of midkine in rat ovary. Karino S, etal., FEBS Lett. 1995 Apr 3;362(2):147-50.
9. Distinctive expression of midkine in the repair period of rat brain during neurogenesis: immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic observations. Kikuchi-Horie K, etal., J Neurosci Res. 2004 Mar 1;75(5):678-87.
10. Basic FGF and FGF receptor 1 are expressed in microglia during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: temporally distinct expression of midkine and pleiotrophin. Liu X, etal., Glia. 1998 Dec;24(4):390-7.
11. Midkine, a heparin-binding growth factor, is fundamentally involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Maruyama K, etal., Arthritis Rheum. 2004 May;50(5):1420-9.
12. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
13. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
14. Myocardial infarction induces expression of midkine, a heparin-binding growth factor with reparative activity. Obama H, etal., Anticancer Res. 1998 Jan-Feb;18(1A):145-52.
15. Gene expression profile analysis of the rat cortex following treatment with imipramine and citalopram. Palotas M, etal., Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2004 Dec;7(4):401-13. Epub 2004 Jul 26.
16. PID Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import Pathway Interaction Database annotations from NCI into RGD
17. Haptotactic migration induced by midkine. Involvement of protein-tyrosine phosphatase zeta. Mitogen-activated protein kinase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Qi M, etal., J Biol Chem. 2001 May 11;276(19):15868-75.
18. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
19. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
20. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
21. Midkine antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide inhibits renal damage induced by ischemic reperfusion. Sato W, etal., Kidney Int. 2005 Apr;67(4):1330-9.
22. Tentative Sequence Identification Numbers Tentative Sequence Data IDs. TIGR Gene Index, Rat Data
23. Neuronal cell adhesion, mediated by the heparin-binding neuroregulatory factor midkine, is specifically inhibited by chondroitin sulfate E. Structural ans functional implications of the over-sulfated chondroitin sulfate. Ueoka C, etal., J Biol Chem. 2000 Dec 1;275(48):37407-13.
24. Alteration of midkine expression in the ischemic brain of humans. Wada M, etal., J Neurol Sci. 2002 Aug 15;200(1-2):67-73.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:9384573   PMID:9679960   PMID:10096022   PMID:10212223   PMID:12084985   PMID:12477932   PMID:12573468   PMID:15466886   PMID:15482347   PMID:15509530   PMID:15527893   PMID:16619002  
PMID:16901907   PMID:16959957   PMID:16965805   PMID:17015789   PMID:17121547   PMID:17157293   PMID:17230638   PMID:17368428   PMID:18365878   PMID:18469519   PMID:19060126   PMID:19698107  
PMID:19910685   PMID:20200993   PMID:20346117   PMID:21069354   PMID:21185956   PMID:22206666   PMID:22323540   PMID:24458438   PMID:25108770   PMID:25519047   PMID:25551381   PMID:27445335  
PMID:28183532   PMID:28392548   PMID:29233575   PMID:31972179   PMID:36731809  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr8398,356,789 - 98,358,960 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.2377,901,134 - 77,903,997 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl377,901,158 - 77,903,130 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx381,376,607 - 81,377,964 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0389,975,637 - 89,976,994 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0387,826,859 - 87,828,216 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0380,841,003 - 80,843,895 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl380,841,005 - 80,842,916 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0387,539,671 - 87,542,415 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4376,309,988 - 76,311,345 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1376,206,095 - 76,208,044 (-)NCBI
Celera377,104,074 - 77,105,431 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map3q24NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh381146,380,784 - 46,383,837 (+)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl1146,380,756 - 46,383,837 (+)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh371146,402,334 - 46,405,387 (+)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 361146,359,194 - 46,361,951 (+)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 341146,359,794 - 46,361,950NCBI
Celera1146,550,196 - 46,552,952 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map11p11.2NCBI
HuRef1146,109,292 - 46,112,345 (+)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_11146,400,770 - 46,403,840 (+)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.01146,536,860 - 46,539,912 (+)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm39291,760,149 - 91,762,348 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl291,760,150 - 91,762,642 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm38291,929,805 - 91,932,297 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl291,929,805 - 91,932,297 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv37291,769,978 - 91,772,439 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv36291,730,660 - 91,733,121 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera293,320,223 - 93,322,680 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map2E1NCBI
cM Map250.63NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_0049554221,655,358 - 1,657,044 (-)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_0049554221,655,351 - 1,657,026 (-)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1-v2948,593,687 - 48,596,920 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1-v2
NHGRI_mPanPan11148,600,717 - 48,603,778 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v01146,339,365 - 46,342,388 (+)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.11146,890,151 - 46,893,318 (+)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl1146,891,540 - 46,893,254 (+)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.1955,100,491 - 55,101,081 (+)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha954,295,784 - 54,296,356 (+)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.0956,022,875 - 56,023,626 (+)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl956,022,875 - 56,023,306 (+)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.1954,782,276 - 54,783,027 (+)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.0955,096,747 - 55,097,319 (+)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.0955,188,655 - 55,189,227 (+)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440494720,576,217 - 20,578,924 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049365622,687,825 - 2,689,484 (-)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_0049365622,687,825 - 2,690,292 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl216,130,788 - 16,133,510 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.1216,130,787 - 16,133,791 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.2217,476,834 - 17,479,834 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.1118,945,355 - 18,948,394 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl118,946,378 - 18,947,134 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_023666038116,230,790 - 116,233,817 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_0046247672,171,096 - 2,173,512 (-)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_0046247672,171,096 - 2,173,436 (-)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Mdk
6 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:50
Count of miRNA genes:46
Interacting mature miRNAs:48
Prediction methods:Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
2290452Scl56Serum cholesterol level QTL 562.26blood cholesterol amount (VT:0000180)plasma total cholesterol level (CMO:0000585)3191609953Rat
1358905Hrtrt17Heart rate QTL 175.90.000014heart pumping trait (VT:2000009)heart rate (CMO:0000002)31086191289878372Rat
1358885Bp251Blood pressure QTL 2513.8arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)314489145121056321Rat
1358888Bp264Blood pressure QTL 2644.43arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)314489145121056321Rat
737818Hcar12Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 122.6liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)volume of individual liver tumorous lesion (CMO:0001078)329463235118376539Rat
61419Cia11Collagen induced arthritis QTL 115.6joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)33035677398535386Rat
70216Cm14Cardiac mass QTL 142.1heart mass (VT:0007028)heart wet weight (CMO:0000069)331172320163586636Rat
1354589Bw31Body weight QTL 313.3body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)33370334778196190Rat
1354604Bw36Body weight QTL 362.9body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)333703347104104347Rat
1358362Srcrt2Stress Responsive Cort QTL 22.78blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)338192233133483320Rat
738019Anxrr10Anxiety related response QTL 103.9exploratory behavior trait (VT:0010471)number of entries into a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000960)33851780383517803Rat
1331777Bw24Body weight QTL 243.503body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)33945463789115240Rat
1331795Rf30Renal function QTL 303.708urine potassium amount (VT:0010539)urine potassium level (CMO:0000128)33945463789115240Rat
1354597Kidm13Kidney mass QTL 132.9kidney mass (VT:0002707)right kidney wet weight (CMO:0000082)341874578104104347Rat
2301970Bw81Body weight QTL 815.19body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)341874578155617519Rat
2301971Cm71Cardiac mass QTL 714.63heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle weight (CMO:0000776)341874578155617519Rat
1300178Hrtrt4Heart rate QTL 43.74heart pumping trait (VT:2000009)heart rate (CMO:0000002)34382736490905114Rat
1581503Cm58Cardiac mass QTL 582.70.05heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000530)343827364121056321Rat
1559282Emca5Estrogen-induced mammary cancer QTL 53.9mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)percentage of study population developing mammary tumors during a period of time (CMO:0000948)343827364169034231Rat
2292591Esta4Estrogen-induced thymic atrophy QTL 4thymus mass (VT:0004954)thymus wet weight (CMO:0000855)347233211147415807Rat
1358186Ept2Estrogen-induced pituitary tumorigenesis QTL 28.3pituitary gland mass (VT:0010496)pituitary gland wet weight (CMO:0000853)347233430110362260Rat
2292613Ept16Estrogen-induced pituitary tumorigenesis QTL 168.3pituitary gland mass (VT:0010496)pituitary gland wet weight (CMO:0000853)347233430110362260Rat
631665Bw8Body weight QTL 85.5body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)350437042119183768Rat
724523Tsu1Thymus enlargement suppressive QTL 13.84thymus mass (VT:0004954)thymus weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000612)350437504115638231Rat
1582218Bw74Body weight QTL 743.90.0021body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)353184593115665732Rat
1582238Bw68Body weight QTL 683.20.0064body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)353184593115665732Rat
1582239Epfw1Epididymal fat weight QTL 14.50.0006epididymal fat pad mass (VT:0010421)epididymal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000658)353184593115665732Rat
61377Edpm3Estrogen-dependent pituitary mass QTL 37.050.038pituitary gland mass (VT:0010496)pituitary gland wet weight (CMO:0000853)35318469289878207Rat
731180Bp152Blood pressure QTL 1520.03arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)35378111291609953Rat
731180Bp152Blood pressure QTL 1520.03arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)35378111291609953Rat
731180Bp152Blood pressure QTL 1520.03arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)35378111291609953Rat
1581568Rf53Renal function QTL 53urine total protein amount (VT:0000032)urine protein excretion rate to body weight ratio (CMO:0001099)356395968161299569Rat
8662816Vetf4Vascular elastic tissue fragility QTL 44renal artery integrity trait (VT:0010642)number of ruptures of the internal elastic lamina of the renal arteries (CMO:0002563)359242096157323038Rat
1300111Rf12Renal function QTL 123.78renal blood flow trait (VT:2000006)absolute change in renal blood flow rate (CMO:0001168)361017749121056321Rat
631200Cm25Cardiac mass QTL 254.80.0001heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle wet weight (CMO:0000071)36113434889115068Rat
1582210Bw71Body weight QTL 713.30.0012body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)364655305115665732Rat
1582221Kidm30Kidney mass QTL 303.50.0008kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight (CMO:0000085)364655305115665732Rat
12879848Bw181Body weght QTL 1810.015body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)370348525121056321Rat
2301414Kidm37Kidney mass QTL 370.001kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)370653097121056321Rat
1600376Arunc5Aerobic running capacity QTL 50.21exercise endurance trait (VT:0002332)maximum distance run on treadmill (CMO:0001406)373376539118376539Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2377,904,240 - 77,904,422 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0380,844,088 - 80,844,269NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0387,542,756 - 87,542,937UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4376,312,804 - 76,312,985UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera377,106,890 - 77,107,071UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map3q24UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2377,902,434 - 77,902,518 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0380,842,282 - 80,842,365NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0387,540,950 - 87,541,033UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4376,310,998 - 76,311,081UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera377,105,084 - 77,105,167UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map3q24UniSTS


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
High 4 2 2 2 6 10 13
Medium 2 26 24 16 10 16 1 1 68 22 21 11 1
Low 1 13 31 23 9 23 7 10 3 7 7
Below cutoff


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000033978   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000036207
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl377,901,158 - 77,903,130 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl380,841,005 - 80,842,916 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_001413214   ⟹   NP_001400143
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr8398,356,789 - 98,358,743 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.2377,901,134 - 77,903,088 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_030859   ⟹   NP_110486
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr8398,356,789 - 98,358,743 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.2377,901,134 - 77,903,088 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.0380,841,272 - 80,842,629 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.0387,539,671 - 87,542,415 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.4376,309,988 - 76,311,345 (-)RGD
Celera377,104,074 - 77,105,431 (-)RGD
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_006234593   ⟹   XP_006234655
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr8398,356,806 - 98,358,960 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.2377,901,156 - 77,903,997 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.0380,841,003 - 80,843,895 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.0387,539,671 - 87,542,415 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_063284611   ⟹   XP_063140681
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr8398,356,806 - 98,358,830 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_110486   ⟸   NM_030859
- Peptide Label: precursor
- UniProtKB: Q9R1S9 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A9UMV0 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8L2QJL0 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_006234655   ⟸   XM_006234593
- Peptide Label: isoform X2
- UniProtKB: Q9R1S9 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A9UMV0 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8L2QJL0 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000036207   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000033978
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_001400143   ⟸   NM_001413214
- Peptide Label: precursor
- UniProtKB: Q9R1S9 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A9UMV0 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8L2QJL0 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_063140681   ⟸   XM_063284611
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-Q9R1S9-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold Q9R1S9 1-140 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13692220
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R2744
Type:initiation region
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.0380,842,957 - 80,843,017EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:69073 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-48717 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000017560 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000033978 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000033978.4 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Gene3D-CATH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro Midkine_heparin-bd_GF UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTN/MK_C_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTN/MK_C_dom_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTN/MK_diS_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTN/MK_N_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTN/MK_N_dom_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTN_MK_heparin-bd_GF_CS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:81517 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTHR13850 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam PTN_MK_C UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTN_MK_N UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Mdk PhenoGen
PROSITE PTN_MK_1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTN_MK_2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000017560 RatGTEx
SMART PTN UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Superfamily-SCOP SSF57288 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
TIGR TC217397

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2002-06-10 Mdk  midkine      Symbol and Name status set to approved 70586 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_disease candidate gene for adrenal hypoplasia congenita 62414
gene_expression expression highest at day 13 and 14 followed by moderate decrease of expression during subsequent fetal stages 62414
gene_function heparin-binding growth factor 1299187
gene_process involved in regulation of growth and differentiation 62414
gene_process responsible for fetal adrenal gland development 62414
gene_process involved in neurotrophic and chemotactic activities 1299187
gene_process may mediate leukocyte recruitment 1299187