Penk (proenkephalin) - Rat Genome Database

Send us a Message

Submit Data |  Help |  Video Tutorials |  News |  Publications |  Download |  REST API |  Citing RGD |  Contact   
Gene: Penk (proenkephalin) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Penk
Name: proenkephalin
RGD ID: 68946
Description: Predicted to enable opioid peptide activity and opioid receptor binding activity. Involved in several processes, including cellular response to organic cyclic compound; general adaptation syndrome, behavioral process; and locomotory exploration behavior. Located in several cellular components, including cell body fiber; perikaryon; and symmetric synapse. Is active in neuronal dense core vesicle lumen and synaptic vesicle lumen. Used to study heroin dependence. Biomarker of Parkinson's disease; alcohol use disorder; dystonia; and spinal disease. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in overactive bladder syndrome. Orthologous to human PENK (proenkephalin); INTERACTS WITH (S)-amphetamine; 1-naphthyl isothiocyanate; 17alpha-ethynylestradiol.
Type: protein-coding
Previously known as: Enk; enkephalin; MGC93514; Penk-rs; Penk1; Penk2; preproenkephalin 2; preproenkephalin, related sequence; proenkephalin 1; proenkephalin 2; proenkephalin related sequence; proenkephalin, related sequence; proenkephalin-A
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.2517,183,799 - 17,189,160 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl517,183,806 - 17,189,129 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx519,402,516 - 19,407,452 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0521,001,023 - 21,005,959 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0520,754,402 - 20,759,344 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0517,056,412 - 17,061,762 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl517,056,419 - 17,061,837 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0521,834,409 - 21,839,759 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4517,509,323 - 17,514,265 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1517,516,079 - 17,517,452 (-)NCBI
Celera516,529,164 - 16,534,106 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map5q12NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(S)-amphetamine  (EXP)
(S)-nicotine  (ISO)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
1-naphthyl isothiocyanate  (EXP)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP,ISO)
2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (ISO)
2,4-D  (ISO)
2,4-dibromophenyl 2,4,5-tribromophenyl ether  (ISO)
2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine  (EXP)
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine  (EXP)
3,7-dihydropurine-6-thione  (EXP)
3-nitropropanoic acid  (EXP)
3alpha-hydroxy-5beta-pregnan-20-one  (EXP)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (ISO)
4-hydroxynon-2-enal  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
7,12-dimethyltetraphene  (EXP)
aconitine  (EXP)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (ISO)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
amphetamine  (EXP,ISO)
apomorphine  (EXP)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
atrazine  (EXP)
baclofen  (EXP)
benzo[a]pyrene  (EXP,ISO)
bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol F  (ISO)
butan-1-ol  (EXP)
cadmium atom  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (EXP)
cannabidiol  (EXP)
carbamazepine  (ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (EXP)
clozapine  (EXP)
cocaine  (EXP,ISO)
copper atom  (EXP)
copper(0)  (EXP)
corticosterone  (EXP)
Cuprizon  (EXP)
D-glucose  (ISO)
diazepam  (EXP)
dibutyl phthalate  (EXP)
dieldrin  (EXP)
diethylstilbestrol  (EXP)
dizocilpine maleate  (EXP)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
ethanol  (ISO)
finasteride  (EXP)
fluoxetine  (EXP)
flurbiprofen  (ISO)
folic acid  (ISO)
fomepizole  (ISO)
fonofos  (ISO)
formaldehyde  (EXP)
fructose  (ISO)
furan  (EXP)
glucose  (ISO)
haloperidol  (EXP,ISO)
Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene  (ISO)
isoprenaline  (EXP)
Isradipine  (EXP)
istradefylline  (EXP)
kainic acid  (EXP)
medroxyprogesterone acetate  (ISO)
memantine  (EXP)
mercaptopurine  (EXP)
metformin  (EXP)
methamphetamine  (EXP)
Methanandamide  (EXP)
methylmercury chloride  (ISO)
metoprolol  (EXP)
morphine  (EXP,ISO)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (ISO)
nickel atom  (EXP)
nicotine  (ISO)
oxaliplatin  (EXP)
oxidopamine  (EXP,ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP)
paraquat  (EXP)
parathion  (ISO)
PCB138  (ISO)
pentobarbital  (EXP)
phenformin  (EXP)
phosphatidic acid  (EXP)
progesterone  (ISO)
propranolol  (EXP)
purine-6-thiol  (EXP)
reserpine  (EXP)
resveratrol  (ISO)
rotenone  (EXP,ISO)
SB 431542  (ISO)
scopolamine  (EXP)
serotonin  (EXP)
SL-327  (EXP)
Soman  (EXP)
sulforaphane  (ISO)
tamoxifen  (ISO)
terbufos  (ISO)
testosterone  (ISO)
thioacetamide  (EXP)
thiopental  (EXP)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
topotecan  (EXP)
trichloroethene  (EXP)
trichostatin A  (ISO)
triclosan  (ISO)
U69593  (EXP)
undecane  (EXP)
valproic acid  (EXP,ISO)
vorinostat  (ISO)
zinc atom  (ISO)
zinc(0)  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Cellular Component

Molecular Function


References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Prolonged generalized dystonia after chronic cerebellar application of kainic acid. Alvarez-Fischer D, etal., Brain Res. 2012 Jun 29;1464:82-8. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2012.05.007. Epub 2012 May 15.
2. Enkephalin and dynorphin mRNA expression are associated with resilience or vulnerability to chronic social defeat stress. Berube P, etal., Physiol Behav. 2013 Oct 2;122:237-45. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.04.009. Epub 2013 May 9.
3. Aging, cardiac proenkephalin mRNA and enkephalin peptides in the Fisher 344 rat. Caffrey JL, etal., J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1994 Jun;26(6):701-11.
4. Effect of chronic ethanol on enkephalin in the hypothalamus and extra-hypothalamic areas. Chang GQ, etal., Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010 May;34(5):761-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01148.x. Epub 2010 Feb 24.
5. Common effects of fat, ethanol, and nicotine on enkephalin in discrete areas of the brain. Chang GQ, etal., Neuroscience. 2014 Sep 26;277:665-78. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.07.050. Epub 2014 Jul 30.
6. Increased enkephalin in brain of rats prone to overconsuming a fat-rich diet. Chang GQ, etal., Physiol Behav. 2010 Oct 5;101(3):360-9. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.06.005. Epub 2010 Jul 21.
7. Changes of mRNA expression of enkephalin and prodynorphin in hippocampus of rats with chronic immobilization stress. Chen JX, etal., World J Gastroenterol. 2004 Sep 1;10(17):2547-9. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v10.i17.2547.
8. Co-localization of hypocretin-1 and leucine-enkephalin in hypothalamic neurons projecting to the nucleus of the solitary tract and their effect on arterial pressure. Ciriello J, etal., Neuroscience. 2013 Oct 10;250:599-613. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.07.054. Epub 2013 Jul 30.
9. Gender differences in proenkephalin gene expression response to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the hypothalamus of the rat. Corchero J, etal., J Psychopharmacol. 2002 Dec;16(4):283-9.
10. [Expression and localization of immediate early genes and preproenkephalin gene in central nervous system following electroacupuncture stimulation]. Cui X, Sheng Li Ke Xue Jin Zhan. 1995 Jul;26(3):230-2.
11. Relevance between striatal expression of Fos, proenkephalin mRNA, prodynorphin mRNA and rotation induced by l-stepholidine in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. Ding YM, etal., Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2000 Oct;21(10):885-92.
12. Systemic immune challenge induces preproenkephalin gene transcription in distinct autonomic structures of the rat brain. Engstrom L, etal., J Comp Neurol 2003 Aug 4;462(4):450-61.
13. Maternally administered sustained-release naltrexone in rats affects offspring neurochemistry and behaviour in adulthood. Farid WO, etal., PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e52812. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052812. Epub 2012 Dec 26.
14. Differential effects of rabies and borna disease viruses on immediate-early- and late-response gene expression in brain tissues. Fu ZF, etal., J Virol. 1993 Nov;67(11):6674-81.
15. Hypoxic preconditioning attenuates global cerebral ischemic injury following asphyxial cardiac arrest through regulation of delta opioid receptor system. Gao CJ, etal., Neuroscience. 2012 Jan 27;202:352-62. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.11.060. Epub 2011 Dec 21.
16. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
17. [Affection of acupotomy lysis on leu-enkephalin (L-ENK) content in different parts of centrum of rats with knee osteoarthritis]. Guo CQ, etal., Zhongguo Gu Shang. 2011 Aug;24(8):656-8.
18. Expression of the proenkephalin gene in cultured astroglial cells: analysis of cell cycle dependence. Hildebrand B, etal., Brain Res. 1997 Jun 13;759(2):285-91.
19. Proenkephalin biosynthesis in the rat. Howells RD NIDA Res Monogr 1986;70:43-65.
20. Structures and connections of enkephalin- and gamma-aminobutyric acid-immunoreactive profiles in the gustatory region of the nucleus tractus solitarius: a light and electron microscopic study. Huang W, etal., Neurol Sci. 2011 Feb;32(1):53-8. doi: 10.1007/s10072-010-0387-1. Epub 2010 Aug 5.
21. Neocortical projections regulate the neostriatal proenkephalin gene expression. Just L, etal., Cereb Cortex. 1999 Jun;9(4):332-9.
22. Glial expression of the proenkephalin gene in slice cultures of the subventricular zone. Just L, etal., J Mol Neurosci. 1998 Aug;11(1):57-66.
23. Neurotoxin-induced neuropeptide perturbations in striatum of neonatal rats. Karlsson O, etal., J Proteome Res. 2013 Apr 5;12(4):1678-90. doi: 10.1021/pr3010265. Epub 2013 Mar 5.
24. Transcription of the rat and mouse proenkephalin genes is initiated at distinct sites in spermatogenic and somatic cells. Kilpatrick DL, etal., Mol Cell Biol 1990 Jul;10(7):3717-26.
25. Calcium-permeable AMPA receptors are involved in the induction and expression of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease. Kobylecki C, etal., J Neurochem. 2010 Jul;114(2):499-511. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.06776.x. Epub 2010 Apr 28.
26. The influence of group III metabotropic glutamate receptor stimulation by (1S,3R,4S)-1-aminocyclo-pentane-1,3,4-tricarboxylic acid on the parkinsonian-like akinesia and striatal proenkephalin and prodynorphin mRNA expression in rats. Konieczny J, etal., Neuroscience. 2007 Mar 16;145(2):611-20. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.12.006. Epub 2007 Jan 16.
27. Proenkephalin and prodynorphin mRNA level in brain of rats with absence epilepsy. LasoĊ„ W, etal., Neuropeptides. 1994 Dec;27(6):343-7. doi: 10.1016/0143-4179(94)90060-4.
28. Embryonic ventral mesencephalic grafts improve levodopa-induced dyskinesia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Lee CS, etal., Brain. 2000 Jul;123 ( Pt 7):1365-79. doi: 10.1093/brain/123.7.1365.
29. Mechanism of sorting proopiomelanocortin and proenkephalin to the regulated secretory pathway of neuroendocrine cells. Loh YP, etal., Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002 Oct;971:416-25.
30. From unilateral to bilateral parkinsonism: Effects of lateralization on dyskinesias and associated molecular mechanisms. Marin C, etal., Neuropharmacology. 2015 Oct;97:365-75. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.06.004. Epub 2015 Jun 22.
31. Disturbances in behavior and cortical enkephalin gene expression during the anticipation of ethanol in rats characterized as high drinkers. Morganstern I, etal., Alcohol. 2012 Sep;46(6):559-68. doi: 10.1016/j.alcohol.2012.05.003. Epub 2012 Jun 14.
32. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
33. Molecular characterization of immune derived proenkephalin mRNA and the involvement of the adrenergic system in its expression in rat lymphoid cells. Ovadia H, etal., J Neuroimmunol. 1996 Aug;68(1-2):77-83.
34. Enkephalin knockdown in the central amygdala nucleus reduces unconditioned fear and anxiety. Poulin JF, etal., Eur J Neurosci. 2013 Apr;37(8):1357-67. doi: 10.1111/ejn.12134. Epub 2013 Feb 1.
35. Enkephalin downregulation in the nucleus accumbens underlies chronic stress-induced anhedonia. Poulin JF, etal., Stress. 2014 Jan;17(1):88-96. doi: 10.3109/10253890.2013.850669. Epub 2013 Oct 31.
36. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and translation of proenkephalin mRNA from rat heart. Rao SM and Howells RD, Regul Pept 1992 Aug 13;40(3):397-408.
37. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
38. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
39. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
40. Comprehensive gene review and curation RGD comprehensive gene curation
41. Isolation and characterization of the rat proenkephalin gene. Rosen H, etal., J Biol Chem 1984 Nov 25;259(22):14309-13.
42. Developmental regulation of proenkephalin gene expression in osteoblasts. Rosen H, etal., Mol Endocrinol. 1995 Nov;9(11):1621-31.
43. Oxidative stress induces proorphanin FQ and proenkephalin gene expression in astrocytes through p38- and ERK-MAP kinases and NF-kappaB. Rosenberger J, etal., J Neurochem. 2001 Oct;79(1):35-44.
44. Met-enkephalin inhibits in vitro dopamine-induced LHRH release from mediobasal hypothalamus of male rats. Rotsztejn WH, etal., Nature. 1978 Jul 20;274(5668):281-2.
45. Comparison of synenkephalin and methionine enkephalin immunocytochemistry in rat brain. Song DD, etal., Peptides. 1989 Nov-Dec;10(6):1239-46.
46. Gene-based anchoring of the rat genetic linkage and cytogenetic maps. Szpirer C, etal., Transplant Proc 1999 May;31(3):1541-3
47. Proenkephalin mediates the enduring effects of adolescent cannabis exposure associated with adult opiate vulnerability. Tomasiewicz HC, etal., Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Nov 15;72(10):803-10. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.04.026. Epub 2012 Jun 8.
48. Morphologically heterogeneous met-enkephalin terminals form synapses with tyrosine hydroxylase-containing dendrites in the rat nucleus locus coeruleus. Van Bockstaele EJ, etal., J Comp Neurol. 1995 Dec 18;363(3):423-38. doi: 10.1002/cne.903630307.
49. Comparative effectiveness of antinociceptive gene therapies in animal models of diabetic neuropathic pain. Wang Y, etal., Gene Ther. 2013 Jul;20(7):742-50. doi: 10.1038/gt.2012.90. Epub 2012 Dec 13.
50. HPLC/MS/MS for quantification of two types of neurotransmitters in rat brain and application: myocardial ischemia and protection of Sheng-Mai-San. Xu N, etal., J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2011 Apr 28;55(1):101-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2010.12.015. Epub 2010 Dec 21.
51. Effects of herpes simplex virus vector-mediated enkephalin gene therapy on bladder overactivity and nociception. Yokoyama H, etal., Hum Gene Ther. 2013 Feb;24(2):170-80. doi: 10.1089/hum.2011.180. Epub 2013 Feb 14.
52. A new species of enkephalin precursor mRNA with a distinct 5'-untranslated region in haploid germ cells. Yoshikawa K, etal., FEBS Lett 1989 Mar 27;246(1-2):193-6.
53. Rat brain preproenkephalin mRNA. cDNA cloning, primary structure, and distribution in the central nervous system. Yoshikawa K, etal., J Biol Chem 1984 Nov 25;259(22):14301-8.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:6594709   PMID:8408077   PMID:8849726   PMID:11172058   PMID:12477932   PMID:12895518   PMID:14739357   PMID:15489334   PMID:15952166   PMID:18227978   PMID:19500224   PMID:20692550  
PMID:21125428   PMID:21171319   PMID:22725682   PMID:23000149   PMID:23012479   PMID:27072528   PMID:28423013   PMID:29169417   PMID:32184167  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.2517,183,799 - 17,189,160 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl517,183,806 - 17,189,129 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx519,402,516 - 19,407,452 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0521,001,023 - 21,005,959 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0520,754,402 - 20,759,344 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0517,056,412 - 17,061,762 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl517,056,419 - 17,061,837 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0521,834,409 - 21,839,759 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4517,509,323 - 17,514,265 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1517,516,079 - 17,517,452 (-)NCBI
Celera516,529,164 - 16,534,106 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map5q12NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38856,440,957 - 56,446,641 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl856,436,674 - 56,446,671 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37857,353,516 - 57,359,200 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36857,516,070 - 57,521,143 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 34857,516,069 - 57,521,143NCBI
Celera853,344,310 - 53,350,077 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map8q12.1NCBI
HuRef852,820,608 - 52,826,373 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1857,405,395 - 57,411,158 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.0856,818,203 - 56,823,883 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm3944,133,536 - 4,138,815 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl44,133,531 - 4,138,819 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm3844,133,536 - 4,138,815 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl44,133,531 - 4,138,819 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv3744,060,683 - 4,065,592 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv3644,060,683 - 4,065,592 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera44,092,742 - 4,097,651 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map4A1NCBI
cM Map42.31NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_00495545415,426,017 - 15,426,685 (-)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_00495545415,425,712 - 15,426,685 (-)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1847,800,250 - 47,806,064 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v0852,864,388 - 52,870,144 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.1850,234,170 - 50,239,949 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl850,234,170 - 50,239,949 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.1297,757,543 - 7,763,137 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl297,757,857 - 7,762,398 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha298,069,914 - 8,075,462 (-)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.0297,832,106 - 7,837,657 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
UMICH_Zoey_3.1297,844,842 - 7,850,120 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.0297,975,639 - 7,980,923 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.0298,254,882 - 8,260,429 (-)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440530371,763,745 - 71,769,230 (+)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049364963,016,218 - 3,021,738 (-)EnsemblSpeTri2.0
SpeTri2.0NW_0049364963,016,247 - 3,021,726 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl475,525,555 - 75,530,876 (+)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.1475,525,497 - 75,530,403 (+)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.2482,444,889 - 82,449,745 (+)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.1852,458,113 - 52,463,933 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl852,457,904 - 52,463,859 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_02366603989,329,730 - 89,335,563 (+)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_0046248863,595,450 - 3,613,593 (+)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_0046248863,595,485 - 3,613,117 (+)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Penk
28 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:270
Count of miRNA genes:184
Interacting mature miRNAs:211
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
1331756Rf34Renal function QTL 344.16275kidney blood vessel physiology trait (VT:0100012)absolute change in renal blood flow rate (CMO:0001168)5190450412Rat
70212Niddm25Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 253.54blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)51131345958Rat
1331771Rf35Renal function QTL 354.36965kidney blood vessel physiology trait (VT:0100012)absolute change in renal blood flow rate (CMO:0001168)572947086724018Rat
2312562Pur18Proteinuria QTL 182.60.001urine total protein amount (VT:0000032)urine total protein excretion rate (CMO:0000756)5213896532656739Rat
1576314Eutr1Estrogen induced uterine response QTL 1uterus integrity trait (VT:0010575)pyometritis severity score (CMO:0002009)52138965166875058Rat
8662454Vetf3Vascular elastic tissue fragility QTL 327.4artery integrity trait (VT:0010639)number of ruptures of the internal elastic lamina of the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries (CMO:0002562)5228222669540447Rat
2313085Bss59Bone structure and strength QTL 592.90.0001long bone metaphysis morphology trait (VT:0000133)tibia midshaft total cross-sectional area (CMO:0001715)5384401826141981Rat
1300117Hrtrt8Heart rate QTL 83.49heart pumping trait (VT:2000009)heart rate (CMO:0000002)5384401847869213Rat
61462Niddm10Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 103.90.001blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)plasma glucose level (CMO:0000042)5511215947171491Rat
631827Alc4Alcohol consumption QTL 43.5consumption behavior trait (VT:0002069)ethanol drink intake rate (CMO:0001407)5818750118616199Rat
2293666Bmd38Bone mineral density QTL 384.4femur size trait (VT:1000369)femoral neck cortical cross-sectional area (CMO:0001702)5894822853948228Rat
7394712Emca13Estrogen-induced mammary cancer QTL 13mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)mammary tumor number (CMO:0000343)5982326699753708Rat
1641903Alcrsp3Alcohol response QTL 3response to alcohol trait (VT:0010489)duration of loss of righting reflex (CMO:0002289)51268928557689285Rat
634305Mamtr1Mammary tumor resistance QTL 10.0001mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)mammary tumor number (CMO:0000343)512789751113558310Rat


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 39 2 2 2 52 2 25
Low 3 4 26 10 13 10 6 6 22 26 16 10 6
Below cutoff 28 28 6 28 2 5 7 1 2


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000011892   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000011892
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl517,183,806 - 17,189,129 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl517,056,448 - 17,061,837 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000089318   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000074581
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl517,056,419 - 17,061,361 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_017139   ⟹   NP_058835
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2517,183,806 - 17,188,748 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.0517,056,419 - 17,061,361 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.0521,834,409 - 21,839,759 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.4517,509,323 - 17,514,265 (-)RGD
Celera516,529,164 - 16,534,106 (-)RGD
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_006237835   ⟹   XP_006237897
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2517,183,799 - 17,189,160 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.0517,056,412 - 17,061,762 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.0521,834,409 - 21,839,759 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_058835   ⟸   NM_017139
- Peptide Label: precursor
- UniProtKB: P04094 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   Q53X05 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6JFM8 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_006237897   ⟸   XM_006237835
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: Q53X05 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P04094 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6JFM8 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000011892   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000011892
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000074581   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000089318

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P04094-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P04094 1-269 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13693550
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R4075
Type:single initiation site
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Alternative Promoters:null; see alsoEPDNEW_R4076  
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.0517,061,378 - 17,061,438EPDNEW
RGD ID:13693556
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R4076
Type:multiple initiation site
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Alternative Promoters:null; see alsoEPDNEW_R4075  
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.0517,061,738 - 17,061,798EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:68946 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-42108 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000008943 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000011892 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
InterPro Opioid_neupept UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Proenkphlin_A UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:29237 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  PTHR11438 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  PTHR11438:SF3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Pfam Opiods_neuropep UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Penk PhenoGen
  PENKAPRCRSR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000008943 RatGTEx
  P04094 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
UniProt Secondary Q53X05 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2009-11-06 Penk  proenkephalin  Penk1  proenkephalin 1  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2006-03-01 Penk1  proenkephalin 1  Penk-rs  preproenkephalin, related sequence  Data merged from RGD:3299 737654 APPROVED
2003-04-09 Penk1  proenkephalin 1      Symbol and Name updated 629477 APPROVED
2003-03-06 Penk1  proenkephalin 1  Penk  Proenkephalin  Data merged from RGD:3298 628472 PROVISIONAL
2002-06-10 Penk  Proenkephalin      Name updated 70585 PROVISIONAL
2002-06-10 Penk-rs  preproenkephalin, related sequence      Name updated 70584 APPROVED
2002-06-10 Penk1  preproenkephalin 1      Name updated 70586 APPROVED
2001-12-10 Penk-rs  proenkephalin, related sequence      Symbol and Name updated to reflect Human and Mouse nomenclature 69665 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_cellular_localization localizes to dense-core granules of the regulated secretory pathway 1299170
gene_domains n-terminal domain contains 6 conserved cysteines thought to be involved in disulfide bonding and/or processing 61511
gene_expression expressed in bone, brain, breast, foreskin, germ cell, kidney, prostate, whole embryo, head-neck, lung, ovary, and testis 61511
gene_function precursor of the opiate neuropeptides M-enkephalin and L-enkephalin 61511
gene_physical_interaction binds to carboxypeptidase E (CPE)to effect its sorting in the regulated secretory pathway 1299170
gene_process plays a role in pain perception and responses to stress 61511
gene_process plays a role in a number of physiologic functions, including pain perception and responses to stress 61511
gene_product member of the opioids neuropeptides precursors family 61511
gene_protein 269 amino acids; 30.9 kDa 633675