Ghrl (ghrelin and obestatin prepropeptide) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Ghrl (ghrelin and obestatin prepropeptide) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Ghrl
Name: ghrelin and obestatin prepropeptide
RGD ID: 632283
Description: Enables ghrelin receptor binding activity and growth hormone-releasing hormone activity. Involved in several processes, including negative regulation of cytokine production; positive regulation of peptide hormone secretion; and regulation of digestive system process. Acts upstream of or within negative regulation of insulin secretion. Is active in Schaffer collateral - CA1 synapse and glutamatergic synapse. Used to study middle cerebral artery infarction. Biomarker of multiple endocrine neoplasia and obstructive sleep apnea. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in diabetic neuropathy; esophagus adenocarcinoma; morbid obesity; obesity; and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Orthologous to human GHRL (ghrelin and obestatin prepropeptide); PARTICIPATES IN ghrelin system pathway; INTERACTS WITH 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran; 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine; 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: appetite-regulating hormone; ghrelin; ghrelin precursor; ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide; growth hormone secretagogue; growth hormone-releasing peptide; LOC59301; motilin-related peptide
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Orthologs
More Info more info ...
Candidate Gene For: Ept5
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr84148,421,315 - 148,431,128 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.24146,865,712 - 146,869,621 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl4146,865,712 - 146,869,621 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx4152,250,366 - 152,254,274 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.04148,031,237 - 148,035,145 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.04146,659,480 - 146,663,373 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.04145,674,157 - 145,678,066 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl4145,674,157 - 145,678,066 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.04208,969,963 - 208,976,778 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.44149,622,566 - 149,628,111 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.14149,867,406 - 149,872,952 (-)NCBI
Celera4135,420,041 - 135,423,946 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map4q42NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(-)-anisomycin  (ISO)
2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran  (EXP)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine  (EXP)
3,7-dihydropurine-6-thione  (EXP)
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine  (ISO)
4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane  (ISO)
6-chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxamide  (ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (ISO)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
arsane  (ISO)
arsenic atom  (ISO)
atropine  (EXP)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
capsaicin  (EXP,ISO)
capsazepine  (ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
chloroprene  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (EXP,ISO)
chromium(6+)  (ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (EXP)
copper atom  (EXP)
copper(0)  (EXP)
cysteamine  (EXP)
D-glucose  (ISO)
dexamethasone  (ISO)
dexloxiglumide  (ISO)
dextran sulfate  (ISO)
dopamine  (EXP)
doxorubicin  (EXP)
famotidine  (EXP)
flavonoids  (EXP)
fructose  (EXP)
fulvestrant  (ISO)
furan  (EXP)
glucose  (ISO)
histamine  (EXP)
homoeriodictyol  (ISO)
indometacin  (EXP)
isoprenaline  (EXP)
lipopolysaccharide  (EXP)
malonaldehyde  (EXP)
mercaptopurine  (EXP)
metformin  (ISO)
methylmercury chloride  (ISO)
monosodium L-glutamate  (EXP)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (EXP)
olanzapine  (ISO)
oleanolic acid  (ISO)
orlistat  (ISO)
ozone  (ISO)
paraquat  (ISO)
pentobarbital  (EXP)
pirinixic acid  (ISO)
prostaglandin E2  (EXP)
prostaglandins E  (ISO)
prostaglandins F  (ISO)
purine-6-thiol  (EXP)
resveratrol  (ISO)
rotenone  (EXP)
ruthenium red  (ISO)
serotonin  (EXP)
sodium arsenite  (ISO)
sodium disulfite  (EXP)
Sodium oleate  (ISO)
streptozocin  (EXP)
testosterone  (EXP)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
triphenyl phosphate  (ISO)
tropan-3alpha-yl 3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoate  (EXP)
uranium atom  (EXP,ISO)
zinc atom  (EXP)
zinc(0)  (EXP)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
actin polymerization or depolymerization  (ISO,ISS)
adult feeding behavior  (ISO,ISS)
decidualization  (ISO,ISS)
dendrite development  (ISO)
excitatory postsynaptic potential  (ISO)
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  (IDA)
gastric acid secretion  (IBA,IDA)
negative regulation of apoptotic process  (IDA,ISO,ISS)
negative regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, REM sleep  (ISO)
negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation  (ISO,ISS)
negative regulation of inflammatory response  (IBA,ISO,ISS)
negative regulation of insulin secretion  (IDA,ISO)
negative regulation of interleukin-1 beta production  (IDA,ISO,ISS)
negative regulation of interleukin-6 production  (ISO,ISS)
negative regulation of locomotion  (ISO)
negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production  (IDA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of adipose tissue development  (IDA)
positive regulation of appetite  (IMP,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of bone development  (IDA)
positive regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, non-REM sleep  (ISO)
positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis  (ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of corticotropin secretion  (ISO)
positive regulation of cortisol secretion  (ISO)
positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration  (IDA)
positive regulation of eating behavior  (IDA)
positive regulation of feeding behavior  (IDA)
positive regulation of gastric mucosal blood circulation  (IDA)
positive regulation of gastro-intestinal system smooth muscle contraction  (IDA)
positive regulation of growth  (IDA)
positive regulation of growth hormone secretion  (IBA,IDA,ISO)
positive regulation of growth rate  (IDA)
positive regulation of insulin secretion  (IDA,IEA)
positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus  (IDA)
positive regulation of MAPK cascade  (ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of response to food  (IDA)
positive regulation of small intestinal transit  (IDA)
positive regulation of small intestine smooth muscle contraction  (IDA)
positive regulation of sprouting angiogenesis  (IDA)
positive regulation of synapse assembly  (ISO)
positive regulation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation  (IDA)
postsynaptic modulation of chemical synaptic transmission  (IDA,IMP)
regulation of cell population proliferation  (ISO,ISS)
regulation of gastric motility  (IDA)
regulation of postsynapse organization  (IDA,IMP)
regulation of response to food  (IBA,IDA,IEA)
regulation of transmission of nerve impulse  (IDA)
response to electrical stimulus  (IEP)
response to estrogen  (ISO,ISS)
response to hormone  (ISO,ISS)
response to nutrient levels  (IEP)
signal transduction  (IEA)
synapse assembly  (ISO)

Cellular Component

Molecular Function

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor are expressed in the rat adrenal cortex: Evidence that ghrelin stimulates the growth, but not the secretory activity of adrenal cells. Andreis PG, etal., FEBS Lett 2003 Feb 11;536(1-3):173-9.
2. Ghrelin and other appetite-regulating hormones in paediatric patients with chronic renal failure during dialysis and following kidney transplantation. Arbeiter AK, etal., Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009 Feb;24(2):643-6. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfn529. Epub 2008 Sep 22.
3. Delayed short-term secretory regulation of ghrelin in obese animals: evidenced by a specific RIA for the active form of ghrelin. Ariyasu H, etal., Endocrinology 2002 Sep;143(9):3341-50.
4. Ghrelin and leptin pulse discharge in fed and fasted rats. Bagnasco M, etal., Endocrinology 2002 Feb;143(2):726-9.
5. Ghrelin promotes reorganization of dendritic spines in cultured rat hippocampal slices. Berrout L and Isokawa M, Neurosci Lett. 2012 May 16;516(2):280-4. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.04.009. Epub 2012 Apr 10.
6. The Leu72Met polymorphism of the ghrelin gene is associated with a decreased risk for type 2 diabetes. Berthold HK, etal., Clin Chim Acta. 2009 Jan;399(1-2):112-6. Epub 2008 Sep 25.
7. Role of ghrelin in the regulation of gastric acid secretion involving nitrergic mechanisms in rats. Bilgin HM, etal., Physiol Res. 2008;57(4):563-8. Epub 2007 Jul 26.
8. Maintenance of a normal meal-induced decrease in plasma ghrelin levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome. Bizzarri C, etal., Horm Metab Res. 2004 Mar;36(3):164-9.
9. Involvement of PKA and ERK pathways in ghrelin-induced long-lasting potentiation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the CA1 area of rat hippocampus. Cavalier M, etal., Eur J Neurosci. 2015 Oct;42(8):2568-76. doi: 10.1111/ejn.13013. Epub 2015 Jul 29.
10. Ghrelin attenuates the inhibitory effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY(3-36) on food intake and gastric emptying in rats. Chelikani PK, etal., Diabetes. 2006 Nov;55(11):3038-46.
11. The role of ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogues receptor on rat adipogenesis. Choi K, etal., Endocrinology 2003 Mar;144(3):754-9.
12. Low serum acylated ghrelin levels are associated with the development of cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients. Chou CC, etal., Intern Med. 2010;49(19):2057-64. Epub 2010 Oct 1.
13. Ghrelin is present in pancreatic alpha-cells of humans and rats and stimulates insulin secretion. Date Y, etal., Diabetes. 2002 Jan;51(1):124-9.
14. Comparison of the gastroprokinetic effects of ghrelin, GHRP-6 and motilin in rats in vivo and in vitro. Depoortere I, etal., Eur J Pharmacol. 2005 May 16;515(1-3):160-8.
15. Blockade of pancreatic islet-derived ghrelin enhances insulin secretion to prevent high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance. Dezaki K, etal., Diabetes. 2006 Dec;55(12):3486-93.
16. Hyperphagic effects of brainstem ghrelin administration. Faulconbridge LF, etal., Diabetes 2003 Sep;52(9):2260-5.
17. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
18. Unacylated ghrelin is active on the INS-1E rat insulinoma cell line independently of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a and the corticotropin releasing factor 2 receptor. Gauna C, etal., Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006 Jun 7;251(1-2):103-11. Epub 2006 Apr 27.
19. Effects of ghrelin on gastric distension sensitive neurons and gastric motility in the lateral septum and arcuate nucleus regulation. Gong Y, etal., J Gastroenterol. 2014 Feb;49(2):219-30. doi: 10.1007/s00535-013-0789-y. Epub 2013 Mar 26.
20. Purification and characterization of rat des-Gln14-Ghrelin, a second endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Hosoda H, etal., J Biol Chem 2000 Jul 21;275(29):21995-2000.
21. Ghrelin restores 'lean-type' hunger and energy expenditure profiles in morbidly obese subjects but has no effect on postgastrectomy subjects. Huda MS, etal., Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Mar;33(3):317-25. Epub 2009 Feb 3.
22. Neuroprotective effect of ghrelin is associated with decreased expression of prostate apoptosis response-4. Hwang S, etal., Endocr J. 2009;56(4):609-17. Epub 2009 Apr 7.
23. Role of ghrelin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic hyperphagia. Ishii S, etal., Endocrinology 2002 Dec;143(12):4934-7.
24. Ghrelin plasma levels in patients with idiopathic short stature. IƱiguez G, etal., Horm Res Paediatr. 2011 Feb;75(2):94-100. doi: 10.1159/000317429. Epub 2010 Sep 23.
25. Anti-ghrelin Spiegelmer NOX-B11 inhibits neurostimulatory and orexigenic effects of peripheral ghrelin in rats. Kobelt P, etal., Gut. 2006 Jun;55(6):788-92. Epub 2005 Jun 30.
26. Ghrelin directly interacts with neuropeptide-Y-containing neurons in the rat arcuate nucleus: Ca2+ signaling via protein kinase A and N-type channel-dependent mechanisms and cross-talk with leptin and orexin. Kohno D, etal., Diabetes 2003 Apr;52(4):948-56.
27. Ghrelin: structure and function. Kojima M and Kangawa K, Physiol Rev. 2005 Apr;85(2):495-522.
28. Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach. Kojima M, etal., Nature 1999 Dec 9;402(6762):656-60.
29. Comparison of maternal ghrelin and leptin in healthy mothers and mothers with Type 1 diabetes. Kos K, etal., Diabet Med. 2008 Dec;25(12):1400-5.
30. Ghrelin reverses experimental diabetic neuropathy in mice. Kyoraku I, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Nov 20;389(3):405-8. Epub 2009 Sep 3.
31. Fasting serum total ghrelin level inversely correlates with metabolic syndrome in hemodialysis patients. Lee CC, etal., Arch Med Res. 2008 Nov;39(8):785-90.
32. Fasting serum ghrelin level is associated with metabolic syndrome in peritoneal dialysis patients. Lee CJ, etal., Perit Dial Int. 2008 Jun;28 Suppl 3:S196-200.
33. Cardioprotective effects of ghrelin and des-octanoyl ghrelin on myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol in rats. Li L, etal., Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2006 May;27(5):527-35.
34. Genetic association analysis of 30 genes related to obesity in a European American population. Li P, etal., Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 May;38(5):724-9. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2013.140. Epub 2013 Jul 31.
35. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
36. Ghrelin augments afferent response to distension in rat isolated jejunum. Murray CD, etal., Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2006 Dec;18(12):1112-20.
37. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
38. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (TM). Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (TM).
39. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
40. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
41. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
42. Somatostatin suppresses ghrelin secretion from the rat stomach. Shimada M, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2003 Mar 14;302(3):520-5.
43. Increased plasma ghrelin level in lung cancer cachexia. Shimizu Y, etal., Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Feb;9(2):774-8.
44. Variants in the ghrelin gene are associated with metabolic syndrome in the Old Order Amish. Steinle NI, etal., J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Dec;90(12):6672-7. Epub 2005 Oct 4.
45. Central effects of ghrelin on serum growth hormone and morphology of pituitary somatotropes in rats. Stevanovic D, etal., Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006 Nov;231(10):1610-5.
46. The preproghrelin gene is required for the normal integration of thermoregulation and sleep in mice. Szentirmai E, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 18;106(33):14069-74. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0903090106. Epub 2009 Aug 4.
47. Ghrelin stimulates GH but not food intake in arcuate nucleus ablated rats. Tamura H, etal., Endocrinology 2002 Sep;143(9):3268-75.
48. Orexin Plays a Role in Growth Impediment Induced by Obstructive Sleep Breathing in Rats. Tarasiuk A, etal., Sleep. 2016 Apr 1;39(4):887-97. doi: 10.5665/sleep.5648.
49. Novel expression and functional role of ghrelin in rat testis. Tena-Sempere M, etal., Endocrinology 2002 Feb;143(2):717-25.
50. Suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by ghrelin. Theil MM, etal., J Immunol. 2009 Aug 15;183(4):2859-66. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.0803362. Epub 2009 Jul 20.
51. Pattern-dependent suppression of growth hormone (GH) pulsatility by ghrelin and GH-releasing peptide-6 in moderately GH-deficient rats. Thompson NM, etal., Endocrinology. 2003 Nov;144(11):4859-67. Epub 2003 Jul 24.
52. Ghrelin and des-octanoyl ghrelin promote adipogenesis directly in vivo by a mechanism independent of the type 1a growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Thompson NM, etal., Endocrinology. 2004 Jan;145(1):234-42. Epub 2003 Oct 9.
53. Plasma ghrelin concentrations in different clinical stages of diabetic complications and glycemic control in Japanese diabetics. Ueno H, etal., Endocr J. 2007 Dec;54(6):895-902. Epub 2007 Nov 16.
54. Role of ghrelin in the relationship between hyperphagia and accelerated gastric emptying in diabetic mice. Verhulst PJ, etal., Gastroenterology. 2008 Oct;135(4):1267-76. Epub 2008 Jun 25.
55. Ghrelin protects mice against endotoxemia-induced acute kidney injury. Wang W, etal., Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009 Oct;297(4):F1032-7. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.00044.2009. Epub 2009 Jul 22.
56. Influence of ghrelin on gastric and duodenal growth and expression of digestive enzymes in young mature rats. Warzecha Z, etal., J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;57(3):425-37.
57. Obesity in MENX Rats Is Accompanied by High Circulating Levels of Ghrelin and Improved Insulin Sensitivity. Wiedemann T, etal., Diabetes. 2016 Feb;65(2):406-20. doi: 10.2337/db15-0374. Epub 2015 Oct 28.
58. Meal-related ghrelin suppression requires postgastric feedback. Williams DL, etal., Endocrinology 2003 Jul;144(7):2765-7.
59. Association between polymorphisms in cancer-related genes and early onset of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Wu IC, etal., Neoplasia. 2011 Apr;13(4):386-92. doi: 10.1593/neo.101722.
60. Upregulation of cardiovascular ghrelin receptor occurs in the hyperdynamic phase of sepsis. Wu R, etal., Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004 Sep;287(3):H1296-302. Epub 2004 May 20.
61. Effects of ghrelin on gastric distention sensitive neurons in the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus and gastric motility in diabetic rats. Xu L, etal., Peptides. 2013 Oct;48:137-46. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2013.08.010. Epub 2013 Aug 18.
62. Down-regulation of ghrelin receptors in the small intestine delays small intestinal transit in vagotomized rats. Yang CG, etal., Mol Med Rep. 2011 Nov-Dec;4(6):1061-5. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2011.571. Epub 2011 Aug 24.
63. [Relationship between Ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor expression and catch-up growth in rats with intrauterine growth restriction]. Yang HM, etal., Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2010 Jul;12(7):563-8.
64. Ghrelin inhibits apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 activity via upregulating heat-shock protein 70. Yang M, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Jul 27;359(2):373-8. Epub 2007 May 25.
65. Ghrelin modulates physiologic and pathologic retinal angiogenesis through GHSR-1a. Zaniolo K, etal., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Jul 23;52(8):5376-86. doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-7152.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:8889548   PMID:10930375   PMID:11162448   PMID:11306336   PMID:11549267   PMID:11688975   PMID:12105291   PMID:12107501   PMID:12444052   PMID:12470640   PMID:12486113   PMID:12566947  
PMID:12865257   PMID:12948844   PMID:12953161   PMID:12959995   PMID:14530511   PMID:14550279   PMID:14585959   PMID:14993197   PMID:15039149   PMID:15070777   PMID:15093700   PMID:15093702  
PMID:15117840   PMID:15142846   PMID:15148384   PMID:15158140   PMID:15232612   PMID:15254759   PMID:15256489   PMID:15256494   PMID:15272046   PMID:15284203   PMID:15284210   PMID:15292338  
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PMID:15572208   PMID:15576457   PMID:15582726   PMID:15591499   PMID:15604212   PMID:15694847   PMID:15720710   PMID:15746259   PMID:15774556   PMID:15778430   PMID:15790726   PMID:15824852  
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PMID:20501445   PMID:20525876   PMID:20624436   PMID:20646435   PMID:20668029   PMID:20691233   PMID:20814069   PMID:20814072   PMID:20975320   PMID:21029370   PMID:21054519   PMID:21059113  
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PMID:23651849   PMID:23724144   PMID:23744028   PMID:23770258   PMID:23774069   PMID:23892033   PMID:23955309   PMID:23994018   PMID:23994559   PMID:24036593   PMID:24126924   PMID:24261121  
PMID:24304576   PMID:24304579   PMID:24357139   PMID:24366191   PMID:24367106   PMID:24428428   PMID:24465706   PMID:24524370   PMID:24617825   PMID:24668712   PMID:24742241   PMID:24780389  
PMID:24830778   PMID:24840386   PMID:24848869   PMID:24979506   PMID:25049077   PMID:25058156   PMID:25111274   PMID:25193331   PMID:25230765   PMID:25247193   PMID:25344190   PMID:25447526  
PMID:26032330   PMID:26121343   PMID:26122892   PMID:26188171   PMID:26283199   PMID:26364514   PMID:26424164   PMID:26431788   PMID:26467127   PMID:26586206   PMID:26600052   PMID:26612921  
PMID:26907996   PMID:27106635   PMID:27152763   PMID:27454242   PMID:27825986   PMID:28010876   PMID:28219000   PMID:28282447   PMID:28410130   PMID:28513740   PMID:28635609   PMID:28744974  
PMID:28801520   PMID:28838338   PMID:28984792   PMID:29066728   PMID:29113826   PMID:29222553   PMID:29447000   PMID:29927808   PMID:30111257   PMID:30525248   PMID:30553544   PMID:30580497  
PMID:31155149   PMID:32003536   PMID:32485129   PMID:32607622   PMID:33116243   PMID:34767797   PMID:35784535   PMID:36076912   PMID:36370899   PMID:36768322   PMID:37099079   PMID:37722460  
PMID:38158667   PMID:38177343   PMID:38187112  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr84148,421,315 - 148,431,128 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.24146,865,712 - 146,869,621 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl4146,865,712 - 146,869,621 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx4152,250,366 - 152,254,274 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.04148,031,237 - 148,035,145 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.04146,659,480 - 146,663,373 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.04145,674,157 - 145,678,066 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl4145,674,157 - 145,678,066 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.04208,969,963 - 208,976,778 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.44149,622,566 - 149,628,111 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.14149,867,406 - 149,872,952 (-)NCBI
Celera4135,420,041 - 135,423,946 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map4q42NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38310,285,666 - 10,292,947 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl310,285,666 - 10,292,947 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37310,327,350 - 10,334,631 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36310,302,434 - 10,307,409 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 34310,302,433 - 10,307,409NCBI
Celera310,263,242 - 10,270,439 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map3p25.3NCBI
HuRef310,262,844 - 10,269,999 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1310,277,571 - 10,284,767 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.0310,278,965 - 10,286,246 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm396113,693,080 - 113,696,872 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl6113,693,080 - 113,696,841 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm386113,716,119 - 113,719,911 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl6113,716,119 - 113,719,880 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv376113,666,113 - 113,669,874 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv366113,681,896 - 113,685,657 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera6115,541,628 - 115,545,391 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map6E3NCBI
cM Map652.84NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_0049555611,676,576 - 1,681,812 (-)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_0049555611,676,475 - 1,682,205 (-)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1-v2210,281,654 - 10,288,926 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1-v2
NHGRI_mPanPan1310,286,078 - 10,301,544 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v0310,221,829 - 10,229,229 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.1310,573,537 - 10,580,723 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl310,573,537 - 10,580,723 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.1208,092,921 - 8,097,512 (+)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl208,092,957 - 8,097,510 (+)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha208,127,316 - 8,131,869 (+)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.0208,122,116 - 8,127,217 (+)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl208,122,662 - 8,127,215 (+)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.1207,844,540 - 7,849,093 (+)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.0208,190,266 - 8,194,819 (+)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.0208,163,907 - 8,168,460 (+)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440494215,867,085 - 15,872,024 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049366023,038,549 - 3,042,506 (+)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_0049366023,037,862 - 3,044,863 (+)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl1366,445,992 - 66,452,917 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.11366,442,106 - 66,453,576 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.21373,453,082 - 73,480,182 (+)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
Pig Cytomap13q31NCBI
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.12246,326,458 - 46,332,906 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl2246,325,913 - 46,330,962 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_023666041120,205,064 - 120,210,786 (+)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_0046247315,257,830 - 5,262,473 (+)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_0046247315,257,813 - 5,262,878 (+)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Ghrl
8 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:46
Count of miRNA genes:44
Interacting mature miRNAs:46
Prediction methods:Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
2316958Gluco58Glucose level QTL 5810blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)411320076180699135Rat
1576305Emca6Estrogen-induced mammary cancer QTL 65.8mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)mammary tumor number (CMO:0000343)444463720155883716Rat
1354612Foco1Food consumption QTL 18.87eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)food intake rate (CMO:0000427)444463908148090542Rat
1354660Salc1Saline consumption QTL 111.26drinking behavior trait (VT:0001422)saline drink intake rate (CMO:0001627)444463908148090542Rat
70200Alc18Alcohol consumption QTL 189.2drinking behavior trait (VT:0001422)ethanol intake volume to total fluid intake volume ratio (CMO:0001591)456647873149491524Rat
738009Sach4Saccharine consumption QTL 44.90.000016consumption behavior trait (VT:0002069)saccharin intake volume to total fluid intake volume ratio (CMO:0001601)459948935154902892Rat
738016Alc16Alcohol consumption QTL 163.60.00015consumption behavior trait (VT:0002069)ethanol drink intake rate to body weight ratio (CMO:0001616)459948935154902892Rat
738031Alc14Alcohol consumption QTL 147.60.00003consumption behavior trait (VT:0002069)ethanol drink intake rate to body weight ratio (CMO:0001616)459948935154902892Rat
631674Iddm14Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 14blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)plasma glucose level (CMO:0000042)464528739157573521Rat
70177Xhs1X-ray hypersensitivity QTL 125.1intestine integrity trait (VT:0010554)post-insult time to onset of moribundity (CMO:0001896)482798864152731274Rat
1576316Ept5Estrogen-induced pituitary tumorigenesis QTL 53.8pituitary gland mass (VT:0010496)pituitary gland wet weight (CMO:0000853)483428419177635233Rat
1582232Gluco25Glucose level QTL 253.60.0023blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)485253748148090731Rat
12798523Anxrr56Anxiety related response QTL 562.830.05locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of experiment time spent in a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000958)485253748150276390Rat
1358202Gluco11Glucose level QTL 112.40.02adipocyte glucose uptake trait (VT:0004185)absolute change in adipocyte glucose uptake (CMO:0000873)485379421167139601Rat
634335Anxrr16Anxiety related response QTL 167.22locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)number of entries into a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000960)493308457167139447Rat
61434Cia3Collagen induced arthritis QTL 34.8joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)4103194656148194656Rat
2302049Pia32Pristane induced arthritis QTL 325.10.001blood autoantibody amount (VT:0003725)serum immunoglobulin G-type rheumatoid factor level relative to an arbitrary reference serum (CMO:0002112)4105789505150789505Rat
731165Uae21Urinary albumin excretion QTL 212.40.0001urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)4106649412151649412Rat
61406Scwia1Streptococcal cell wall induced arthritis QTL 12.3joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)experimental arthritis severity measurement (CMO:0001459)4106805662151805662Rat
7207480Bss105Bone structure and strength QTL 1058.1femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femur midshaft polar moment of inertia (CMO:0001669)4109827074154827074Rat
1549832Bss3Bone structure and strength QTL 311femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)femur midshaft cortical cross-sectional area (CMO:0001663)4109827074154827074Rat
737821Hcar9Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 93.7liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)volume of individual liver tumorous lesion (CMO:0001078)4109866907167139601Rat
1331759Hrtrt13Heart rate QTL 133.54628heart pumping trait (VT:2000009)heart rate (CMO:0000002)4110275411168266883Rat
6478760Anxrr45Anxiety related response QTL 450.06717locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of experiment time spent in a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000958)4110870972155870972Rat
6478763Anxrr46Anxiety related response QTL 460.07428locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of experiment time spent in a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000958)4110870972155870972Rat
12798519Anxrr54Anxiety related response QTL 542.540.05locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)distance moved per unit of time into, out of or within a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0001493)4114627026159627026Rat
1300116Hrtrt5Heart rate QTL 53.76heart pumping trait (VT:2000009)heart rate (CMO:0000002)4116179486151161268Rat
724535Cm18Cardiac mass QTL 182.6heart mass (VT:0007028)calculated heart weight (CMO:0000073)4118856416163856416Rat
1331802Srn5Serum renin concentration QTL 53.045renin activity (VT:0005581)plasma renin activity level (CMO:0000116)4119428175157578333Rat
12798527Anxrr58Anxiety related response QTL 584.110.05locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)distance moved per unit of time into, out of or within a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0001493)4119463257147278687Rat
70201Gcr1Gastric cancer resistance QTL 12.7stomach morphology trait (VT:0000470)stomach tumor susceptibility score (CMO:0002043)4120260281147278687Rat
2293840Kiddil9Kidney dilation QTL 92.9kidney pelvis morphology trait (VT:0004194)hydronephrosis severity score (CMO:0001208)4120926564148090731Rat
634347Hcar8Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 85.8liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver tumorous lesion area to total liver area ratio (CMO:0001075)4123143783168143783Rat
631683Bp116Blood pressure QTL 1160.0001arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)4124303370169303370Rat
6478778Anxrr51Anxiety related response QTL 510.25384locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)measurement of voluntary locomotion into, out of or within a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000957)4124778595169778595Rat
7411558Bw133Body weight QTL 13313.840.001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)4125590636170590636Rat
61451Ciaa4CIA Autoantibody QTL 43.1blood autoantibody amount (VT:0003725)calculated serum anti-rat type 2 collagen autoantibody titer (CMO:0001281)4126395976167139601Rat
737978Pia23Pristane induced arthritis QTL 235.3joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)4131730738167139601Rat
631511Pia7Pristane induced arthritis QTL 74.3joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)4131730738167139601Rat
1549827Scl46Serum cholesterol level QTL 463.5blood cholesterol amount (VT:0000180)serum total cholesterol level (CMO:0000363)4132396220177396220Rat
724558Plsm2Polydactyly-luxate syndrome (PLS) morphotypes QTL 20.0003hindlimb integrity trait (VT:0010563)hind foot phalanges count (CMO:0001949)4132422778177422778Rat
61422Cia13Collagen induced arthritis QTL 134.5joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)4132642577167139601Rat
2303623Vencon2Ventilatory control QTL 23.8respiration trait (VT:0001943)minute ventilation (CMO:0000132)4135204660180204660Rat
1578674Bmd12Bone mineral density QTL 123.8femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)compact volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001730)4135699135180699135Rat
2293659Bmd35Bone mineral density QTL 354.50.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femoral neck ultimate force (CMO:0001703)4137755016181392681Rat
61362Oia2Oil induced arthritis QTL 20.001joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)4138503169173369699Rat
1298524Oia8Oil induced arthritis QTL 8joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)4138503169173369699Rat
1331738Bp209Blood pressure QTL 2092.979arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)4138503169179293946Rat
6478718Anxrr34Anxiety related response QTL 340.00896locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of experiment time spent in a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000958)4144639524182687754Rat
6478748Anxrr42Anxiety related response QTL 420.28008locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of experiment time spent in a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000958)4144639524182687754Rat
6478754Anxrr43Anxiety related response QTL 430.14035locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)distance moved per unit of time into, out of or within a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0001493)4144639524182687754Rat
6478693Anxrr32Anxiety related response QTL 320.00092locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)measurement of voluntary locomotion into, out of or within a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000957)4144639524182687754Rat
6478700Anxrr33Anxiety related response QTL 330.00896locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of experiment time spent in a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000958)4144639524182687754Rat
10401796Kidm48Kidney mass QTL 48kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight (CMO:0000085)4145568712182687754Rat
634342Cia24Collagen induced arthritis QTL 244.5joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)4146565735175236377Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.24146,865,731 - 146,866,872 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.04145,674,177 - 145,675,317NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.04208,970,576 - 208,971,716UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.44149,622,586 - 149,623,726UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera4135,420,061 - 135,421,201UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map4948.7UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map4q42UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.24146,865,461 - 146,865,561 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.04145,673,907 - 145,674,006NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.04208,970,306 - 208,970,405UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.44149,622,316 - 149,622,415UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera4135,419,791 - 135,419,890UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map4949.1UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map4q42UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.24146,865,824 - 146,866,894 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.04145,674,270 - 145,675,339NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.04208,970,669 - 208,971,738UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.44149,622,679 - 149,623,748UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera4135,420,154 - 135,421,223UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map4q42UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.24146,868,795 - 146,869,548 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.04145,677,241 - 145,677,993NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.04208,973,640 - 208,974,392UniSTSRnor5.0
Celera4135,423,125 - 135,423,873UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map4q42UniSTS


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 2 1 3 1 1 10 2 1 1
Low 1 11 40 25 16 25 7 10 1 11 8 10 7
Below cutoff 6 4 4 4 16 2 12


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000014103   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000014103
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl4146,865,712 - 146,869,621 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl4145,674,157 - 145,678,066 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000110276   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000089522
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl4146,865,712 - 146,869,592 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_021669   ⟹   NP_067701
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr84148,421,315 - 148,425,224 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.24146,865,712 - 146,869,621 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.04145,674,157 - 145,678,066 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.04208,969,963 - 208,976,778 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.44149,622,566 - 149,628,111 (-)RGD
Celera4135,420,041 - 135,423,946 (-)RGD
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_063286654   ⟹   XP_063142724
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr84148,422,336 - 148,431,128 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_067701   ⟸   NM_021669
- Peptide Label: preproprotein
- UniProtKB: Q9ET69 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   Q9QYH7 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6IBU0 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000014103   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000014103
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000089522   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000110276
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_063142724   ⟸   XM_063286654
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-Q9QYH7-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold Q9QYH7 1-117 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13693315
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R3837
Type:single initiation site
Description:ghrelin and obestatin prepropeptide
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.04145,678,073 - 145,678,133EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:632283 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-43364 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000010349 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOG00055007999 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00060012756 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000014103 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000014103.2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00000110276.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00055013496 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00060021677 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
InterPro Motilin_assoc UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Motilin_ghrelin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Preproghrelin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:59301 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTHR14122 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam Motilin_assoc UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Motilin_ghrelin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Ghrl PhenoGen
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000010349 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00055007999 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00060012756 RatGTEx
  GHRL_RAT UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
UniProt Secondary Q9ET69 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2016-08-18 Ghrl  ghrelin and obestatin prepropeptide  Ghrl  ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2008-12-04 Ghrl  ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide  Ghrl  ghrelin  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2008-02-25 Ghrl  ghrelin  Ghrl  ghrelin precursor  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2004-12-14 Ghrl  ghrelin precursor      Symbol and Name status set to approved 1299863 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_expression expressed in stomach, intestine, hypothalamus, and leydig cells from adult testis 70382
gene_expression expressed in stomach, intestine, hypothalamus, and leydig cells from adult testis 625531
gene_expression highly expressed in stomach and also expressed in the hypothalamus and in the pituitary gland 625664
gene_expression highly expressed in stomach and also expressed in the hypothalamus and in the pituitary gland 625665
gene_function ligand for GH-secretagogue receptor 70382
gene_function endogenous ligand 625664
gene_function endogenous ligand 625665
gene_process stimulates appetite and adiposity 625531
gene_process involved in control of GH release and in testicular function 70382
gene_process stimulates GH release and has a potent orexigenic action 625664
gene_process stimulates GH release and has a potent orexigenic action 625665
gene_process controls appetite and stimulates GH releasing activity via the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) 625664
gene_process controls appetite and stimulates GH releasing activity via the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) 625665
gene_product 28 aa protein 70382
gene_protein 28 amino acids  
gene_regulation protein secretion is negatively regulated by leptin levels and fasting increases pulsatile secretion in high frequency and high amplitude episodes 625531
gene_regulation short-term secretory regulation is delayed in obese animals and that blood glucose levels may be involved in the delayed regulation 625664
gene_regulation short-term secretory regulation is delayed in obese animals and that blood glucose levels may be involved in the delayed regulation 625665