Soat2 (sterol O-acyltransferase 2) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Soat2 (sterol O-acyltransferase 2) Rattus norvegicus
Analyze
Symbol: Soat2
Name: sterol O-acyltransferase 2
RGD ID: 628865
Description: Enables sterol O-acyltransferase activity. Involved in cholesterol metabolic process and response to nutrient. Located in endoplasmic reticulum. Used to study end stage renal disease. Biomarker of nephrotic syndrome. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in coronary artery disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Orthologous to human SOAT2 (sterol O-acyltransferase 2); PARTICIPATES IN kidney failure pathway; steroid biosynthetic pathway; INTERACTS WITH ammonium chloride; amphetamine; bisphenol A.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: PROVISIONAL
Previously known as: Acat-2; acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 2; acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2; acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 2; cholesterol acyltransferase 2
RGD Orthologs
Human
Mouse
Chinchilla
Bonobo
Dog
Squirrel
Pig
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
mRatBN7.27133,281,818 - 133,294,915 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl7133,281,818 - 133,294,915 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx7135,043,192 - 135,056,256 (+)NCBIRnor_SHR
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.07137,272,559 - 137,285,623 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSP
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.07137,257,195 - 137,270,297 (+)NCBIRnor_WKY
Rnor_6.07143,754,892 - 143,767,989 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl7143,754,892 - 143,767,989 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.07141,552,394 - 141,565,491 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.47140,890,902 - 140,903,999 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.17140,967,338 - 140,980,436 (+)NCBI
Celera7129,716,600 - 129,729,697 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map7q36NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)
Model


Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process

Cellular Component

Molecular Function

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
References

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Dietary fat-induced alterations in atherosclerosis are abolished by ACAT2-deficiency in ApoB100 only, LDLr-/- mice. Bell TA 3rd, etal., Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007 Jun;27(6):1396-402. Epub 2007 Apr 12.
2. The effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids delivered in chylomicron remnants on the transcription of genes regulating synthesis and secretion of very-low-density lipoprotein by the liver: modulation by cellular oxidative state. Botham KM, etal., Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2003 Feb;228(2):143-51.
3. Resistance to diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and gallstone formation in ACAT2-deficient mice. Buhman KK, etal., Nat Med 2000 Dec;6(12):1341-7.
4. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
5. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
6. Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase-2 gene polymorphisms and their association with plasma lipids and coronary artery disease risks. He X, etal., Hum Genet. 2005 Dec;118(3-4):393-403. Epub 2005 Sep 30.
7. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-2 (ACAT-2) is responsible for elevated intestinal ACAT activity in diabetic rats. Hori M, etal., Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004 Sep;24(9):1689-95. Epub 2004 Jul 8.
8. Plasma cholesteryl esters provided by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and acyl-coenzyme a:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 have opposite atherosclerotic potential. Lee RG, etal., Circ Res. 2004 Nov 12;95(10):998-1004. Epub 2004 Oct 14.
9. Overexpression of human diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, acyl-coa:cholesterol acyltransferase 1, or acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 stimulates secretion of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in McA-RH7777 cells. Liang JJ, etal., J Biol Chem 2004 Oct 22;279(43):44938-44. Epub 2004 Aug 11.
10. Upregulation of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase in chronic renal failure. Liang K and Vaziri ND, Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002 Oct;283(4):E676-81.
11. Evidence for substantial effect modification by gender in a large-scale genetic association study of the metabolic syndrome among coronary heart disease patients. McCarthy JJ, etal., Hum Genet. 2003 Dec;114(1):87-98. Epub 2003 Oct 14.
12. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
13. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
14. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
15. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
16. Human acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 gene expression in intestinal Caco-2 cells and in hepatocellular carcinoma. Song BL, etal., Biochem J. 2006 Mar 15;394(Pt 3):617-26.
17. Up-regulation of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) in nephrotic syndrome. Vaziri ND and Liang K, Kidney Int 2002 May;61(5):1769-75.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:9756919   PMID:11294643   PMID:12077311   PMID:12808042   PMID:14615411   PMID:15451793   PMID:16647063   PMID:16675724   PMID:16876788   PMID:22045928   PMID:31647302  


Genomics

Comparative Map Data
Soat2
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
mRatBN7.27133,281,818 - 133,294,915 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl7133,281,818 - 133,294,915 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx7135,043,192 - 135,056,256 (+)NCBIRnor_SHR
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.07137,272,559 - 137,285,623 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSP
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.07137,257,195 - 137,270,297 (+)NCBIRnor_WKY
Rnor_6.07143,754,892 - 143,767,989 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl7143,754,892 - 143,767,989 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.07141,552,394 - 141,565,491 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.47140,890,902 - 140,903,999 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.17140,967,338 - 140,980,436 (+)NCBI
Celera7129,716,600 - 129,729,697 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map7q36NCBI
SOAT2
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
GRCh381253,103,486 - 53,124,535 (+)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl1253,103,486 - 53,124,535 (+)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh371253,497,270 - 53,518,319 (+)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 361251,783,541 - 51,804,590 (+)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 341251,783,581 - 51,804,589NCBI
Celera1253,145,169 - 53,166,217 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map12q13.13NCBI
HuRef1250,540,306 - 50,561,441 (+)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_11253,463,699 - 53,484,782 (+)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.01253,067,863 - 53,088,913 (+)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
Soat2
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
GRCm3915102,058,853 - 102,071,871 (+)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl15102,058,961 - 102,071,904 (+)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm3815102,150,415 - 102,163,469 (+)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl15102,150,526 - 102,163,469 (+)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv3715101,981,006 - 101,993,867 (+)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv3615101,978,609 - 101,991,470 (+)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera15104,305,508 - 104,318,364 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map15F2NCBI
cM Map1557.33NCBI
Soat2
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_004955458382,892 - 394,749 (+)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_004955458383,123 - 394,003 (+)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
SOAT2
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
PanPan1.11236,413,954 - 36,434,074 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl1236,413,954 - 36,434,074 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
Mhudiblu_PPA_v01235,632,018 - 35,653,227 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
SOAT2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
CanFam3.1272,053,063 - 2,062,773 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl272,053,067 - 2,062,329 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha2744,186,356 - 44,196,074 (+)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.0272,057,164 - 2,066,887 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl272,057,174 - 2,066,374 (-)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.1272,074,438 - 2,083,937 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.0272,060,773 - 2,070,480 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.02744,585,437 - 44,595,161 (+)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
Soat2
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440494562,733,617 - 62,745,065 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0NW_00493651210,420,847 - 10,430,813 (+)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
SOAT2
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl518,358,673 - 18,371,264 (+)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.1518,358,941 - 18,371,262 (+)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.2518,773,838 - 18,786,099 (+)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
SOAT2
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
ChlSab1.11149,214,295 - 49,228,268 (+)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl1149,215,034 - 49,228,244 (+)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_023666037196,837,935 - 196,852,282 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
Soat2
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_0046249041,160,203 - 1,170,935 (+)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_0046249041,160,275 - 1,170,249 (+)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2

Variants

.
Variants in Soat2
46 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:198
Count of miRNA genes:130
Interacting mature miRNAs:154
Transcripts:ENSRNOT00000015368
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (http://mirgate.bioinfo.cnio.es/).
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.


QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
1300179Kidm5Kidney mass QTL 53.51kidney mass (VT:0002707)left kidney wet weight (CMO:0000083)743747012135012528Rat
70173Niddm19Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 194.330.00005blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level area under curve (AUC) (CMO:0000350)764002457135012528Rat
1358891Bp265Blood pressure QTL 2652.21arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)783591953134666232Rat
1358914Bp266Blood pressure QTL 266arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)783591953134666232Rat
1549899Stresp8Stress response QTL 84.370.0008stress-related behavior trait (VT:0010451)defensive burying duration (CMO:0001961)790482196135012528Rat
2299163Iddm34Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 342.71blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)age at onset/diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (CMO:0001140)791281130135012528Rat
731176Glom5Glomerulus QTL 52.50.0035kidney glomerulus morphology trait (VT:0005325)count of superficial glomeruli not directly contacting the kidney surface (CMO:0001002)796670164135012528Rat
1331731Bp216Blood pressure QTL 2162.851arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)7102297359133492884Rat
731174Uae23Urinary albumin excretion QTL 232.40.0042urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)7104603555135012528Rat
2306821Bp335Blood pressure QTL 3350.001arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)7106571501135012528Rat
631663Bw6Body weight QTL 63.4body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)7111075573134976056Rat
1300112Bp183Blood pressure QTL 1833.51arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)blood pressure time series experimental set point of the baroreceptor response (CMO:0002593)7111182207135012528Rat
1331748Bp215Blood pressure QTL 2154.043arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)7112308254133492884Rat
1357339Stl14Serum triglyceride level QTL 143.450.0001blood triglyceride amount (VT:0002644)serum triglyceride level (CMO:0000360)7112729683133492707Rat
1354582Stl11Serum triglyceride level QTL 113.42blood triglyceride amount (VT:0002644)serum triglyceride level (CMO:0000360)7119513385135012528Rat

Markers in Region
D7Rat93  
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.27133,294,921 - 133,295,037 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.07143,767,996 - 143,768,109NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.07141,565,498 - 141,565,611UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.47140,904,005 - 140,904,119RGDRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.47140,904,006 - 140,904,119UniSTSRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.17140,980,443 - 140,980,556RGD
Celera7129,729,704 - 129,729,817UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map71064.6UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map71064.6RGD
SHRSP x BN Map787.4099UniSTS
SHRSP x BN Map787.4099RGD
Cytogenetic Map7q36UniSTS
RH131180  
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.27133,280,727 - 133,280,912 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.07143,753,802 - 143,753,986NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.07141,550,827 - 141,551,011UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.47140,889,812 - 140,889,996UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera7129,715,510 - 129,715,694UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map71062.1UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7q36UniSTS


Expression


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
High
Medium 1 35 35 35
Low 1 4 7 6 1 6 2 23 10
Below cutoff 1 34 15 18 6 6 26 33 18 1 6

Sequence


Reference Sequences
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000085896   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000071253
RefSeq Status:
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl7133,281,818 - 133,294,915 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl7143,754,892 - 143,767,989 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_153728   ⟹   NP_714950
RefSeq Status: PROVISIONAL
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.27133,281,818 - 133,294,915 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.07143,754,892 - 143,767,989 (+)NCBI
Rnor_5.07141,552,394 - 141,565,491 (+)NCBI
RGSC_v3.47140,890,902 - 140,903,999 (+)RGD
Celera7129,716,600 - 129,729,697 (+)RGD
Sequence:
Protein Sequences
Protein RefSeqs NP_714950 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
GenBank Protein BAC00846 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  BAC78210 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL86862 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  Q7TQM4 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
Reference Sequences
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_714950   ⟸   NM_153728
- UniProtKB: G3V7I6 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000071253   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000085896

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-Q7TQM4-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold Q7TQM4 1-524 view protein structure

Transcriptome

eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

Promoters
RGD ID:13695691
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R6216
Type:initiation region
Name:Soat2_1
Description:sterol O-acyltransferase 2
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database, http://epd.vital-it.ch/)
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.07143,754,850 - 143,754,910EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:628865 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-31948 BioCyc
BioCyc Pathway PWY-7424 [sterol:steryl ester interconversion (yeast)] BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000053769 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Protein ENSRNOP00000071253 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOP00000071253.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000085896 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000085896.2 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro MBOAT_fam UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Oat_ACAT_DAG_ARE UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Sterol_acyltranf_meta UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:266770 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
NCBI Gene 266770 ENTREZGENE
PANTHER PTHR10408 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam MBOAT UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Soat2 PhenoGen
PIRSF Oat_ACAT_DAG_ARE UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Sterol_acyltranf_ACAT UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
UniProt G3V7I6 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Q7TQM4 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot


Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2004-02-26 Soat2  sterol O-acyltransferase 2      Symbol and Name status set to approved 625702 APPROVED
2003-02-27 Soat2  sterol O-acyltransferase 2      Symbol and Name status set to provisional 70820 PROVISIONAL

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_cellular_localization membrane-associated in the endoplasmic reticulum 625687
gene_function catalyzes esterification of free cholesterol to cholesterol ester 625687
gene_process mediates cholesterol transport within the liver and intestinal mucosa 625687
gene_regulation chronic renal failure (CRF) increases the expression and enzymatic activity in the liver 625687