Acta2 (actin alpha 2, smooth muscle) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Acta2 (actin alpha 2, smooth muscle) Rattus norvegicus
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Symbol: Acta2
Name: actin alpha 2, smooth muscle
RGD ID: 621676
Description: Predicted to enable protein kinase binding activity. Involved in several processes, including positive regulation of hepatic stellate cell activation; positive regulation of hepatic stellate cell contraction; and positive regulation of hepatic stellate cell migration. Located in basement membrane; cytoplasm; and stress fiber. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in Moyamoya disease and thoracic aortic aneurysm. Orthologous to human ACTA2 (actin alpha 2, smooth muscle); PARTICIPATES IN platelet-derived growth factor signaling pathway; INTERACTS WITH (+)-schisandrin B; (+)-Tetrandrine; (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta; actin, aortic smooth muscle; alpha-actin-2; smooth muscle alpha-actin
RGD Orthologs
Human
Mouse
Chinchilla
Bonobo
Dog
Squirrel
Pig
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
mRatBN7.21231,746,527 - 231,759,307 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1231,746,548 - 231,759,554 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1240,137,525 - 240,150,289 (-)NCBIRnor_SHR
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01247,059,310 - 247,072,104 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSP
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01239,897,389 - 239,910,183 (-)NCBIRnor_WKY
Rnor_6.01252,537,614 - 252,550,394 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1252,537,615 - 252,550,394 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01259,760,521 - 259,773,301 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
Celera1228,860,239 - 228,873,019 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map1q52NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)
Model


Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(+)-schisandrin B  (EXP)
(+)-Tetrandrine  (EXP)
(-)-citrinin  (ISO)
(-)-demecolcine  (ISO)
(-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate  (EXP,ISO)
(-)-selegiline  (ISO)
(25R)-cholest-5-ene-3beta,26-diol  (ISO)
(2R,4R)-1-[(2S)-5-(diaminomethylideneamino)-2-[(3-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-8-yl)sulfonylamino]-1-oxopentyl]-4-methyl-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid  (ISO)
(R)-lipoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
(R)-noradrenaline  (ISO)
(S)-colchicine  (EXP)
(S)-naringenin  (EXP)
(S)-nicotine  (EXP,ISO)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
1-naphthyl isothiocyanate  (EXP)
1-octadec-9-enoylglycero-3-phosphate  (ISO)
11-deoxycorticosterone  (ISO)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP)
17beta-estradiol 3-benzoate  (EXP)
2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran  (EXP,ISO)
2,4-dibromophenyl 2,4,5-tribromophenyl ether  (ISO)
2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol  (ISO)
2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-\{[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl](methyl)amino\}-2-(propan-2-yl)pentanenitrile  (EXP)
2-amino-2-deoxy-D-galactopyranose  (EXP)
2-arachidonoylglycerol  (EXP)
2-butoxyethanol  (ISO)
2-methylcholine  (ISO)
25-hydroxycholesterol  (EXP)
26-hydroxycholesterol  (ISO)
3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde  (EXP)
3-[3-(tert-butylsulfanyl)-1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-1H-indol-2-yl]-2,2-dimethylpropanoic acid  (ISO)
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine  (EXP,ISO)
3-methyladenine  (ISO)
3-methylcholanthrene  (ISO)
3-phenylprop-2-enal  (EXP)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (ISO)
4-hydroxy-TEMPO  (EXP)
4-hydroxyhexenal  (ISO)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
4-phenylbutyric acid  (ISO)
5'-S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine  (ISO)
5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine  (EXP,ISO)
5-azacytidine  (ISO)
6-chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxamide  (EXP)
9-cis-retinoic acid  (EXP)
Ac-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro-OH  (EXP,ISO)
acetaldehyde  (EXP)
acrylamide  (EXP)
acteoside  (ISO)
adefovir  (EXP)
adenine  (ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
AICA ribonucleotide  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
aldosterone  (EXP,ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
all-trans-retinol  (EXP)
allyl isothiocyanate  (ISO)
alpha-mangostin  (ISO)
aluminium hydroxide  (ISO)
AM-251  (ISO)
Ammothamnine  (ISO)
andrographolide  (EXP,ISO)
anthocyanin  (EXP,ISO)
anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one  (ISO)
apocynin  (EXP)
arecoline  (ISO)
argatroban  (ISO)
aristolochic acid A  (ISO)
aristolochic acids  (ISO)
Aroclor 1254  (ISO)
arsane  (EXP)
arsenic atom  (EXP)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
arsenous acid  (EXP,ISO)
artesunate  (ISO)
atorvastatin calcium  (EXP)
ATP  (ISO)
atrazine  (ISO)
baicalein  (ISO)
benazepril  (EXP)
benzene  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide I  (ISO)
berberine  (EXP)
beryllium sulfate  (ISO)
betulin  (EXP)
bexarotene  (EXP)
bezafibrate  (EXP,ISO)
bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide  (ISO)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol F  (ISO)
bleomycin A2  (EXP,ISO)
boric acid  (ISO)
buta-1,3-diene  (ISO)
C.I. Natural Red 20  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (ISO)
caffeine  (EXP)
calcitriol  (ISO)
captan  (ISO)
captopril  (EXP,ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
carnosine  (ISO)
carvedilol  (EXP)
celastrol  (ISO)
celecoxib  (EXP)
ceruletide  (ISO)
CGP 52608  (ISO)
chenodeoxycholic acid  (ISO)
chlordecone  (ISO)
chlorogenic acid  (EXP)
chlorohydrocarbon  (ISO)
chloroquine  (EXP)
chlorothalonil  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (ISO)
choline  (EXP,ISO)
chromium(6+)  (ISO)
chrysin  (ISO)
ciglitazone  (ISO)
cisplatin  (EXP,ISO)
clobetasol  (ISO)
clodronic acid  (EXP)
Clofop  (EXP)
clorgyline  (ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (ISO)
colforsin daropate hydrochloride  (EXP,ISO)
copper atom  (ISO)
copper(0)  (ISO)
copper(II) sulfate  (ISO)
crocidolite asbestos  (ISO)
cucurbitacin B  (ISO)
cucurbitacin E  (EXP,ISO)
curcumin  (EXP,ISO)
cyanocob(III)alamin  (ISO)
cyclosporin A  (ISO)
cystamine  (EXP)
cytochalasin D  (EXP,ISO)
D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
dapagliflozin  (EXP)
DAPT  (ISO)
DDT  (EXP)
delphinidin  (ISO)
desferrioxamine B  (EXP,ISO)
dexamethasone  (EXP,ISO)
diacetylmonoxime  (EXP,ISO)
Diallyl sulfide  (EXP)
diallyl trisulfide  (ISO)
diarsenic trioxide  (EXP,ISO)
dibenziodolium  (ISO)
dibutyl phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
dicrotophos  (ISO)
diethyl malate  (ISO)
dihydrolipoic acid  (EXP)
diisononyl phthalate  (ISO)
dimethyl fumarate  (EXP)
dimethyl sulfoxide  (EXP)
diminazene diaceturate  (ISO)
Diosbulbin B  (ISO)
dioscin  (ISO)
dioxygen  (EXP,ISO)
disodium cromoglycate  (EXP)
disodium selenite  (ISO)
disulfiram  (ISO)
diuron  (EXP)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (EXP,ISO)
doxycycline  (ISO)
ebselen  (ISO)
emodin  (EXP)
enalapril  (EXP)
endosulfan  (EXP)
entinostat  (ISO)
eplerenone  (ISO)
ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one  (ISO)
ethanol  (EXP,ISO)
ethyl methanesulfonate  (ISO)
fasudil  (ISO)
fenamidone  (ISO)
fenofibrate  (ISO)
ferulic acid  (ISO)
finasteride  (EXP)
fingolimod hydrochloride  (ISO)
folic acid  (ISO)
folpet  (ISO)
formaldehyde  (ISO)
formoterol fumarate  (ISO)
fructose  (EXP)
gadolinium trichloride  (EXP)
Ganoderic acid A  (ISO)
gefitinib  (ISO)
genistein  (EXP,ISO)
geraniol  (EXP)
Ginkgoic acid  (ISO)
Ginkgolide A  (ISO)
glucagon  (ISO)
glucose  (EXP,ISO)
glyburide  (EXP)
glycyrrhetinate  (EXP)
glycyrrhetinic acid  (EXP)
glycyrrhizinic acid  (ISO)
goralatide  (EXP,ISO)
graphene oxide  (ISO)
guggulsterone  (ISO)
heparin  (EXP)
heptachlor  (ISO)
hesperetin  (EXP)
hexachlorobenzene  (ISO)
hexadecanoic acid  (ISO)
homocysteine  (ISO)
Honokiol  (EXP,ISO)
hyaluronic acid  (ISO)
hydrogen peroxide  (EXP,ISO)
ICI 118551  (ISO)
imperatorin  (EXP)
indole-3-methanol  (EXP)
irbesartan  (EXP)
irinotecan  (ISO)
iron(2+) sulfate (anhydrous)  (EXP)
isoorientin  (EXP)
isoprenaline  (EXP,ISO)
isorhamnetin  (ISO)
ivermectin  (ISO)
jaspamide  (EXP,ISO)
kaempferol  (ISO)
L-arginine  (EXP)
L-ascorbic acid  (EXP,ISO)
L-cysteine  (EXP)
L-methionine  (EXP,ISO)
lamivudine  (ISO)
lapatinib  (ISO)
latrunculin B  (EXP)
leukotriene B4  (ISO)
limonene  (EXP)
lipoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (EXP,ISO)
lipoxin A4  (ISO)
loganin  (ISO)
losartan  (EXP,ISO)
lovastatin  (ISO)
lucanthone  (ISO)
luteolin  (ISO)
LY294002  (ISO)
malonaldehyde  (EXP)
manganese(II) chloride  (EXP)
melatonin  (EXP)
mercaptoethanol  (ISO)
mesalamine  (EXP)
metacetamol  (ISO)
metformin  (EXP)
methotrexate  (ISO)
methyl methanesulfonate  (ISO)
methylglyoxal  (ISO)
methylmercury chloride  (ISO)
methylseleninic acid  (ISO)
microcystin-LR  (EXP,ISO)
mirtazapine  (ISO)
mitogen  (EXP)
MK-2206  (ISO)
ML-7  (EXP,ISO)
monocrotaline  (EXP)
montelukast  (EXP)
morin  (EXP)
Morroniside  (EXP,ISO)
myricitrin  (ISO)
N-acetyl-1,4-benzoquinone imine  (ISO)
N-acetyl-L-cysteine  (ISO)
N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal  (ISO)
N-nitrosodiethylamine  (EXP,ISO)
N-nitrosodimethylamine  (EXP,ISO)
naloxone  (EXP)
nickel atom  (ISO)
nickel dichloride  (ISO)
nickel subsulfide  (EXP)
niclosamide  (ISO)
nicotine  (EXP,ISO)
nitrofen  (ISO)
nocodazole  (ISO)
NS-398  (ISO)
ochratoxin A  (EXP,ISO)
octreotide  (EXP)
olaparib  (ISO)
oleanolic acid  (EXP,ISO)
oleic acid  (ISO)
olmesartan  (EXP)
ouabain  (ISO)
Pachymic acid  (ISO)
paclitaxel  (ISO)
panobinostat  (ISO)
paracetamol  (ISO)
paraquat  (EXP,ISO)
Pentoxifylline  (EXP,ISO)
perindopril  (EXP)
phenethyl isothiocyanate  (ISO)
phenobarbital  (ISO)
phenylephrine  (EXP)
phenylmercury acetate  (ISO)
PhIP  (EXP)
pioglitazone  (EXP,ISO)
pirfenidone  (EXP,ISO)
pirinixic acid  (ISO)
poly(guanylic acid)  (EXP)
potassium dichromate  (ISO)
pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile  (ISO)
proanthocyanidin  (EXP)
probenecid  (EXP)
probucol  (ISO)
progesterone  (EXP,ISO)
propanal  (ISO)
prostaglandin E2  (ISO)
puerarin  (ISO)
pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate  (EXP)
pyrvinium  (EXP)
quartz  (ISO)
quercetin  (EXP,ISO)
radon atom  (ISO)
radon(0)  (ISO)
resveratrol  (EXP,ISO)
Rhein  (EXP)
ridaforolimus  (ISO)
rifaximin  (ISO)
rimonabant  (EXP)
rivaroxaban  (EXP)
Ro 31-8220  (ISO)
rosmarinic acid  (EXP)
rotenone  (EXP,ISO)
Salvianolic acid A  (EXP)
salvianolic acid B  (EXP,ISO)
saroglitazar  (ISO)
SB 203580  (ISO)
SB 431542  (EXP,ISO)
SCH772984  (ISO)
serpentine asbestos  (ISO)
Shikonin  (ISO)
sildenafil citrate  (EXP)
silicon atom  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (EXP,ISO)
silver atom  (ISO)
silver(0)  (ISO)
simvastatin  (EXP,ISO)
sirolimus  (ISO)
sodium arsenate  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (ISO)
sodium dichromate  (ISO)
sodium fluoride  (EXP,ISO)
sorafenib  (EXP)
sorbinil  (ISO)
sotorasib  (ISO)
spironolactone  (EXP)
SR 144528  (ISO)
streptozocin  (EXP,ISO)
sulfasalazine  (EXP)
sulforaphane  (ISO)
sunitinib  (EXP,ISO)
Swertiamarin  (EXP)
tacrolimus hydrate  (ISO)
tamoxifen  (ISO)
Tanshinone I  (EXP,ISO)
taurine  (ISO)
testosterone  (EXP,ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (EXP,ISO)
tetramethylpyrazine  (EXP,ISO)
thalidomide  (EXP)
thapsigargin  (ISO)
theophylline  (ISO)
thioacetamide  (EXP,ISO)
thymidine  (ISO)
thymoquinone  (ISO)
Tiron  (ISO)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
tolcapone  (EXP)
TRAM-34  (EXP)
trametinib  (ISO)
triadimefon  (ISO)
tributylstannane  (EXP)
trichostatin A  (EXP,ISO)
troglitazone  (EXP,ISO)
tunicamycin  (ISO)
urethane  (ISO)
valproic acid  (ISO)
valsartan  (EXP)
vancomycin  (ISO)
venlafaxine hydrochloride  (EXP)
verapamil  (EXP)
vildagliptin  (ISO)
vinclozolin  (EXP)
vitamin D  (ISO)
vitamin E  (ISO)
vitamin K  (EXP)
vorinostat  (ISO)
warfarin  (EXP)
WIN 55212-2  (ISO)
XL147  (ISO)
Y-27632  (EXP,ISO)
zileuton  (ISO)
zinc atom  (ISO)
zinc(0)  (ISO)
zoledronic acid  (ISO)

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
References

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Risk of dissection in thoracic aneurysms associated with mutations of smooth muscle alpha-actin 2 (ACTA2). Disabella E, etal., Heart. 2011 Feb;97(4):321-6. doi: 10.1136/hrt.2010.204388. Epub 2011 Jan 6.
2. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
3. Prohibitin suppresses renal interstitial fibroblasts proliferation and phenotypic change induced by transforming growth factor-beta1. Guo W, etal., Mol Cell Biochem. 2007 Jan;295(1-2):167-77. Epub 2006 Oct 17.
4. Conserved and unique sequences in the 3'-untranslated region of rat smooth-muscle alpha-actin mRNA. Hsu CY and Frankel FR, Gene 1988 Sep 30;69(2):345-8.
5. Smad3 mediates transforming growth factor-beta-induced alpha-smooth muscle actin expression. Hu B, etal., Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2003 Sep;29(3 Pt 1):397-404. Epub 2003 Apr 17.
6. Effect of miR-182 on hepatic fibrosis induced by Schistosomiasis japonica by targeting FOXO1 through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Huang Y, etal., J Cell Physiol. 2018 Oct;233(10):6693-6704. doi: 10.1002/jcp.26469. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
7. Oral methylthioadenosine administration attenuates fibrosis and chronic liver disease progression in Mdr2-/- mice. Latasa MU, etal., PLoS One. 2010 Dec 29;5(12):e15690. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015690.
8. Renogenic characterization and in vitro differentiation of rat amniotic fluid stem cells into renal proximal tubular- and juxtaglomerular-like cells. Minocha E, etal., In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2019 Feb;55(2):138-147. doi: 10.1007/s11626-018-00315-2. Epub 2019 Jan 15.
9. Mutation of ACTA2 gene as an important cause of familial and nonfamilial nonsyndromatic thoracic aortic aneurysm and/or dissection (TAAD). Morisaki H, etal., Hum Mutat. 2009 Oct;30(10):1406-11. doi: 10.1002/humu.21081.
10. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
11. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
12. Evidence for the presence of smooth muscle alpha-actin within pericytes of the renal medulla. Park F, etal., Am J Physiol 1997 Nov;273(5 Pt 2):R1742-8.
13. Gene expression in Graves' ophthalmopathy and arm lymphedema: similarities and differences. Planck T, etal., Thyroid. 2011 Jun;21(6):663-74. doi: 10.1089/thy.2010.0217. Epub 2011 Apr 21.
14. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
15. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
16. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
17. Smooth muscle a actin (Acta2) and myofibroblast function during hepatic wound healing. Rockey DC, etal., PLoS One. 2013 Oct 29;8(10):e77166. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077166. eCollection 2013.
18. Alternative neural crest cell fates are instructively promoted by TGFbeta superfamily members. Shah NM, etal., Cell. 1996 May 3;85(3):331-43.
19. Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) Dissociates Hepatosteatosis from Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Mice. Shi SY, etal., J Biol Chem. 2017 Mar 3;292(9):3789-3799. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.752519. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
20. Expression and localization of alpha-smooth muscle and gamma-actins in the pregnant rat myometrium. Shynlova O, etal., Biol Reprod. 2005 Oct;73(4):773-80. Epub 2005 Jun 22.
21. All-trans Retinoic Acid Disrupts Development in Ex Vivo Cultured Fetal Rat Testes. II: Modulation of Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate Toxicity. Spade DJ, etal., Toxicol Sci. 2019 Mar 1;168(1):149-159. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfy283.
22. Transcriptional regulation of a contractile gene by mechanical forces applied through integrins in osteoblasts. Wang J, etal., J Biol Chem 2002 Jun 21;277(25):22889-95.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:3375082   PMID:3597426   PMID:6546444   PMID:8889548   PMID:11053242   PMID:11927518   PMID:12355421   PMID:12477932   PMID:12970361   PMID:15316360   PMID:15814362   PMID:15855636  
PMID:16401722   PMID:16548883   PMID:16982692   PMID:16989802   PMID:17456553   PMID:17464107   PMID:17492622   PMID:17717145   PMID:17882221   PMID:18332105   PMID:18468998   PMID:19065061  
PMID:19285011   PMID:19349682   PMID:19411749   PMID:19614927   PMID:19672103   PMID:19785950   PMID:20369462   PMID:20936727   PMID:21038676   PMID:21046115   PMID:21126421   PMID:21294755  
PMID:21307259   PMID:21630215   PMID:21708977   PMID:21921266   PMID:22517354   PMID:22680062   PMID:22805872   PMID:23006535   PMID:23040780   PMID:23044204   PMID:23099153   PMID:23533145  
PMID:23580065   PMID:24465547   PMID:24601883   PMID:25108144   PMID:25681120   PMID:25740471   PMID:27021728   PMID:27021914   PMID:28731181   PMID:30362530   PMID:31904090   PMID:34052675  


Genomics

Comparative Map Data
Acta2
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
mRatBN7.21231,746,527 - 231,759,307 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1231,746,548 - 231,759,554 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1240,137,525 - 240,150,289 (-)NCBIRnor_SHR
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01247,059,310 - 247,072,104 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSP
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01239,897,389 - 239,910,183 (-)NCBIRnor_WKY
Rnor_6.01252,537,614 - 252,550,394 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1252,537,615 - 252,550,394 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01259,760,521 - 259,773,301 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
Celera1228,860,239 - 228,873,019 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map1q52NCBI
ACTA2
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
GRCh381088,935,074 - 88,991,397 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl1088,935,074 - 88,991,339 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh371090,694,831 - 90,751,154 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 361090,684,811 - 90,702,491 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 341090,684,810 - 90,702,491NCBI
Celera1084,441,676 - 84,497,934 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map10q23.31NCBI
HuRef1084,329,337 - 84,385,614 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_11090,976,918 - 91,033,207 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.01089,819,017 - 89,875,264 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
Acta2
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
GRCm391934,217,736 - 34,232,985 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl1934,218,490 - 34,232,990 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm381934,240,336 - 34,255,585 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl1934,241,090 - 34,255,590 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv371934,315,581 - 34,329,826 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv361934,307,088 - 34,321,333 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera1935,018,279 - 35,032,476 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map19C1NCBI
Acta2
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_0049554254,026,430 - 4,040,747 (+)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_0049554254,023,001 - 4,039,980 (+)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
ACTA2
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
PanPan1.11089,164,344 - 89,182,131 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl1089,164,344 - 89,182,080 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
Mhudiblu_PPA_v01085,660,983 - 85,678,729 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
ACTA2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
CanFam3.12638,700,434 - 38,714,915 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl2638,700,480 - 38,711,753 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha2638,451,228 - 38,465,187 (-)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.02640,285,064 - 40,299,518 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl2640,285,060 - 40,299,425 (-)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.12638,154,857 - 38,169,070 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.02637,720,236 - 37,734,291 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.02638,990,553 - 39,005,038 (-)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
Acta2
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440721378,509,060 - 78,526,056 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_004936735266,754 - 284,377 (+)EnsemblSpeTri2.0
SpeTri2.0NW_004936735266,918 - 283,858 (+)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
ACTA2
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl14100,867,733 - 100,886,713 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.114100,868,145 - 100,886,732 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.214109,852,854 - 109,871,415 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
ACTA2
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
ChlSab1.1982,358,937 - 82,376,289 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl982,359,086 - 82,372,446 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_02366604843,037,005 - 43,054,486 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
Acta2
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_00462479115,242,432 - 15,259,508 (-)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_00462479115,243,074 - 15,259,362 (-)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2

Variants

.
Variants in Acta2
69 total Variants

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
7794788Mcs32Mammary carcinoma susceptibility QTL 322.61mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)mammary tumor incidence/prevalence measurement (CMO:0000946)1115540693238914717Rat
7421630Bp362Blood pressure QTL 3620.001arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)1118608292241799120Rat
2302378Insul11Insulin level QTL 113.25blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)serum insulin level (CMO:0000358)1144267353251128347Rat
724531Uae5Urinary albumin excretion QTL 54urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin level (CMO:0000130)1150700142252085212Rat
1578759Uae30Urinary albumin excretion QTL 303.30.003urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)1150700247252085048Rat
1578778Pur4Proteinuria QTL 43.30.003urine total protein amount (VT:0000032)urine total protein excretion rate (CMO:0000756)1150700247252085048Rat
1354610Bw34Body weight QTL 344.1body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1151162512256448636Rat
1354646Kidm18Kidney mass QTL 185.7kidney mass (VT:0002707)calculated kidney weight (CMO:0000160)1151162512256448636Rat
1354661Bw33Body weight QTL 335.2body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1151162512256448636Rat
1549837Hcar15Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 150.05liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver tumorous lesion number (CMO:0001068)1153136852260522016Rat
1354580Scort1Serum corticosterone level QTL 13.4blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)blood corticosterone level (CMO:0001172)1156677124256448636Rat
2292220Bp306Blood pressure QTL 3063.470.00087arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1164310393243914901Rat
738032Hcas5Hepatocarcinoma susceptibility QTL 53.12liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver tumorous lesion number (CMO:0001068)1176426412257976495Rat
1354624Cm35Cardiac mass QTL355.7heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)calculated heart weight (CMO:0000073)1177227632256448636Rat
1354652Kidm20Kidney mass QTL 204.3kidney mass (VT:0002707)calculated kidney weight (CMO:0000160)1177227632256448636Rat
634321Hc1Hypercalciuria QTL 12.91urine calcium amount (VT:0002985)urine calcium excretion rate (CMO:0000763)1178810256240830002Rat
1578763Kidm29Kidney mass QTL 293.30.0001kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight (CMO:0000085)1179567751260522016Rat
8655655Arrd2Age-related retinal degeneration QTL 27.79retinal layer morphology trait (VT:0003727)percentage of study population developing retinopathy during a period of time (CMO:0002453)1183970203243914901Rat
8655855Arrd3Age-related retinal degeneration QTL 33.07lens clarity trait (VT:0001304)cataract incidence/prevalence measurement (CMO:0001585)1183970203243914901Rat
1358898Bp255Blood pressure QTL 2553.6arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)1191019702246062233Rat
10059590Kidm44Kidney mass QTL 443.420.025kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)1191033875236033875Rat
1358191Ept10Estrogen-induced pituitary tumorigenesis QTL 103.8pituitary gland mass (VT:0010496)pituitary gland wet weight (CMO:0000853)1192825253243914732Rat
8552891Epfw5Epididymal fat weight QTL 54.4epididymal fat pad mass (VT:0010421)epididymal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000658)1193113876238113876Rat
1600388Niddm67Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 675.840.000004blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level area under curve (AUC) (CMO:0000350)1195804352257091168Rat
1600395Niddm69Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 694.140.0002blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)plasma insulin level (CMO:0000342)1195804352257091168Rat
1600396Niddm68Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 684.970.0003blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level area under curve (AUC) (CMO:0000350)1195804352257091168Rat
631658Cm7Cardiac mass QTL 75.320.0001aorta mass (VT:0002845)aorta weight (CMO:0000076)1196248093241248093Rat
1358292Cm37Cardiac mass QTL 376.20.00000081heart mass (VT:0007028)heart weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000074)1196248093241248093Rat
1600374Mcs17Mammary carcinoma susceptibility QTL 173mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)mammary tumor number (CMO:0000343)1197670404242670404Rat
1641926Teswt2Testicular weight QTL 22.82testis mass (VT:1000644)both testes wet weight (CMO:0000175)1197697768238755659Rat
2302375Bw83Body weight QTL 834.870.0002body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1197697768242697768Rat
61376Bp42Blood pressure QTL 4223.4arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1197814409242814409Rat
1298084Thym4Thymus enlargement QTL 410.68thymus mass (VT:0004954)thymus weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000612)1197814409242814409Rat
1357335Bw39Body weight QTL 393.3body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1197814409242814409Rat
634313Niddm43Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 43blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)1199050459259647894Rat
2293694Bss38Bone structure and strength QTL 387.050.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femur stiffness (CMO:0001674)1201554356246554356Rat
7394701Uae46Urinary albumin excretion QTL 463.60.0056urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)1201554356246554356Rat
2300175Bmd40Bone mineral density QTL 4015.40.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)bone mineral density (CMO:0001226)1201554356246554356Rat
2293655Bss36Bone structure and strength QTL 3610.660.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femur ultimate force (CMO:0001675)1201554356246554356Rat
2293674Bss39Bone structure and strength QTL 397.10.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femur total energy absorbed before break (CMO:0001677)1201554356246554356Rat
10059587Bw173Body weight QTL 1733.230.025body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1202069611247069611Rat
1600363Hc6Hypercalciuria QTL 62.7urine calcium amount (VT:0002985)urine calcium excretion rate (CMO:0000763)1203995416244113296Rat
1600397Edcs4Endometrial carcinoma susceptibility QTL 42.2uterus morphology trait (VT:0001120)percentage of study population developing endometrioid carcinoma during a period of time (CMO:0001759)1206081677251081677Rat
1357399Bw45Body weight QTL 453.05body mass (VT:0001259)body mass index (BMI) (CMO:0000105)1206329708251329708Rat
1357404Bw42Body weight QTL 424.490.0001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1206329708251329708Rat
1358916Kidm22Kidney mass QTL 223.32kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)1210702053240947965Rat
1358890Bp259Blood pressure QTL 2593.06arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)1210702053260522016Rat
2292216Bw80Body weight QTL 803.230.0019body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1213533809243914901Rat
724538Kidm1Kidney mass QTL 13.2kidney mass (VT:0002707)calculated kidney weight (CMO:0000160)1213707201252085212Rat
734768Niddm59Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 59body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1213843987258843987Rat
61455Niddm7Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 75.5blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)plasma glucose level (CMO:0000042)1214537555238757011Rat
70211Niddm24Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 243.79blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level area under curve (AUC) (CMO:0000350)1214647894259647894Rat
1549910Bw54Body weight QTL 540.05body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1214647894259647894Rat
61327Eae7Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 75.6body mass (VT:0001259)change in body weight (CMO:0002045)1216255568260522016Rat
2302040Pia35Pristane induced arthritis QTL 353.80.001blood immunoglobulin amount (VT:0002460)serum immunoglobulin G1 level (CMO:0002115)1216255568260522016Rat
1598821Rf55Renal function QTL 556.3renal blood flow trait (VT:2000006)ratio of change in renal blood flow to change in renal perfusion pressure (CMO:0001239)1218748008257976495Rat
61400Niddm1Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 111blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)1218753689245907899Rat
724533Rf51Renal function QTL 515.30.0002kidney plasma flow trait (VT:0005524)renal plasma flow (CMO:0001914)1218753816256448513Rat
731175Uae20Urinary albumin excretion QTL 203.50.0018urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)1221264111259647894Rat
10053715Scort24Serum corticosterone level QTL 242.130.0088blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)1221414816260522016Rat
724552Glom2Glomerulus QTL 23.30.0001kidney glomerulus morphology trait (VT:0005325)count of superficial glomeruli directly contacting the kidney surface (CMO:0001001)1222363780260522016Rat
1600392Bw123Body weight QTL 1230.001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1223201027260522016Rat
2293700Bmd27Bone mineral density QTL 276.60.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001729)1224054293243747962Rat
2293701Bmd34Bone mineral density QTL 348.30.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femoral neck ultimate force (CMO:0001703)1224054293243747962Rat
734767Niddm57Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 57body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1224054293260122809Rat
631843Bw116Body weight QTL 1164.10.016abdominal adipose amount (VT:1000220)abdominal fat pad weight (CMO:0000088)1224054293260122809Rat
734769Niddm58Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 58body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1224569538260122809Rat
631215Stl8Serum triglyceride level QTL 89.270.0001blood triglyceride amount (VT:0002644)serum triglyceride level (CMO:0000360)1225126575260522016Rat
1300108Rf8Renal function QTL 83.75renal blood flow trait (VT:2000006)absolute change in renal vascular resistance (CMO:0001900)1228581588259647894Rat
2316896Gluco57Glucose level QTL 577.2blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)1228985440245907899Rat


Expression


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
High 10 7
Medium 3 32 40 27 19 27 7 10 47 34 34 11 7
Low 1 17 14 14 1 1 27 1 1
Below cutoff

Sequence


Reference Sequences
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000083468   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000073101
RefSeq Status:
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1231,746,548 - 231,759,554 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1252,537,615 - 252,550,394 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_031004   ⟹   NP_112266
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.21231,746,527 - 231,759,307 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.01252,537,614 - 252,550,394 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.01259,760,521 - 259,773,301 (-)NCBI
Celera1228,860,239 - 228,873,019 (-)RGD
Sequence:
Reference Sequences
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_112266   ⟸   NM_031004
- UniProtKB: P70476 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P62738 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   B0BMT0 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000073101   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000083468

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P62738-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P62738 1-377 view protein structure

Transcriptome

eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

Promoters
RGD ID:13690862
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R1386
Type:multiple initiation site
Name:Acta2_1
Description:actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database, http://epd.vital-it.ch/)
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.01252,550,407 - 252,550,467EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:621676 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-55879 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000058039 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Protein ENSRNOP00000073101 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000083468 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
IMAGE_CLONE IMAGE:9033322 IMAGE-MGC_LOAD
InterPro Actin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Actin/actin-like_CS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Actin_CS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ATPase_NBD UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:81633 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
MGC_CLONE MGC:187210 IMAGE-MGC_LOAD
NCBI Gene 81633 ENTREZGENE
PANTHER PTHR11937 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam Actin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Acta2 PhenoGen
PRINTS ACTIN UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PROSITE ACTINS_1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ACTINS_2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ACTINS_ACT_LIKE UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
SMART ACTIN UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Superfamily-SCOP SSF53067 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
UniProt A0A0G2K4M6_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ACTA_RAT UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  B0BMT0 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  P62738 ENTREZGENE
  P70476 ENTREZGENE
UniProt Secondary P03996 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  P04108 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  P70476 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot


Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2019-03-25 Acta2  actin alpha 2, smooth muscle  Acta2  actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2013-07-31 Acta2  actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta  Acta2  smooth muscle alpha-actin  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2002-08-07 Acta2  smooth muscle alpha-actin      Symbol and Name status set to provisional 70820 PROVISIONAL

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_expression expressed in the fibroblasts, osteoblasts and chondrocytes 625414
gene_expression mRNA clearly evident in the outer medullary vasa recta 628565
gene_process required in the remodeling of the extracellular matrices 625414
gene_process required for regulation of transcription 625414
gene_regulation the CArG-A box in the promoter region may bind SRF in a complex with transcription factors to stimulate transcription 625414